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evitable disadirantages, in the pecuniary in every way wbich fall appear eligible. transactions, occalioned by that war, As a general rule, Manufactures on which will render a further provilion public account
are inexpedient. But necessary. The actual liberation of all where the state of things in a Country our Citizens who were prisoners in leaves little hope that certain branches Algiers, while it gravifies' every feel- of Manufacture will for a great length of ing heart, is itself an earneft of a satis- time obtain'; when these are of a nature factory termination of the whole nego. effential to the furnishing and equipping of ciation,
the public force in the time of War, Measures are in operation for effe&ting are not establithments for procuring thera Treaties with the Regencies of Tunis on public account, to the extent of tbe and Tripoli.
ordinary demand for the public service, To an active external commerce, the recommended by Atrong considerations of protection of a naval force is indifpen- national policy, as an exception to the lble. This is manifeft with regard to general rule ? Ought our Country, to wars in which a State is itself a party; remain, in such cafés, dependent on foreign but besides this, it is our own experiences supply, precarious, because liable to be that the most sincere neutrality is not a interrupted? If the necesary articles thould fufficient guard against the depredations in this mode cott more in time of peace, of nations at war. To secure respect will not the security and independence to a neutral flag requires a naval force, thence arifing form an ample compenfaorganized, and ready to vindicate it tion? Etabliments of this fort, comfrom insult or aggretlion. This may menfurate only with the calls of the Public éven prevent the necellity of going to Service in the time of Peace, will, in War,by discouraging Belligerent Powers time of War, easily be extended in from committing such violations of the proportion to the exigencies of the Go. rights of the neutral party, as may, vernment, and may even perhaps be made firit or latt, have no other option to yield a surplus, for the supply of our From the best information I have been Citizens at large ; fo as to mitigate the able to obtaio, it would seem as if our privateers from the interruption of their trade to the Mediterranean, without a Trade. If adopted, the plan ought to protecting force, will always be inse exclude all those branches which are als cure ; and our Citizens expofed to the really, or likely soon to be established in çalamities from which numbers of the Country, in order that there may be them have but just been relieved.
no danger of interference with pursuits of Thefcconsiderations invite the United individual industry. States to lock to the means, and to set It will not be doubted, that with referabout the gradual creation of a navy. ence either to individual or national wel. The increating progress of their navi- fare, agriculture is of primary importance. gation promiles chem, at no distant In proportion as Nations advar.ce in po. period, the requisite lupply of feamen; pulation, and other circumstances of ma: and their means in other respects fa- curity, this truth becomes more apparent
; your the undertaking. It is an encou and renders the cukivation of the foil sagement likewile, that their parti. more and more an object of public pa. çular fituation will give weighi and tronage. Institutions for promoting it influence to a moderate naval force in grow up, supported by the public purfe; their hands. Will it not then be ad- and to what object can it be dedicated viseable, to begin without delay, to
with greater propriety? Among the means provide, and lay up the materials for which have been employed to this end, the building and equipping of thips of none have been employed with greater war; and to proceed in the work by success than the establishment of Boards, degrees, in proportion as our resources composed of proper characters, charged thall render it practicable, without with collecting and diffuting informa; inconvenience ; fo that a future Wartion, and enabled by premiums, and small of Europe may not find our commerce pecuniary aids, to encourage and allift a in the same nnproteeted state in which spirit of discovery and improvement. This it was found by the prelent!
fpecies of establishment contributes doubly Congress have repeatedly, and not to the increafe of improvement, by flimu. without success, directed their attention lating to enterprize and experiment, and to the encouragement of Manufactures. by drawing to a common centre the re, The object is of too much consequence, foilts every where of individual skill and Dot to ensure a continuance of their efforts, obfervation, and fpreading them thence
over the whole Nation. Experience ac. mitting, by proper establishments, the cordingly has hewn, that they are very knowledge of that art. Whatever archeap instruments of immense national gument may be drawn from particular benefits.
examples, superficially viewed, a thoI have heretofore proposed to the confi- rough examination of the subject will deration of Congress, the expediency of evince that the art of War is at once establishing a National University; and allo comprehensive and complicated ; that it a Military Academy. The defireableness demands much previous study; and that of both these Inititutions has fo con the possession of it, in its most im. fantly increased with every new view I proved and perfect state, is always of bave taken of the subje&t, that I cannot great moment to the security of a Naomit the opportunity of once for all recal. tion. This, therefore, ought to be a ling your attention to them.
serious care of every Government; The Assembiy to which I address mye and for this purpose an Academy, felf is too enlightened not to be fully where a regular course of inftruction is sensible how much a flourishing state of given, is an obvious expedient which the Arts and Sciences contributes to na- different Nations have successfully çme tional prosperity and reputation.- True ployed. it is, ibat our Country, much to its The compensations to the Officers honour, contains many Seminaries of of the United States, in various inLearning highly respectable and useful ; ftances, and in none mure than in rebut the funds upon which they rest are spect to the most importaut ftatious, too narrow to command the ableft Pro- appear to call for Legislative revision. Sellors in the different departments of libe. The consequences of a defective proçal knowledge, for the Institution con- vision are of a serious import to the Go. templated, though they would be excellesit auxiliaries.
If private wealth is to supply the Amongst the motives to such an insti. defe&t of public retribution, it will tution, the assimilation of the principles, greatly contract the sphere within which opinions, and manners of our Country- the selection of character for Office men, by the common education of a por. is to be made, and will proportionally tion of our youth froin every quarter, diminish the probability of a choice of well deserves autention. The more ho- men able as well as upright.-Besides mogeneous our Citizens can be made, that, it would be repugnant to the vital in these particulars, the greater will be principles of our Government virtually our prospect of permanent union; and a io exclude from public trufts talents primary object of such a National Insti- and virtue, unless accompanied by tution should be, the education of our wealth. youth in the science of Government. In While, in our external relations, some á Republic, what species of knowledge can serious inconveniencies and embarralla be equally important, and what duty ments have been overcome, and others more pressing on its Legislature, than lessened, it is with much pain and deep -lo patronize a plan for communicating regret í mention, that circumstances it to those, who are to be the future of a very unwelcome nature have lately guardiags of the Liberties of the Coun• occurred. Our trade nas suffered, and
is suffering, extensive injuries in the • The intitution of a Military Academy West Indies, from the cruizers and is also recommended by cogent reasons. agents of the French Republic ;-and However pacific the general policy of communications have been received a Nation may be, it ought never to be from its Minister here, which indicate avithout an adequate ftock of Military the danger of a further difturbance of knowledge for emergencies.' The first our commerce by its authority, and would impair the energy of its charac. which are, in other respects, fár frem ter, and both would hazard its safety, agreeable. or expose it to greater evils when War It has been my constant, fincere, and could not be avoided. Besides, that War earnest wish, in conformity with that might often not depend upon its own of our Nation, to maintain cordial bar. choice. lo proportion as the obser- mony, and a perfect_friendly under. - tance of pacific maxims might exempt ftanding with that Republic. This
Nation from the necessity of practir. wish remains unabated ; and I fall ing the rules of the Military art, ought persevere in the endeavour to fulfil it, to be its care in preserving and want to she utinof extent of what thall be
confiftent with a just ard indispensible menced; and I cannot omit the occasion regard to the rights and honour of to congratulate you and my Country, our Country ; nor will I eaily cease to on the success of the experiment; nor cherith the expectation, that a spirit of to repeat my fervent fupplications to justice, candour and friendship on the the Supreme Ruler of the Universe, part of the Republic, will eventually and Sovereign Arbiter of Nations, that enfure success.
his providential care may fill be ex. In pursuing this course, however, I tended to the United States ; that the cannot forget what is due to the cha- virtue and happiness of the People racter of our Government and Nation ; may be preserved ; and that the Goor to a full and entire confidence in the
vernment which they have instituted, good sense, patriotisın, self-refpcét, for the protection of their Liberties, and fortitude of my Countrymen. may be perpetual. I reserve for a special Message a
G. WASHINGTON. more particular communication on this United States, 716 Dec. 1796. interefting subject. Gentlemen of the House of Reprefer
No. IV, tatives,
RESCRIPT, I HAVE directed an Eftimate of the PUBLISHED BY ORDER OF THE KING appropriations necessary for the Service
PRUSSSIA, RESPECTING THE of the ensuing year, to be submitted from PRUSSIAN TERRITORIES ON THE the proper Department, with a view LEFT BANK OF THE RHIN F. of the Public Receipts and Expenditures, FREDERICK WILLIAM II. to the latest period to which an account WE having been informed, that an can be prepared.
opinion has been propagated through a It is with fatisfaction. I am able to part of our State of Weltphalia, situated inforın, you, that the Revenues of the on the left Bank of the Rhine, to wit, United States continue in a fate of the Provinces of Cleves, Meurs, and progreflive improvement.
Guelders, in the actual poffeffion of the A reinforcement of the existing pro- French Troops, that fufficient remonvisons for discharging our Public Debi, ftrances and protestations had not been was mentioned in my Address at the made on our part against the various opening of the last Session. Some pre innovations and oppressions which the liminary steps were taken towards it, French Commissaries and Agents exthe maturing of which will, no doubt, ercise over our faithful subjects; we engage your zealous attention during have therefore thought it good to make the present. I will only add, that it this public declaration, by means of our will afford me a heart-fclt satisfaction Regency, jointly with our Chamber of to concur in such further measures as War and of Territory; and we do will a certain to our Country the pro publicly declare that we have never spect of a speedy extinguishment of cealed, nor thall we ever cease, to inthe Debt.- Posterity may have to re tereft ourselves in behalf of our faid gret, if, from any motive, intervals of subjects, by the intervention of our En. tranquillity are left unimproved for ac viy to the French Republic; and that celerating ihis valuable end.
it is far from our intention to depart Gentlemen of the Senate, and of the from the basis of the Treaty of Balle House of Representatives,
respecting the Civil or Financial Ad. MY solicitude to see the Militia of the ministration of those Countries. United States placed on an efficient In concluding the Treaty by which establishment, has been fo ofren, and so the War between our State and the ardently expresfed, that I fall but French Republic was put an end to, is barely recall the subject to your view on was never our intention to grant them the present occalion ; at the same tiine more than a mere military poffetfion of that I Thall submit to your enquiry, our Provinces on the left side of heRhine, Whether our Harbours are yet iusfi. till Peace should be concluded with the ciently (ecured?
Emperor; and this intention, which had The firuation in which I now stand, been taken as a basis in the negociations, for the last cime, in the midst of the is sufficiently manifeft by the tenor of Representatives of the People of the the sch Article, which expressly de. United States, naturally recalls the pe claris, “ That the Troops of the Reriod when the Administration of the public shall occupy these Countries bepresent form of Governmcat
FROM HIS EXCELLENCY THE LORD
OF IRELAND TO
The difference between Provinces
No.V. conquered from an enemy, and those MESSAGE DELIVERED THE 16TH JAN. which belong to a Power in alliance, and which have been merely conceded LIEUTENANT for a temporary military occupation, is BOTH HOUSES OF PARLIAMENT. sufficiently evident; and it is obvious CAMDEN, that they ought not to be treated in I Have it in command from his Majesty the same manner.
to acquaint the House of Commons, that It is therefore impossible for us to his Majesty feels the deepest regret that his believe that the French Government, endeavours to preserve peace with Spain, considering the amicable ties sublisting and to adjust all matters in diicussion with between us and it, will fill oppole such that Court by an amicable Negotiation, evident reasoning. It cannot fail to have been rendered incffuctual by an conceive, that neither fequeftration nor abrupt and unprovoked Declaration of contication of the goods of the Clergy, War on the part of the Catholic King. nor the projected sale of woods, nor His Majesty, at the fame time that he the enormous contribution of three mil- sincerely Jamients this addition to the calajions, imposed on the country between mities of War, already extending over so the Meule and the Rhine, which would great a part of Europe, has the satisfaction entirely ruin that country, can take place to reflect, that nothing has been omitted with any regard to appearance of justice. on his part which could contribute 10
It has already in effect given our En. the maintenance of Peace on good grounde, voy at Paris the most positive assurance, confiftent with the honour of his Crown that the measures taken with respect and the interests of his dominions. to the Clergy thould be put an end to, And he trusts, that under the proand that the Ecclefiaftics thould remain tection of Divine Providence, the firin. in quiet enjoyment of their goods and nets and wisdom of his Parlian:ent will fe reoves; we, therefore, confiantly ex enable him effeétually to repel this unpropect the revocation of the order for voked aggression, and to afford to all Euthe sale of woods, and, in general, a rope an additional proof of the spirit and renunciation of all those destructive in- resources of his Majelly's kingdoms. novations relacive to our dominions. I am also commanded by his Majesty
We hall not by any means recognize to acquaint the House of Commons, that as valid the sale of woods, which have bis Majesty feels the utmost concern that already taken place to our great asto- his carnett endeavours to effect the restoa nishment; and we are positively deter- ration of Peace have been unhappily frusmined to have recourse to the purcha- rated, and that the Negotiation in which fers for reftitution in kind, or for the he was engaged has been abruptly broken value at which the property fold shall be off by the peremptory refutal of the eftimated by our Agents, and for the da French Government to treat, except upon mages which shall result from the waste a bafis evidently inadmisible, and by their committed on these woods.
having, in consequence, required his MaIn those cases, where the purchasers jefty's Pleniputentiary to quit Paris within cannot be found, w Thall exercise our 48 hours. leverity on all those who are employed I have directed the several Memorials by these last for cutting and carrying and Papers which have been exchanged in wood. We, in consequence, exhort our the course of the late difcuffion, and the faithful Subjects of the said Provinces account transmitted to his Majesty of its 19 remain assured of our lasting and final result, to be laid before the House. efficacious protection, and to wait with From there Papers, his Majesty trusts, ccandence for the return of that ancient it will be proved to the whole world, that urder of things, so highly to be desired. his conduct has been guided by a fincere At Wesel, in our Chamber of War defire to effect the restoration of Peace on
and Territory, 29th December principles fuited to the relative fituation 1796, in the name and on the be- of the Belligerent Powers, and essential half of his Majesiy:
for the permanent interests of his kingBARON DE STein,'First President. doms, and the general secucity of Europe,
Given at Emmerick, in our Re. whilit his enemies have advanced preten. gency, the 29th December 1796, fions at once inconsistent will those objects, in the name and on behalf of his unsupported even on the go vinnus on which Majesty.
they were professed to reit, and repugnant
ELBERS. buih to the system established by repeated VOL. XXXI. FEB. 1797.
Treaties, and to the principles and pra&ice commanded to convey to them his cordial which have hitherto regulated the inter acknowledgements and thanks. course of independent nations.
His Majesty's concern for the safety In this situation his Majesty has the and happiness of his people has been consolation of reflecting, that the conti- anxious and unceasing ;' he was prepared nuance of the calamities of War can be to fend every requifite military ashitance imputed only to the unjust and exorbirant from Great Britain. views of his enemies ; and his Majesty, And his Majesty is not without hopes, looking forward with anxiety to the mo
that the formidable fleet assembled under ment when they may be disposed to act the command of Lord Bridport for the on different principles, places in the mean protection of this kingdom (the arrival time the fullest reliance, under the pio. of which was only obstructed by those tection of Providence, on the wisdom and adverse storms which proved so deltructive firmness of his Parliament, on the tried o the present expedition of the eneo valour of his forces by sea and land, and my), may still fall in with the hostile fqua. on the zeal, public spirit, and resources of dion, and effect their total defeat. his kingdoms, for vigorous and effectual At the same time, however, his Majesty Support in the prosecution of a contest trusts that the House of Commons will which it does not depend on his Majesty advert to the situation and resources of to terminaté, and which involves in it the kingdom for establishing future fecuthe security and permanent interests of rity, by means proportionable to the dare this country and of Europe.
ing efforts which may be expected from I sincerely congratulate the House of a desperate enemy, who, having rejected Common's upon the failure of the recent every reasonable propotal for the restoraformidable attempt of the French to invade tion of Peace, is endeavouring to excite his Majesty's kingdom of Ireland. The ditaffection among his Majesty's lubjects, providential difperfion of their squadrons, and to propagate the principles of anarchy until his M:vjelly's Fleets were enabled to by the spirit of plunder. appear upon the Coast, cannot fail to inpress sensations of awful and serious gra
No. VI. titude for so signal an inftance of Divine Interposition ; at the same time the Com.
THE PLENIPOTEN• mons will cherith the fasisfactory reflection, that the delufive hopes of success in crea ATED STATES OF NORTHERN GER. ting divifion and insurrection in the MANY, BY M. VON DOHM, THE country, by which the enemy were inSpired, have been totally disappointed, THE underligned is charged, by the and that the late alarm bis affurded liis express command of the King of PrusMajesty's (ulijects an opportunityof testic fia, His Mofi Gracious Sovereign, fying, at the hazard of their fortuies make the following overtures in all and their lives, their invincible attachment Their Excellencies, the Plenipotento the mild Government of their beloved viaries of the Affociated States of Nor. Sovereign and the biellings of their hap- thern Germany, delegated to affeinble py Conititution. I have beheld with pieae in Convention at: Hildelheim: The Jure the zeal and alacrity of his Majesty's general concerns of Germany, with reRegular and Militia Forces, and ihe gard to the cuntinualice of the War, ftill prompt and honourable exertions of the remain in a moft undecided condition, Yeomanry Corps, whose decided utility and the consolatory hope of a general has been so abundantly displayed, while Peace, lo devoutly' to be wished, the distinguished services of the most re. mains as yer uncertain and remote to fpectable characters in forwarding the mea. the last degree, face the Negociations lures of Government, the benevolent atten. entered upon for that purpose may, tion mewn to the Army by all ranks and alas ! produce a farther and more obti. descriprions of persons, and the spirited nate War, rather than bring about its measures which were taken to support final conclufion. In this perplexing Public Credit, have made an indelible fituation, it certainly is a happiness imprcffion upon my mind : it was from which Northern Germany cannot sufthis general ipirit of animated and gallant ficiently praise, to see itself entirely loyalty, that I was inspired with a jult freed, not only from the miseries of hope, that had the enemy fucceeded in this ravaging War, but also from all an attempt to land, their career would have the inconveniencies connected with it, focen terminated in total disconfiture : I such as the requisitions of the Bellige: Litve nor failed to represent to his Majesty rens Poyersthe passage and marshss of
LETTER OF CONVOCATION ID