In Buenos Ayres he acquitted himself of his new duties so creditably that after seven months' service he was appointed also minister to Uruguay, and held both posts until his death, January 21, 1868. The President of the Argentine Republic ordered extraordinary military and civil honors to be paid at his funeral, and his remains were sent to the United States, where they rest in Arlington National Cemetery.


In the Armies of the Ohio, Cumberland and Tennessee there was also quite a number of Hungarians who distinguished themselves. First among them was Brig.-General Albin Schoepf, who commanded a brigade of three regiments in the division of Gen. Thomas in Eastern Kentucky, with which he successfully repulsed the attacks of about 8,000 Confederates under Gen. Zollicoffer near Mill Springs until Gen. Thomas could come to his aid, January 19, 1862. It was an important victory which caused great rejoicing in Washington, for it opened Cumberland Gap and Eastern Tennessee to the Federals. The Senate at once confirnied Gen. Schoepf's appointment, which had been before it for four months.

The career of Gen. Schoepf is an interesting illustration of the hardships and the opportunities of the American immigrant. He had received a thorough military education at an Austrian mil., itary academy, joined the Honvéd Army and, after the catastrophe, had to flee the country. He arrived in America penniless and friendless, a stranger in a strange country, and, unable to speak the language of the country, had to take a . job as porter in a fashionable Washington hotel, carrying the baggage of the patrons. His noble cast of features and his gentlemanly bearing at- . tracted the attention of Joseph Holt, then Patert

Commissioner, who, on hearing his story, procured a small position for him in the Patent Office. Through his intelligence and faithful work he gradually advanced, and, when Holt became secretary of war in Buchanan's cabinet, was transferred to the War Department. There he could use his military education and experience to good advantage, and his abilities were recognized even by Lieut.-Gen. Scott18. It was probably due to the influence of Holt that, soon after the begin. ning of the war, he was appointed brigadiergeneral and given a command in Holt's home state, Kentucky. In September, 1862, he was entrusted with the command of a division in the 3d Army Corps under Gen. Gilbert. The following year he became commander of Fort Delaware, on Pea Patch Island, near Newcastle, which was used as a Federal prison. After the war, he returned to the Patent Office, and was chief-examiner there until his death in 1886.

George Pomucz, ex-honvéd captain and farmer in Iowa, enlisted in the 15th Iowa Infantry and; as major, commanded a brigade in the 17th Army Corps. He was wounded in the battle of Shiloh, and breveted brigadier-general for gallant and meritorious service.

Frederic Knefler, recte Knöpfler, rose from first lieutenant to colonel of the 79th Indiana Infantry and brevet brigadier-general. He was assistant adjutant-general to Gen. Lew Wallace at Shiloh, was conspicuous for bravery at Chickamauga, and was twice commander of a brigade. Gen. Knefler was an Hungarian Hebrew, born at Arad, and he was the only Hebrew to achieve the rank of brig.-general in the United States19.

We have already heard of Géza Mihalóczy, in a preceding chapter, as captain of the Lincoln

ad for bravery brigade. Garad, and

18 Frank Leslie's Illustrirte Zeitung, February 8, 1862.

19 The American Jew as Patriot, Soldier and Citizen By Simon Wolf, Philadelphia, 1895. Page 179.

Riflemen. Hardly had he left for Cairo, Ill., when his friend and fellow-exile, Julian Kuné, was requested by a deputation of German-Americans to organize a regiment, which he did. This regiment became the 24th Illinois Infantry, and the Lincoln Riflemen, having been recalled by special permission of Gen. McClellan, were incorporated into it. Mihalóczy was its lieut.-colonel and, afterwards, its colonel, Kuné its first major; two other Hungarian officers in the regiment were Major Augustus Kováts and Captain Alexander Jekelfalussy.

Mr. Kuné, after a successful career in politics, journalism and business, was induced to publish a volume of reminiscences last year20. It is interesting reading and throws many sidelights also on the lives of other exiles. He had been a honvéd lieutenant, followed Gen. Bem to Aleppo and came to America in 1852. Sympathetic friends helped him to lessen the hardships which every immigrant has to go through; he settled in Chicago, became affiliated with the Board of Trade, was active in politics and journalism, and was war-correspondent for the Chicago Tribune in the Franco-Prussian War.

He was ordered with the 24th Illinois Infantry to Alton, but soon returned to St. Louis to organize a company of mounted artillery. Owing to the intrigues of Col. Hecker, he was prevented from rejoining his regiment, and resigned toward the end of the year.

The 24th Illinois Infantry, under the leadership of Col. Mihalóczy, made a glorious record for itself, and fought in all the important engagements in Tennessee. At Chickamauga Mihalóczy was shot through the hand while waving his sword to encourage his men. About midnight on February 24, 1864, he went to the front at Buzzard Roost Gap, Tenn., to make, as was his wont, a personal inspection of the picket line, when a single shot was fired, which wounded him dangerously in the right side. An investigation was ordered, but it could never be ascertained whence the shot had come. He died of his wound at Chattanooga March 11, 1864, and was buried there in the National Cemetery21.

20 Reminiscences of an Octogenarian Hungarian Exile. By Julian Kuné, Chicago, 1911. 12-mo., VIII-216 pp.

Nicholas Perczel de Bonyhád organized and commanded the 10th Iowa Infantry. He had had a very prominent part in the Hungarian revolution, both as a politician and a soldier, having been a member of the diet and commander of the fortress of Arad.

Andrew Gállfy was major of the 58th Ohio Infantry, and had the misfortune to be captured at the battle of Chickasaw Bayou, Miss. He was exchanged, however, and was later on detached service on the gunboat Mound City.

In the Department of the Gulf, where Gen. Asbóth commanded the District of West Florida, several Hungarian officers were engaged in organizing the Corps d'Afrique or United States Colored Troops. Among them was Peter Paul Dobozy, who organized the 4th U. S. Colored Heavy Artillery, and became its lieut.-colonel. He was being educated for the priesthood, when the Hungarian revolution broke out; he ran away from the seminary and enlisted as a honvéd. He was severely wounded when fighting in the Hungarian Legion in the Austro-Italian War, and was still suffering from his wounds when he arrived in the United States in 1861. He is now eighty years old, and is a respected citizen of West Plains, Mo.

Col. Ladislaus L. Zsulavszky, a nephew of Kossuth, organized the 82d U. S. Colored Infantry at Port Hudson, La., and commanded the first brigade in the District of West Florida. Two

the Austen fightinkonvéd. He from the

21 Report of the Adjutant-General of the State of Illinois. Spring held. Ill., 1886. Volume II.

other Zsulavszkys, probably his brothers, served in the same regiment as lieutenants: Emil A. and Sigismund Z. The latter died of disease during the war. Joseph Csermelyi, a former honvéd lieutenant, was major of the same regiment, while A. P. Zimándy served as lieutenant in the 4th U. S. Colored Cavalry.

In the 1st Florida Cavalry there appear to have been four Hungarian officers: Major Albert Ruttkay, probably one of Kossuth's American nephews, and Captains Alexander Gaál, Emeric Mészáros and Roland T. Rombauer.

Captain Alexander Gaál belonged to the de Gyula branch of the Gaáls, which is famous in Hungarian history for the many great soldiers it has given the country. One of the family, Peter Gaál de Gyula, raised a regiment of Hungarian and Croatian carbineers for Wallenstein, which had an important part in the battle of Dessau [1626]. Another, Nicholas, was a general in the Honvéd Army in 1849, and was sentenced to twenty years in an Austrian dungeon, where he lost his eyesight and died in 1854. Alexander Gaál himself was a lieutenant in the Honvéd Army, and was severely wounded in one of the engagements. After the catastrophe he fled to Turkey, but was induced by a promise of immunity to return to Hungary. He was seized, however, and pressed into the Austrian Army as a private. In 1863 he joined the Polish revolutionists, but fell into the hands of the Russians who turned him over to Austria. At that time Austria was endeavoring to reconcile Hungary; so they let him go free on the condition that he leave the country. He then came to the United States, enlisted in the Federal army, and, after the war, made his home in Louisiana,

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