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man, involving the pre-supposition that, had not our first parents sinned, they would, on the expiration of their probationary state, have undergone a physical change different from dying, which would have translated them into a higher condition of happy existence. This glorious prospect they forfeited, and, as the just penalty of their transgression, sunk down into the condition of the inferior animals, in becoming the prey of temporal or corporal death : but, in relation to their higher capacities, they plunged themselves into the gulf of death in senses infinitely more awful. Thus to Adam and all his natural descendants, “ the sting (that which constitutes it a real evil] of death is sin:” but to the irrational creation this does not apply. They are incapable of moral obedience or disobedience towards God (though they have resemblances of both with respect to man, who is to them in the place of God, Gen. i. 26;) and therefore death is not a sting to them, in a spiritual sense, or in any sense inconsistent with the equity, goodness, and wisdom of the divine government.
As your inquiring correspondent calls himself " a beginner in Geological Researches," he will not dcem me presuming or rude if I offer a few words of humble advice: and, for brevity sake, I will suppose myself to be addressing a young friend.
1. Do not suppose that a satisfactory knowledge of Geology can be obtained in a short time, or by skimming over a book or two.
2. Necessary pre-requisites are a knowledge of chemistry, mineralogy, and natural history, particularly comparative anatomy, conchology, and botany, according not only to the Linnæan artificial system, but to the natural arrangement of Dr. Lindley, or some other recent and eminent botanist. A profound intimacy with any one of these branches of science is indeed a work for a man's life; but where there is such a minute acquaintance with any one, a masterly knowledge of the others is easily and delightfully acquired, provided the due appropriation be made of time and diligence. But a general knowledge of essential principles, taking care that it be ACCURATE so far as it goes, may be acquired by pains-taking in the few inestimable years which usually follow a good school educa
3. Go into the field of actual search and observation: sea-cliffs, steep ravine sides, quarries, cuttings through hills for highways, canals, railroads, and well-diggings, or any accessible exhibitions of the faces of rocks. The great gravelly plain of London is destitute of good localities of this kind: yet the sand-pits of Woolwich yield a very good lesson. But the West of England, Wales, and the North, are the grand academy for these studies. A person who has made himself familiar with a few good instances, will be able, with the aid of books, maps, views, and sections, to form a mental idea of others; which will be in its measure just, though of course far inferior to the impression of the actual objects. M. De la Bèche's How to Observe, in Geology, will be found of great use.
4. Hand-specimens of rocks must be studied. There are many fine collections throughout the kingdom. I may mention Bath, Bristol, Brighton, Norwich, York, Scarborough, Leeds, Newcastleupon-Tyne, Liverpool, and many other places.
5. For books, without involving the least prejudice against other valuable works, I take the liberty of recommending the following short list.
Prof. John Phillips's Guide to Geology; 12mo. 1836, and his Treatise on Geology in the seventh edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica, and published separately; Edinb. 1837. The latter work forms an excellent illustration of the preceding.
Mr. Lyell's Principles of Geology; 4 vols. 12mo. the fifth edit. 1837. An admirable collection of facts, and which carefully separates facts from hypotheses. Mr. L. makes you acquainted with the former, without urging your assent to the latter.
Outlines of the Geology of England and Wales ; by the Rev. W. D. Conybeare, and the late Mr. W. Phillips; Vol. I. 1822. Unhappily the second volume has never been published: but I have reason to hope that Mr. Conybeare will favour the world with a new work, incorporating, condensing, and completing the volume just mentioned, which is now far behind the actual state of geological science, but it can never lose its value for local descriptions.
M. De la Bèche's Geological Manual, 8vo. 1833. "Mr. Phillips's Guide should precede this.
The same author's Tablet of the Tertiary and Secondary Rocks. Viquier and Collon's Tablet, drawn from Alex. Brongniart's Tableau des Terrains. Paris.
These two are single sheets of paper upon a synoptic plan, and comprising the essence of many volumes : and the same praise is due to the Tablet which forms the first plate in Dr. Buckland's Bridgewater Treatise; 2 vols. 8vo. 1836. That work is of the richest interest for Palæontology, the study of organic remains; but a previous acquaintance with the mineralogical branch is absolutely necessary, and it did not belong to Dr. Buckland's design and plan to supply that.
A series of exceedingly good systematical papers on Geology and the Minerals, are in the Penny Mogazine, chiefly during the year 1833; but many since. No. 51, Jan. 19, 1833, contains a little Tablet admirably drawn up, perhaps in imitation of Mr. De la Bèche's. Also, in the Saturday Magazine for the present year 1837, a series has commenced of Familiar Illustrations of Geology. Two articles have appeared, viz. in Nos. 329 and 344; and they well answer to their title.
A System of Geology, with a Theory of the Earth, and an Explanation of its Connexion with the Sacred Records. By John Macculloch, M.D. F. R. S. 2 vols. 8vo. 1831. This is a work which, for illustration and amplifying comment, should be read both after, and, a second and third time, concurrently with any of the preceding. Indeed I would say, that Professor Phillips's Guide and this work, would admirably constitute the initial course. Dr. Macculloch was a Geologist of a very high order, indefatigable in the arduous toils of personal examination in the most interesting
regions of Great Britain, an independent thinker, and yet a man who delighted to do homage to the government and the word of God. The work was written in 182], and therefore some modifications and corrections will accrue, by comparing it seriatim with Mr. John Phillips's books. It ought also to receive, as a most mportant supplement or companion, the following posthumous work of the same author ; which is indeed a little too prolix, and its arrangement might admit of much improvement, had not death put upon it the sacred seal of inviolability. Proofs and illustrations of the Attributes of God, from the Facts and Laws of the Physical Universe : being the Foundation of Natural and Revealed Religion. 3 vols. 1837.
Finally, let me intreat the student to be on his guard against expecting, that a few months of light reading will make him a Geologist. The study is indeed one for life; and that general acquaintance with it which a person of liberal education ought to possess, must be acquired with long-continued diligence and care to be minutely accurate, or it will be liable to fall into perpetual and most serious errors. “Those who have taken a narrow view of this great and growing branch of human knowledge, who have satisfied themselves with collecting a few fossil shells, naming a few compound rocks, and constructing a few sections and maps, may possibly be startled at the mighty circle of perpetual research in which they are unconsciously engaged." Phillips's Treatise, p. 4.
Here I must cease. Can you, Sir, and your readers pardon the length of this letter, condensed as I have endeavoured to make it ?
J. P. S. Homerton, Nov. 10, 1837.
FRIEND WHEELER'S RELIGIOUS VISIT TO SOME OF THE
ISLANDS OF THE PACIFIC OCEAN,
Our readers have been already informed of the interesting and perilous enterprize of Mr. Daniel Wheeler, a minister of the Society of Friends, who, under a religious concern, has visited, in company with his son, the christianized islanders of the South Seas.
We hoped that before this, a third part of his letters and journals would have been printed, and that in our second notice we might have concluded our account of this benevolent undertaking. As
* Vide First Notice, p. 16.
this is not the case, we must continue our extracts from those already published, which, we trust, will interest our readers.
Mr. Wheeler has manifested a Catholic spirit, in his readiness to do justice to the value of our missionaries. He thus speaks of their labours, as translators of the Holy Scriptures.
" The organization of the language, so as to admit the translation of the Holy Scriptures into the native tongue, is a work, the importance of which cannot be duly estimated nor conceived, as to the happy result, under the Divine blessing, that is in store for generations yet unborn, any more than the boundary of extent can be defined to which they may be permitted to circulate and diffuse revealed truth in the language of Holy Inspiration. This work, now considered to be near its completion, has been the labour of many years in a climate, wasting to the constitution of every European, as oppressively relaxing from the heat. Henry Nott has been a very laborious servant in this cause; without any regard to the many hardships and privations which the earliest settlers had particularly to encounter, and in which he deeply shared ; his constitution is now sinking from long residence, and the effects of close sedentary application : who can doubt for a moment the devotedness of such a man? Great and important are the advantages which such a work is calculated to bestow on mankind, beyond every other, or in comparison with any other outward means of help and comfort, for where can the excellency of the Holy Scriptures be equalled, or to what can they be compared, seeing the writers were divinely inspired ?"-p.13.
The Christian churches of Britain and America cannot give too much attention to the islands of the Pacific, for if they sleep, the enemy will soon sow tares in the fertile soil. Take the following as an illustration.
“ 31st. (July.) This morning arrived the bark • Active' from Panama, after a passage of nine weeks, touching at Valparaiso by the way. Wishing to ascertain whether she had picked up any letters for us accidentally on the road, and other particulars respecting her, Captain Keen went on board to make these enquiries, and soon returned, bringing with him Charles, Baron de Thierry, as he styled himself, who with his wife and five children, and servants, had arrived in this vessel, which had been chartered by him at Panama. The baron's object in coming with our captain, was to inform me, that he was going out to New Zealand, exactly on the same plan as our predecessor, William Penn, went to establish the government of Pennsylvania ; but I found, on investigating a little into his views, that he was a perfect stranger to the principles which actuated William Penn in his government of that colony: as he was taking with him a military force, with arms, ammunition, &c. and a Polish major, (Edward Fergus, who was formerly employed in the staff of Russia, and at Petersburg, with whom we soon became acquainted,) to organize these troops in New Zealand, and direct their operations as needful. I told the baron that I could enter into his plans, just as far as they went upon gospel principles, and no further; informing him that no weapon more formidable than that of a constable's staff, was made use of or knows for more than sixty years, for the support of the government of Pennsylvania, or while the peaceable principles of William Pean and his friends were suffered to prevail."-pp. 46, 47.
It has often been truly urged, that the interests of humanity and religion are greatly promoted by the residence of European and American missionaries. Let us give an illustration of this from the journal before us.
"I walked,” says Friend Wheeler, 6 in the evening to George Bicknell's, and had an opportunity of seeing the master of the • Olivia,' schooner, of Boston, lately arrived from the Poomoota Islands. He seems in the last stage of a consumption, was unwell when he left home, and has been exposed to great hardships amongst those islands. His complaint much increased and aggravated by having long to subsist on fish and cocoa-nuts. He appeared glad to see me; and after sitting awhile by the bed-side, I began to advert to his appalling situation, winding gradually on as matter opened. On saying it was little matter, how soon we leave this world of trouble, if we are but prepared for the event, he said, · I am not prepared, and cannot prepare myself.' I told him I was rejoiced to find he was thus sensible of his own inability and weakness, because it was a conscious feeling of the want and necessity of the Saviour's help. I endeavoured to turn his mind to the dear Redeemer; but he said, the time was too short to expect to accomplish the great work,' and spoke as if it had been too long deferred. I reminded him that the invitation was extended as late even as the eleventh hour; and then mentioned the thief upon the cross with the words, "To-day shalt thou be with me in Paradise.' He seemed to be a little encouraged before we parted. I was afraid of staying too long, and causing too much excitement, but a prayer ascended in secret for him both then and since. When about to leave, he expressed a wish for me to come again, and I hope to comply with it. I was comforted in finding he had got into a place where he would want for nothing, and be well attended to. I consider it an act of true Christian benevolence in George Bicknell, with his large family, to take in, without solicitation, a poor, exhausted, sick stranger, and cheerfully administer to all his wants, without a prospect of remuneration.”-p. 48.
We have often heard with satisfaction of the Temperance Ships,' that sail from the American ports, without ardent spirits, and were not prepared for such painful statements as this paragraph supplies.
“We have met with great civility and willingness to lend a helping hand in many of the American captains : at the same time we are frequently sensible of a mixture which cannot be reconciled. The foregoing remark has no allusion to the inconsistent condnct of the crews of many of the American vessels, which we have fallen in with here, that are called Temperance Ships. I could not but view these with satisfaction, and with a degree of thankfulness, as likely to contribute by their example to the welfare of the