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Before proceeding to trace the similarity of these books, it is, however, proper to observe that they exhibit three widely different, yet equally appropriate modes of style; which, for the sake of distinction, may be termed the narrative, the argumentative, and the mystical styles. The first is nearly confined to the gospel, and the third to the apocalypse; while the second pervades a large portion of the gospel, and almost the whole of the epistles. The narrative style of John is remarkable, even among the historical books of Scripture, for its perspicuity and vivacity. The several events are depicted in a manner singularly graphic and circumstantial, showing the author to have been an eye witness of the occurrences which he relates, yet without prolixity or redundancy. Like the personages of a drama, the parties concerned are, as far as possible, made to express their own thoughts and sentiments; the writer usnally restricting himself to the province of noting the time, place, and other particulars necessary to the right understanding of the transactions described, and occasionally interposing a remark naturally suggested by the facts which he records. The argumentative style seems to have been borrowed from Christ himself, by whom, as well as by other religious teachers, it was often used, when the demonstration of important truths was pertinaciously resisted by ignorance, prejudice, or hostility. Assuming the character of mathematical exposition, it developes trains of close but simple reasoning, intermixed with axioms and definitions; and proceeds by slow but certain steps to distinct and unavoidable conclusions. The mystical style, which in some respects agrees with the narrative, of which it is, indeed, merely a variety, corresponds to that employed in other prophetical and visionary parts of Scripture, to an extent which implies that they were all dictated by the same Spirit. It evinces a mind, not only elevated by inspiration, but also improved by reflection and practice, and furnished in consequence with an affluence of words and ideas collected, as it were, from all quarters, to represent the vast and transcendant subjects of which it treats.
In comparing the several writings ascribed to the apostle John, these distinctions must be kept in view, more especially with regard to the apocalypse, the peculiar nature of which accounts for the peculiarity of its composition, and for its smaller analogy with the other books; although there is still sufficient resemblance among them to prove that they all proceeded from the same author. The fact will be established by collating from each a few passages, wherein a similarity of matter and style scarcely to be paralleled elsewhere seems to admit of no other conclusion. For this purpose it will be sufficient to compare the gospel alternately with the epistles and the apocalypse, on the principle that two objects which agree with a third, agree, also, with each other. The genuineness of the second and third epistles was at an early period disputed, and by some churches disallowed; but, independently of their identity of character, which will now in like manner be evinced, their very brevity and comparatively small importance are in favour of their canonical authority; since, had it not been well ascertained that
they were written by an apostle, their intrinsic value would scarcely
BLANCE OF THE THREE EPISTLES ATTRIBUTED TO THE
SECOND EPISTLE OF JOHN. IV. 1. Many false prophets have 7. Many deceivers have gone forth gone forth into the world. 2. By this into the world, who do not acknowledge ye know the Spirit of God. Every Jesus Christ as having come in the spirit which acknowledgeth Jesus flesh. Christ as having come in the flesh is from God; 3. and every spirit which doth not acknowledge Jesus is not from God. And this is the spirit] Such a one is the deceiver and the of Antichrist, which ye have heard is Antichrist. to come, and which is even now already in the world.*
II. 22. Who is the liar but he who denieth that Jesus is the Christ? Such a one is the Antichrist, who denieth [both] the Father and the Son.
23. Whosoever denieth the Son holdeth 9. Whosoever transgresseth, and not the Father. He that acknow continueth not in the doctrine of Christ, ledgeth the Son holdeth the Father holdeth not God. He that continueth also.] Also Johnv. 22,23; 11. 44, 45; in the doctrine of Christ, such a one XIII. 20.
holdeth both the Father and the Son. SECOND EPISTLE OF JOHN.
THIRD EPISTLE OF JOHN. 1. The elder to the elect Cyria, and 1. The elder to the beloved Caius, her children, whom I truly love. whom I truly love.
4. I rejoiced greatly to find (some] 4. I have no greater joy than to of thy children walking in truth
hear that my children walk in truth. 12. [Although I] have many things 13. I had many things to write, but to write to you, I have not chosen (to do not choose to write to thee with pen communicate them hy paper and ink, and ink. for I hope to come to you, and to con- 14. I hope, however, shortly to see verse face to face, that our joy may be thee, when we shall converse face to complete.
face. COLLATION OF PASSAGES, SHOWING THE MUTUAL RESEM
BLANCE OF THE GOSPEL AND EPISTLES ATTRIBUTED TO
EPISTLES OF John. 1. 1. In the beginning was the 1 John 1. 1. That which was from Word, and the Word was with God, the beginning, which we have heard, and the Word was God. 2. He was which we have seen with our eyes, in the beginning with God.
which we have contemplated, and our
hands have handled concerning the 4. In him was life, and the life was living Word: 2. For the life was the light of men.
manifested, and we saw sit,) and tes111. 11. I most truly tell thee that tify, and declare to you that eternal life I say what I know, and testify what which was with the Father, and was I have seen.
manifested (to us:] 32. What he hath seen and heard 3. That which we have seen and that he testifeth.
heard we declare (to you.] * Several variations from the authorized version, observable in this and other passages, are derived from Griesbach's edition of the Greek Testament, in 2 vols. Svo. Lond. 1809.
EPISTLES OF JOHN. 3 John 12. (Honourable) testimony is rendered to Demetrius by all men, and by the truth itself; and we, also, bear testimony, and ye know that our testimony is true.
1 John 1. 4. These things we write to you, that your joy may be complete.
GOSPEL BY JOHN. XX1.-24. This is the disciple that testifieth concerning these things, and wrote these things, and we know that his testimony is true.
(Also v. 32, and xix. 35.)
xv. 11. These things I have spoken to you, that my joy in you may continue, and [that] your joy may be complete.
(Also i11. 29; XVI, 24; and xvii. 13.)
xiv. 16. I will request the Father, and he will give you another advocate, to continue with you for ever.
1. 29, 36. Behold the lamb of God, which taketh away the sin of the world.
(Also 2 John 12.)
111. 16. For God so loved the world as to give his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth on him should not perish, but have eternal life.
17. For God sent his Son into the world, not to condemn the world, but that through him the world might be saved.
(Also 1. 34.)
1. 26. I baptize with water; but in the midst of you standeth [one) whom ye know not ...... 33. This is he that baptizeth with (the) Holy Spirit.
11. 1. If any one sin, we have a righteous advocate with the Father, seven) Jesus Christ.
2. And he is an atonement for our sins, and not for ours only, but for [those, also, of the whole world.
iv. 9. By this was manifested the love of God towards us ; that God sent his only begotten Son into the world, that we might live through him.
10. Herein is love; not that we loved God, but that he loved us, and sent his Son (as an atonement for our sins.
v. 6. This is he that came by water and blood, seven) Jesus Christ; not with water only, but with water and blood; and the Spirit beareth testimony, because the Spirit is the truth.
12. He that hath the Son hatla life: He that hath not the Son of God hath not life.
13. These things I have written to you, that ye may know that ye who believe on the name of the Son of God have eternal life.
111. 36. He that believeth on the Son hath eternal life; but he that rejecteth the Son shall not see life, but the wrath of God abideth on him.
xx. 31. These things have been written, that ye may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God; and that believing ye may have life by his name.
(Also VI. 47.)
XVII. 3. This is eternal life; that they should know thee the only true God, and Jesus Christ whom thou hast sent.
xv, 18. If the world hate you, ye know that it hated me before you, 19. If ye were of the world, the world would have loved its own; but, because ye are not of the world, but I have chosen you out of the world, on this account the world hateth you.
(Also 1. 10–13; viii. 44; XVI. 33; and xvII. 14.)
xiv, 15. If ye love me, keep my commandments.
20. We are in the true [God, even in his Son, Jesus Christ. This is the true God, and eternal life.
111. 13. Wonder not, my brethren, if the world hate you.
Iv. 5. They are of the world. On this account they speak of the world, and the world heareth them.
(Also 11. 1, 10; and v. 4.)
11. 3. By this we are assured that we know him, if we keep his com. mandments.
GOSPEL BY JOHN.
EPISTLES OF JOHN. xiv. 21. He that hath my command 1 John v. 3. For, this is the love of ments and keepeth them, he it is that God, that we keep his commandments. loveth me.
23. If a man love me, he will keep 2 John 6. This is love, that we my word.
walk according to his commandments. (Also xv. 10.)
(Also 1 John 11. 5.) xv. 12. This is my commandment, 1 John 111. 11. For, this is the mesthat ye love one another, [even as I sage which ye have heard from the behave loved you.
ginning, that we should love one an
other. v. 24. I most truly tell you that 14. We know that we have passed he who heareth my word, and believeth from death to life, because we love the him that sent me, ..... hath passed brethren. from death to life.
xv. 13. None hath greater love than 16. Herein we perceive love, in that this, that a man should lay down his he laid down his life for us, and we life for his friends.
ought to lay down four lives for the
brethren, 1. 18. No one ever saw God. The iv. 12. No one ever beheld God. only begotten Son, who is in the bosom If we love one another, God dwelleth of the Father, he bath made [him] in us, and his love is completed in us. known.
X111. 34. A new commandment I 11. 7. [My beloved [brethren,] it give you, that ye should love one an- is not a new commandment that I other, that, as I have loved you, ye write to you, but an old commandalso should love one another.
ment which ye had from the beginning. 8. Again, a new commandment I write
to you. (Also 35; and vin. 42.)
(Also iv. 11, 21; and 2 John 5.) ì. 5. The light appeared in the dark- . 5. God is light, and in him is no ness, but the darkness did not admit darkness at all. it.
9. The true light, which enlight- 11. 8. The darkness is passing away, eneth every man, was coming into the and the true light now appears. world.
XII. 35. Yet a little while the light 11. He that hateth his brother is in is among you. Walk, while ye have darkness, and walketh in darkness, the light, lest darkness come upon and knoweth not whither he is going, you. And he that walketh in dark- because the darkness hath blinded his ness knoweth not whither he is going. eyes.
(Also 46; and 11. 19; VII. 12; (Also 9, 10; and 1. 6, 7.) IX. 5; XI. 9, 10.) COLLATION OF PASSAGES, SHOWING THE MUTUAL RESEM
BLANCE OF THE GOSPEL AND APOCALYPSE ATTRIBUTED
APOCALYPSE OF JOHN. 1. 14. The Word became incarnate, XIX. 12. His eyes were] like a and dwelt among us, full of grace and flame of fire, and on his head were truth; and we beheld his glory, a many diadems. He bore a name inglory as of the only begotten of the scribed which none knoweth but himFather.
self, 13. and (was clad in a robe dipt in blood, and his name is called, The
Word of God. 29, 36. Behold the lamb of God, v. 6. And I saw in the midst of the which taketh away the sin of the throne ......a lamb standing, as world.
[if it had been slain, &c.
(Also 9; and xır. 11.)
GOSPEL BY JOHN XIX. 33. On coming to Jesus, as they saw that he was already dead, they did not break his legs; 34. but one of the soldiers pierced his side with a spear, and immediately there came forth blood and water. ..........
37. Another scripture saith, “ They shall look on Shim] whom they pierced [to the heart.")
III. 29. He that hath the bride is the bridegroom.
APOCALYPSE OF JOHN. 1. 5. To him that loveth us, and washed us from our sins in his own blood, .....6. [be] glory, &c.
7, Behold, he cometh with clouds, and every eye shall see him, and they, [also,] who pierced him.
x vi. 3. And the second angel emptied his bowl on the sea, and it became blood, like [that] of a corpse.
(Also vii. 14.)
XXI. 9. And one of the seven angels ..... came and talked with me, saying, Come, [and] I will show thee the bride, the wife of the lamb.
22. And I saw not any temple therein, for the Lord God who ruleth over all and the lamb are its temple.
II. 19. Jesus answered them, Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up. ...... 21. But he spake concerning the temple, bis body.
xiv. 1. Let not your heart be disturbed : Trust in God, trust also in me. 2. In my Father's house are many mansions. Had it not [been so, I would have told you. I go to prepare a place for you.
xx. 17. I ascend to my Father and your Father, to my God and your God.
3. Behold, the tabernacle of God sis) with men, and he will dwell with them, and they will be his people, and God himself will be with them, [as] their God.
XIV. 23. If a man love me, he will keep my word; and my Father will love him, and we will come to him, and make an abode with him.
(Also 1. 9; and vii. 12.)
iv. 13. Whoso drinketh of this water will thirst again, 14. but whoso drinketh of the water which I shall give him will never thirst again ; but the water which I shall give him will become within him a well of water, springing up to eternal life.
1.5. To him that loveth us, ..... 6. and hath made us a royal priesthood to his God and Father, to him [be] glory, &c.
M. 20. Behold, I stand at the door and knock. If any man hear my voice, and open the door, I will enter in, and sup with him, and he [shall sup with me.
(Also vi1.15; XXI.23; and xxır.5.)
vii. 16. They shall not hunger any more, nor thirst any more, neither sball the sun injure them, nor any heat; 17. for, the lamb that is in the midst of the throne will tend them, and lead them to living fountains of waters, and God will wipe away all tears from their eyes.
XXI. 6. To him that thirsteth I will freely give of the fountain of the water of life.
XXII, 17. The Spirit and the bride say, Come; and let him that heareth say Come; and let him that thirsteth come. Whosoever will, let him freely take the water of life.
11.7. To him that overcometh I will give to eat of the tree of life, which is in the paradise of God.
17. "To him that overcometh I will give of the hidden manna.
vir. 37. On the last day, the great [day] of the festival, Jesus stood, and proclaimed, saying, If any one thirst, let him come to me, and let him that believeth on me drink. 38. As the Scripture hath said, “Out of his belly shall flow rivers of living water.”
vi. 48. I am the bread of life. 49. Your fathers ate the manna in the wil. derness, and died. 50. This is the bread which cometh down from heaven, that any one may eat thereof, and not die.
(Also 31, 32,58 ; and x. 2—4.)