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compelled to wander in the wilderness, and reduced to the desperate alternative of perishing by famine, or appropriating by force, to their own use, some portion of the property cruelly taken from them, or of that rightfully possessed by their ruthless oppressors. A pretence was thus furnished for renewed pillage and murder; and in 1774, the whole race was, by an order of the Dutch government, doomed to extirpation-an order which the boors or Dutch farmers showed themselves too ready to execute. The most horrible atrocities were committed by armaments for the purpose of committing rapine, under the authority of law, called commandos. The natives were hunted down like wild beasts of the desert, and, in some instances, men, women, and children were indiscriminately massacred. Those Hottentots who, at the commencement of the present century, were in the service of the Boors, were treated like brutes, and reduced to the lowest pitch of degradation. Their condition was, in every respect, most abject and deplorable.
The following is an extract from the evidence of Andrew Stoffels : “ We were destroyed day after day, till there was no deliverance. The English now oppress the Hottentots in their wages; in short, they oppress them every way. I have been asked, what is this pressure ? I say, • The Hottentot has no water; he has not a blade of grass ; he has no lands; he has no wood ; he has no place where he can sleep; all that he now has is the Missionary and the Bible. And now that we have been taught to read, the Bible is taken away from us, and they want to remove the missionaries from us. And there is another law, the vagrant law, that they want to oppress us with; a law that presses down the Hottentots.'"
In the year 1828, a colonial ordinance was passed, completely setting free all Hottentots held in bondage by the colonists. This “ emancipation ordinance” was ratified by an order in council, January 15, 1829, which declared, “ that it should not be competent for any governor or other colonial authority to alter or abrogate any of its provisions.” The effect produced by these enactments is thus described by Justus :-“ They (the Hottentots) were changed from brute beasts into men; their employers could now no longer oppress and torment them; the yoke of bondage was broken : they were free men, and as free labourers, could demand lawful hire for their services; they were under the protection of the laws, and could bring actions against those who injured them, and teach their tyrannical masters that the rod of despotism had fallen from their hands."
In 1834, attempts were made to re-impose and rivet anew the fetters thus happily broken, under the specious pretence of making further provision for the apprehension and conviction of vagrants, but through the vigorous interposition of some devoted friends of the Aborigines, these attempts did not succeed.
The Caffres, a warlike and powerful nation, occupied a territory beyond the eastern boundary of the colony ; but the boors were not to be restrained, by reiterated prohibitions of the Government, from plundering the cattle, and seizing the lands belonging to this pastoral people, who were thus provoked to avenge themselves, and to retaliate upon their oppressors. A series of encroachments and VOL. 1. N.s.
depredations followed, provoking hostilities on the part of the Caffres, who were subsequently abandoned to the rapacious cupidity of the colonists. * In 1811 a proclamation appeared, declaring the Caffres to be “irreclaimable, barbarous, and perpetual enemies;" and shortly afterwards they were, “to the amount of 20,000, forcibly driven out of the country, which they had purchased, (about the year 1670,) of the Gonaquas, leaving much of their cattle behind them, and all their huts and villages in flames, in which incendiary work, as well as in trampling down the fields of corn and other crops of native culture, (then nearly ripe), the troops were employed for several weeks together.” Ali Caffres, whether men or women, found lingering round their homes, were indiscriminately shot. The destruction of their vegetables exposed them to a year of famine; but remonstrances were vain; “ the enemy was a stranger to pity." The outrages committed by the parties who conducted this expedition were of the most horrible kind.
The treatment of Gaika, the great chief of the Western Amakosa, by Lord Charles Somerset, was, in the highest degree, treacherous, and attended with very disastrous consequences.
The forcible expulsion of Macomo, (son of Gaika,) and his people from the Kat River, in 1829, was a tragical feat never to be forgotten in the annals of colonial outrage. Deprived of their habitations, which were burnt by the military, and ot 5000 head of cattle, they were driven out to starve from cold and hunger among the mountains. In 1830, Seko, a high chief, was barbarously murdered, with his attendants. In November, 1833, Colonel Wade, acting Governor of the colony, drove away Macomo from the banks of the Chumie, to which he had retired. The kraals and huts of his clan were burnt or otherwise destroyed. A few weeks before he had been seized when attending a missionary meeting at Philip Town, on the Kat River, and treated in the most ignominious and degrading manner.
The outrageous treatment of the Caffres, and the insults and indignities heaped upon their chiefs, produced a high degree of excite. ment, but the immediate cause of the Caffre war was the shooting in the head of Xo-xo, a young prince, the brother of Macomo, who calmly remonstrated with the officer of a patrol, sent to make a seizure of cattle from the kraal of Tyali, his elder brother, who had committed no depredations. This event occurred in December, 1834. The council of Macomo thus addressed Mr. Kayser, the mis. sionary—“ We can bear no longer to see our chiefs shot. In times past several of our chiefs have been shot, and we remained quiet, but now we are determined to fight.” Sir Benjamin D'Urban, the new Governor of the colony, had intimated his intention of coming to the frontier for the purpose of inquiring into the intolerable grievances of this oppressed people; but, alas! he appeared in a very different character, and for a very different purpose. In January, 1835, “ he came as commander-in-chief, at the head of a large army, to ravage all Caffreland, and to lay waste the whole country.” These bloody exploits will render his name infamous, and his memory for ever execrable, as one of the chief desolaters and destroyers of this
ill-fated country. “ As a chapter,” says Justus, “ in the bloody book of battles, nothing can be more inglorious than this invasion of Caffreland ; as a chapter in the great volume of murders, few are more distressing and disgusting. It was ridiculous, because so disproportionate a force was, as it were, solemnly employed in hunting partridges on the mountains,' and recording their heroic deeds with the most pompous eulogies, whilst the havoc they committed with their artillery, and all the terrible implements of war, on the utterly helpless and naked population, cannot be read without the most painful emotions."
The most horrible murders were committed in this brilliant campaign” upon the old and decrepit-upon women and children as if the officers employed in the expedition delighted to wreak their vengeance upon the infirm and the defenceless. Of all the barbarous deeds enacted in this most disgraceful war, none surpassed the cold blooded murder, May 12, 1835, of Hintza, king of the Amakosæ, who was charged upon mere suspicion and surmise with being implicated in the war. This flagrant act was committed under circumstances of aggravated horror, and attended with the infliction of peculiar barbarity. For particulars we must refer to Justus, (pages 210-228;) but we cannot forbear expressing or earnest hope that the perpetrators of this atrocious tragedy may yet be made amenable to justice, and brought to condign punishment. Lord Glenelg, in the admirable despatch addressed to Sir B. D'Urban, dated Dec. 26, 1835, after detailing the facts according to the evidence laid before him, concludes with these words: “I express no opinion on this subject, but advert to it because the honour of the British name demands that the case should undergo a full investigation, which it is my purpose to institute.”
Sir Benjamin D’Urban was the first to make propositions for peace, and a treaty was signed Sept. 17, 1835. He thus describes the result of this murderous campaign :-“ Their loss during our operations against them has amounted to four thousand of their warriors, and amongst these many captains; ours, fortunately, has not on the whole amounted to one hundred, and of these only two officers. There have been taken from them also, besides the conquest and alienation of their country, about 60,000 head of cattle, almost all their goats, their habitations every where destroyed, and their gardens and corn-fields laid waste. They have therefore been chastised not extremely but perhaps sufficiently"!!-" I am bound,” says Lord Glenelg, animadverting on the statement just quoted, “ to record the very deep regret with which I have perused this passage. In a conflict between regular troops and hordes of barbarous men, it is almost a matter of course that there should exist an enormous disproportion between the loss of life on either side. But to consign an entire country to desolation, and a whole people to famine, is an aggravation of the necessary horrors of war, so repugnant to every just feeling, and so totally at variance with the habits of civilized nations, that I should not be justified in receiving such a statement without calling upon you for further explanations. The honour of the British name is deeply interested in obtaining and giving publicity to the proofs that the safety of the King's subjects really demanded so fearful an exercise of the irresistible power of His Majesty's forces.”
« Alas!" indignantly exclaims Justus, referring to the successive military governors of the Cape Colony, “shall Great Britain, that realm of power and wisdom, that island, super-eminent in glory and grandeur amongst the kingdoms of the earth, on whose vast dominions the sun never goes down-shall England, imperial, haughty, illustrious England, never send forth more joyous specimens of her intellectual and moral excellence than these king Logs or king Cranes, for her unhappy colony ? Shall all that pass by this settlement, for ever point the finger of scorn against our glaring misrule, our ceaseless oppressions, our insatiate aggressions ? Shall we never begin to be wise and good ? Shall no ray of justice ever penetrate the density of this darkness-darkness that may be felt-and shall this mighty province never lift up her head, bowed down with the yoke of her doleful satraps ? If these men must be elevated and enriched, let them be so in their proper spheres. Promote them in the army list; make them generals; give them companies; stuff them with regiments; saturate them with pensions and gorge them with sinecures; cover their breasts with stars and crosses, with garters and saints, with dragons and thistles, but give them not colonies to desolate, nor mankind to devour, and do not turn them forth from the Horse Guards to inflict intolerable evils on the human race.”
These spirited and equally just remarks are extracted from the “ Conclusion” of the volume before us, which is well worthy throughout of attentive perusal.
The Appendix contains copies of several important documents, among which will be found at length Lord Glenelg's admirable and truly “golden despatch" already referred to.
We consider that the British public, especially the religious portion of the community, are laid under great obligations to Justus for this compendious documentary narrative. We trust our readers will pardon us if we express our opinion that it is a duty devolving upon those who have at command the means to purchase and the time to read this small and moderately-priced volume, to possess themselves of it, and carefully to investigate its contents, that they may be so far apprized of the savage atrocities committed by our countrymen in this unfortunate colony. We agree with Justus, that “it is chiefly owing to the ignorance of colonial matters which prevails in this country, that the misdeeds of the colonists have hitherto been unrestrained.” We must know that we may feel, and feel that we may act as becomes Christian Britons. The work of emancipation already achieved with great difficulty and at great expense, can only be perpetuated by the watchful observation, the sustained interest, and, above all, the strenuous exertions of the earnest and active friends of humanity at home. It especially becomes those who are connected with the London Missionary Society to be forward in this good work. The missionaries of that honoured Society have been for many years the patrons and protectors of the oppressed abori
gines of South Africa, and one individual (the Rev. Dr. Philip) has taken a leading part in this glorious work, which will render his name precious and his memory fragrant through succeeding generations to the end of time, as the friend and father, the saviour and deliverer of “people robbed and spoiled," abandoned “ for a prey," and doomed to extermination. We cannot forbear, in conclusion, giving utterance to our fervent wishes and prayers, that as we understand he is about to re-visit the colony, he may have a prosperous voyage, by the will of God, and speedily after his arrival be permitted to see the blessed work, which he has been mainly instrumental in commencing, and thus far accomplishing, carried forward to com. pletion.
FOREIGN THEOLOGICAL LITERATURE.
w7pp3 7918 CONCORDANTIÆ Librorum Veteris Testamenti Sa
crorum Hebraicæ atque Chaldaicæ secundum literarum ordinem et vocabulorum origines distincte ordinateque disposita, lexico utriusque linguæ tum rabinico tum latino, hoc est, interpretatione omnium vocabulorum completa locupletata, atque, fructibus, quos instituta et nostra et patrum memoriâ linguarum orientalium investigatio ac collatio prabuit, industrie comparatis et conditis, accuratissima cum diligentia absoluta, auctore Julio Fürstio, Doctore Philosophiæ. Sectio prima-Plag.
3- 778. Editio Stereotypa. Lipsiæ, sumptibus et typis
Caroli Tauchnitii. 1837. Fol. pp. 120. It augurs well for the interests of Hebrew literature that there is a return to the quartos and the folios. Not that we possess any instinctive partiality to ponderous tomes, nor do we anticipate any great number of such bulky works as appeared in the times of Buxtorf and Walton; but we are free to acknowledge, that in days when the giants of antiquity are ground down into Lilliputian stature,, and “ multum in parvo” threatens to become an universal motto, it is gratifying to behold the shapes and sizes exhibited in the Thesaurus of Gesenius, and the Hebrew Concordance announced at the head of this article. The time, we trust, is not far distant, when some of our wealthy Bibliopoles will imitate the example here set them by the enterprising printer at Leipsic, and furnish us with what has long been felt to be a desideratum in Biblical literature -a Polyglott accommodated to the present state of such literature.
The Concordance of Buxtorf, edited by the son, is truly an immortal work, and has greatly contributed to facilitate the study of the Hebrew Scriptures; but owing partly to defective arrangement, partly to some thousands of errors which it has been found to contain, and partly to the progress which has been made in these studies during the last century, a new and improved edition has been much wanted. Of such an edition-an edition every way worthy of the present advanced state of literature, the first part has just made its appearance. It is printed on beautiful hot-pressed