illustrious parents, by seating your Majesty upon the throne of this great empire amidst the acclamations of an intelligent and loyal people. Our prayers, most gracious Sovereign, shall continually ascend to the blessed and only Potentate, the King of kings and Lord of lords, entreating him to be your helper in all the arduous duties of the State, long, very long, to preserve your Majesty's invaluable life, and so to guide and strengthen you by his Holy Spirit, that your Majesty may continue to sway the sceptre of these realms over a free and loyal people, until you shall, through the infinite merits of our Divine Redeemer, exchange these earthly dominions for that kingdon, which cannot pass away.

Her Majesty then read, in a firm and clear tone, the following gracious apswer:

“I receive with satisfaction this loyal address. I thank you for the justice which you render to the character of His late Majesty, and to the measures of his reign. I am sensibly touched by your allusion to the memory of my father. I shall always respect the rights of conscience, and to the utmost of my power extend to all equal and impartial justice.”

Each member of the Body present was then introduced by name to her Majesty, and had the honour of kissing her Majesty's hand. One hundred and two ministers were thus presented.

The Body of Presbyterian Ministers, as they denominate themselves, consisting of those Unitarian ministers who, in March 1836, seceded from the Three Denominations, were in waiting, and when the orthodox body retired they were introduced to the Royal presence. The Rev. Robert Aspland read their Address as follows, and Dr. Thomas Rees officiated as Secretary.

“ To the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty. “ Most gracious Sovereign, “We, your Majesty's loyal and dutiful subjects, the Protestant Dissenting Ministers of the Presbyterian Denomination, in and about the cities of London and Westminster, humbly approach your Royal presence, to express our sincere condolence with your Majesty upon the demise of your Royal Uncle, our late revered and beloved Sovereign, together with our heartfelt congratulations upon the happy accession of your Majesty to the Throne of these realms.

“ We have ever felt devoutly thankful to the Divine Providence that, during several successive generations, these kingdoms have been placed by the Omnipotent Ruler, under the mild and beneficent sway of Princes of your Majesty's august family, by whom the liberties of the people have been enlarged and confirmed, the moral character of the nation has been exalted, and the power and prosperity, the wealth and happiness of the kingdom have been promoted beyond all example. And we are impelled by gratitude to acknowledge, in particular, the blessings enjoyed by the country during the reign of his late lamented Majesty, in the preservation of peace, the wise and timely reform of some of our national institutions, and the extension of religious liberty, by which the condition of your Majesty's Protestant Dissenting subjects especially has been greatly improved.

" When we call to remembrance your Majesty's Royal descent; when we reflect upon the character of the Prince, your Majesty's ever-to-be-lamented Father, whose virtues, public and private, endeared him to the British people, and to no portion of them more than the Protestant Dissenters; when we consider that your Majesty's early years were nurtured by the enlightened and patriotic counsels, and the moral and religious instructions of your Illustrious Mother, whom we have been accustomed to regard as a pattern of conjugal and maternal excellence; and when we bear in mind your Majesty's gracious language in your first speech before your Privy Council, which has diffused general satisfaction and joy amongst your subjects, we entertain the firm and cheering persuasion that your Majesty's reign will be just and beneficent, honourable to your Majesty, and glorious to your people.

“ We have seen, with deep affection and lively sympathy, your Majesty's pious declaration of reliance upon the Divine Providence for support and guidance, and we humbly join our supplications with those of your Majesty and of the whole kingdom, on your Majesty's behalf. May the Supreme Benefactor, the Father of Mercies, grant that on your head the Crown may flourish, and that during your auspicious reign, peace may be preserved with all nations, tranquillity may be enjoyed at home, and equal rights and liberties may knit the hearts of all your Majesty's subjects in love to your Majesty, and to one another. May the King of kings take your Majesty under his Almighty protection, shield you from dangers, replenish you with all heavenly gifts and graces, and prolong your life and reign to a far distant period, and cause your happiness as a Queen to be constantly growing in the spontaneous loyalty, the cordial affection, and the generous confidence of all classes and denominations of your Majestys subjects, until in the course of the Divine Providence, and in fulfilment of the Divine Grace, your Majesty shall be translated from earthly to heavenly felicity and glory.'

To which Address Her Majesty was pleased to return the following most gracious Answer:

“I thank you for your condolence upon the death of the late King, and for your congratulations upon my accession.

“I am much gratified by the feelings which you express towards former Sovereigns of my family, and more particularly towards His late Majesty.

“I am actuated by the same principles, and you may always rely upon receiving at my hands that protection which is so justly due to you."

It is stated in The London Gazette, July 25th, that this Address was presented by Deputation, and a similar account was given by The Times. We wonder not at this mistake, for only nineteen'gentlemen appeared to represent the once powerful Presbyterian body; and we are much mistaken, if there were not Unitarian Baptists associated with them to make up a score, save one! *

* For a complete account of the secession of the Unitarians from the General Body of the Three Denominations, we refer our readers to our last volume, pp. 259, 264, 268, where the documents relating to it will be found, and to a splendid article in The Eclectic Review for July, in which the Presbyterian body is completely anatomized. The Editor of the Christian Observer must read these publications, for he has described their opinions in his last number : and yet, in some articles, he speaks of “ the serious expressions of astonishment and remonstrance which have been uttered in reference to the unhallowed fraternizing of so many of the evangelical dissenters with Arians and Socinians in ecclesiastical associations, and even admitting them into their pulpits !"-p. 432. Now we ask that gentleman, as he fears God, did he not know, when he penned this sentence, that a complete separation had taken place between the two parties more than a year ago! and then we ask him, if it comports with his views of christian truth and honour, to repeat a charge which he knows to be no longer true! We should like him, the next time he condescends to notice the proceedings of “the evangelical dissenters," to state when and where “ Arians and Socinians" have been admitted to our pulpits? We entreat him, if he has evidence of this, not to abstain from producing it without delay.

There can be little hope of a cordial union amongst the different sections of the church of God, if there be no disposition to acknowledge every good thing, and to hold communion with it wheresover it may be found !

ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS, &c. Favours have been received from the Rev. Drs. J. P. Sinith-Bennett Henderson.

Also from Rev. Messrs. J. C. Galloway-J. T. Cumming - James WallJ. Gwyther-F. H. Grain-Ebenezer Miller-J. Morison - Wm. BlackburnT. Finch-James Penman.

Also from Messrs. J. R. Bennett, M. D.-George Rutt-Hull TerrellJ. W. Smith-Philip Smith-A. Reed-G. Slay-Wm. Stroud, M. D.

The length of several articles in the present number has compelled us to defer several articles of Foreign Literature and Intelligence.









Dear BRETHREN, -Permit the Committee of the Congregational Union of England and Wales, in a fraternal spirit, but with deep solicitude and earnestness, to present for your attentive and candid consideration the following statement of the present position of that most important attempt to gather into harmonious and effective confederation the great body of our churches; and of the views entertained by the Committee, both of the objects to be accomplished by the Union, and of the manner in which they can be most beneficially effected.

The Committee feel assured they need not, at large, advocate union as a general principle. To gather, unite, and harmonize, is in so eminent and peculiar a manner the native tendency of our holy religion; the love and pleasures of union are so deeply felt and enjoyed by all truly christian minds; the advantages of union for accomplishing whatever objects can be promoted by combined and extensive efforts, are so obvious, that no man of understanding and piety can be otherwise than a friend of union simply considered. And if any of our brethren still doubt the expediency of the specific union now advocated by this Committee, or are slow to give it their energetic support, the Committee do not for a moment cherish the suspicion, that those brethren are averse to union, or deficient in the brotherly love and public spirit which lead the friends of this Union to hail it with delight and hope, as a means of edifying christian fellowship, and of enlarged general usefulness. On the contrary,

* We beg leave to solicit the attention of all our readers to this able and important article.-EDITOR. Vol. I. N. S.-Vol. XX.

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the Committee conceive that the doubts and hesitation alluded to, spring entirely from apprehensions affecting the necessity, practicability, or beneficial results of the Union: so that if the Committee can make out a satisfactory case on these points, they will have done all that is necessary to secure the unanimous and cordial co-operation of the entire brotherhood of the Congregational Ministers and Churches of England and Wales. The disposition for affectionate, happy union everywhere exists among them; and those who feel difficulties in the way of their adhesion to our general union, lament the existence in their minds of these objections, and would rejoice could they be removed; so that the Committee are enconraged by a persuasion, that only time and patience, candid discussion and mutual forbearance, are wanted to effect a most harmonious and beneficial general union of our body.

The necessity of this union of the Congregational Churches of our country, for which the Committec plead, lies in the consideration, that there are great and most valuable religious objects to be attained by it, which can in no other way be even attempted; and that if our churches continue isolated bodies, not uniting and co-operating for great objects common to them all, they will remain destitute of the most efficient of all means for promoting their own prosperity and increase, and for acting with happy effect on other religious communities, and on the opinions, the liberties, and the welfare of mankind at large. The moral force arising from the unconstrained union of great numbers of christian ministers and churches, all of one mind in their views of doctrine and discipline, and of enterprises for advancing the triumphs of the gospel, is incalculably great. This power will be felt with solemn, elevating influence, when the united body assembles for devout fellowship, and calm discussion of great interests and plans. It will be felt in the declarations of opinions and purposes put forth by the assembled brotherhood, with no assumption of authority either over each other, or over other men. It will be felt in the separate operations of each individual belonging to the great fraternity, as an animating impulse and a sustaining power. It is thus that power is gained, while liberty is not in, fristged, for individual freedom and associated power are not incom. patible. Each is of an importance and value not to be expressed. The two united will constitute the highest instrumentality human beings can reach; wherein every man can first contribute with perfect freedom and willingness his individual aid to make up the aggregate power and weight of a grand association; and then can employ with the same freedom, in aid of his separate efforts, the moral advantages of the great fellowship he has assisted to build up. The Committee believe that Congregational churches are the only elements out of which it is possible to construct a union, combining all the advantages of separate and united action. The dis tinct, indestructible independency of each separate church effectually guarantees liberty. The happy oneness of opinion prevailing among them all on every important subject, is the firm basis, and the easy facility for their union. They may construct among themselves all the organization that is necessary without being injurious, and they

can establish no more. The mere attempt to carry association to the point at which the liberty of our churches wonld even seem to be endangered, would be fatal to all union whatever.

The objects contemplated by this general union of Congregational Ministers and Churches are twofold. The former class embraces whatever can be accomplished for the benefit of the general body within itself. The second, whatever can be attempted by the union in relation to other christian communities, or for the spread of the gospel among mankind.

In regard to the first great object proposed for accomplishment by the general union, the spiritual good of the entire congregational body, the union seems adapted to promote it in the following ways:

1. The fact itself, that these numerous churches have a recognized fraternal union with each other; that every separate church has owned and embraced all its sister communities, and that they have all with affectionate cordiality received and returned the pledges of love and peace, and of concord in opinion and feeling, must be felt to exert an edifying and strengthening influence throughout the entire extent of the holy fellowship.

2. The solemn seasons of devout communion afforded by the annual assemblies of the Union, for the ministers and delegates of our churches gathered from distant parts of the country to one peaceful centre, cannot but cement love, exalt piety, and exert an extensive, happy influence throughout the associated churches, because the assembly is distinctly for that purpose; the brethren meet expressly to commune, and consult, and worship as a body of Congregational Ministers and Christians united to approach on principles, and for objects common to them all, the one great Head of all the churches. - 3. The opportunity for discussion and interchange of sentiment on all subjects of great and general interest to Congregational churches, presented by the annual assemblies of the Union, must be of inestimable benefit to the whole body.

4. The general Union, by its assemblies and officers, may accomplish what, without such organization, is impossible. It can employ the united energies of the whole body to attain objects in which all the churches have an interest ; and afford to weaker sections of the community assistance gathered from the united resources of the more powerful. · Thus the piety, the literature, the harmony, the enterprise of our denomination may receive an impulse from a central force. The general union may become the heart of the body. It may receive from every direction the separate streams of our intelligence, godliness, and public spirit; and then propel them again over the whole community with augmented vitality, purity, and force.

The second great object of the Union, to enable the Congregational denomination to act with happy effect on other christian communities, and on the world, it is adapted to accomplish

1. By seeking fraternal communion, in the name of the whole body, with other christian churches, which have an organization that renders it practicable, and are prepared to hold fellowship with

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