weaken our attachment to the objects of faith. And amply are they rewarded who, at the command of the Supreme Disposer, freely give up what from him they have freely received in the testimony of a good conscience, in evidences of the divine favour, and in the prospect of an eternal crown, there is a recompense provided for those who hesitate not to deny themselves and to take up their cross.

To the Zebedean family, as well as the rest of the disciples, the splendid distinction was held forth, “ I say unto you, that ye which have followed me in the regeneration, when the Son of Man shall sit in the throne of his glory, ye also shall sit upon twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel.”

What joyful harvester did e'er obtain
The sweet fruition of his hopeful gain,
Till he in hardy labours first had pass'd
The summer's heat, and stormy winter's blast?
A sable night returns a shining morrow,
And days of joy ensue sad nights of sorrow;
The way to bliss lies not on beds of down,
And he that had no cross deserves no crown.
There's but one heaven, one place of perfect ease,
In man it lies to take it where he please,
Above, or here below; and few men do
Enjoy the one, and taste the other too:
Sweating and constant labour wins the goal
Of rest; afflictions clarify the soul,
And, like hard masters, give more hard directions,

Tutoring the nonage of uncurbed affections. The natural scenery of the lake of Tiberias presents the same outline in the present day as when the Saviour traversed its shores and sailed across its waters; but its social character is altogether different. The cities “ exalted to heaven,” which once occupied its borders, have indeed been “ brought down to hell,” for no trace of them remains, and not even can their sites be identified. No fishers ply upon the lake; no sails are spread upon its surface; silence broods over the spot, where the voice of the Son of God once was heard, and a numerous and active population existed.

T. M.


If this great world of joy and pain
Revolve in one sure track ;
If freedom, set, will rise again,
And, virtue flown, come back;
Woe to the purblind crew who fill
The heart with each day's care;
Nor gain, from past or future, skill
To bear, and to forbear!



We transcribe the following valuable remarks from the Introduction of the Rev. William Walford's “ New Translation of the Book of Psalms, with Notes, explanatory and practical,” now in the course of publication, and which we doubt not will form a valuable addition to the expository works on the sweet songs of Israel.—Editor.

No earnest and inquisitive reader of the common version of the Psalms can be unaware, that a considerable degree of obscurity is found in them. On some passages, indeed, of this version, it is very difficult to fix any distinct or definite meaning; and a much larger number, where the sentiment is capable of being placed in a clearer light, and with greater effect, may readily be found. It is matter of regret, that such remarks are applicable, more or less, to most of the books which compose the volume of the Bible.

Many persons, eminent both for learning and piety, have made known, at different times, their dissatisfaction with this state of things, and have expressed a strong desire that it should be remedied. It is not meant by this to insinuate, that the learned and venerable persons, to whose labours we are indebted for the translation of the Bible which is now in general use, were either unskilful or unfaithful in discharging the office which was assigned to them. Neither is it intended to suggest doubts to those who are unable to judge for themselves, respecting the general fidelity or usefulness of that version, as if it were deficient in any of the fundamental truths which make up the revelation of God to man. This can scarcely, if at all, be said of the most defective versions of the Bible; and the unlearned may rest assured that, in the English Scriptures, they have placed before them every important truth and precept of revelation. It is, notwithstanding, greatly to be regretted, that blemishes, which impair the beauty and obscure the sense of many parts of this divine volume, should be permitted to remain, age after age, without any effective steps being taken to remove them.

It may, I trust, without presumption be intimated, that the erudition and the vast means of every kind which are in possession of the Universities of England for effecting so important a benefit, cannot be applied to a nobler or more appropriate purpose. Other pursuits of science, taste, and literary curiosity, are, I own, great ornaments of human life, and, at the same time, confer inestimable advantages on society at large. But what, may we not inquire,what is the worth of the most accomplished attainments of literature, or the profoundest acquirements of science, when compared with an accurate and extensive acquaintance with those living oracles which are destined to enlighten the mind and to refine the heart, by dissipating their prejudices, and withdrawing them from the gross and terrene affections, so as to elevate the thoughts now, and at no distant period the soul itself, to the possession and enjoyment of the all-perfect and all-satisfying good which is in reserve for the true disciples of the blessed Redeemer? What is the genuine value of the acutest emendations of Greek or Roman authors, or of the most skilful and splendid editions of their exquisite remains, if these, which may be prodigies of erudition and of ingenuity, are contrasted with an improvement of that volume, whose pages are “able to make men wise unto salvation ?" The most important discoveries of science, and the most accurate delineations of the orbits and times of comets, and other celestial or terrestrial phenomena, partially valuable as they confessedly are, sink into entire worthlessness, when set against the advancement of whatever is associated with the future and imperishable welfare of human souls. These manifest truisms are not recorded by one who was never smitten by the charms of literature and science, and who is incapable of feeling delight, even from small acquisitions of ancient or modern lore, which he would gladly make: they are the natural results of a belief that there is something more momentous than Greek or Latin, more interesting than the diagrams of geometry, and more truly worthy of the powers and faculties of man, than algebraic or fluxional calculations.

The want of which I am disposed to complain, can be satisfactorily supplied only by an association of men of parts, learning, and cultivated taste, and especially of christian feeling; so wise as to discard all fanciful theories, and so faithful as to sanction nothing but pure and simple truth. Happy had it been if scholars of the last and present age, endowed with such qualities, had prepared a version of the Holy Scriptures, as perfect as the ample means and appliances to which they have access might have conducted them, before the immense multiplication of copies of the authorized translation had been spread over the land, and

conveyed to the ends of the earth, by the beneficent institution of Bible and Missionary Societies ! It may justly be deemed surprising that so much labour, expense, and erudition, should have been employed in endeavours to accomplish a correct text of the Hebrew and Greek original Scriptures, and that men of consideration should have regarded, apparently with entire indifference, the greatest benefit that can result from these endeavours,—the correct emendation of that version, which is the sole medium of imparting the knowledge of God's word to the numberless millions who can avail, themselves of no other. The exertions of Mill, Wetstein, Griesbach, Kennicot, De Rossi, &c. &c. must be judged to fail of a full reward, until the utmost practicable improvement has been made in the translation, which is to engage the attention of by far the majority of the christian world. Grammarians, lexicographers, and critics, have but ill discharged the obligations that lie upon them, while the vast stores which they have amassed are locked

in recesses,

inaccessible to at least nineteen-twentieths of mankind.

The writer of this Introduction is reluctant to dismiss this subject, without adverting to the evident judgment of others, many of them far better qualified than himself to pronounce a decision on the desirableness and necessity of an emended version of the whole Bible. I shall comprise all I mean to say on this topic, in a reference to the numerous versions of individual books of the Scriptures which

have issued from the press of Great Britain within the course of the last sixty or seventy years.

These versions, many of which are of very great value, have proceeded from the labours of learned prelates and professors, and other eminent persons, and fully disclose the opinions which they formed in relation to this subject. I will specify but two names which are prefixed to their invaluable productions,—the learned and elegant Bishop Lowth, and the not less learned, and perhaps more acute and perspicacious, Dr. George Campbell ;-men than whom none have lived more competent to form sound and accurate judgments on such matters. These erudite persons have recorded, by the writing and publication of their respective versions of the prophecy of Isaiah, and the four books of the Evangelists, the deliberate convictions of their judgment respecting the practicability and usefulness of a corrected translation of the Holy Scriptures. Had I the audience of dignified Professors, of the Heads of Houses, and of learned Fellows of Colleges, I might perhaps put, with becoming deference, the inquiry,—Is it now too late to accomplish any such good work? or is it premature, from the expectation of larger and more sufficient means than are already in possession?

Some degree of the apparent disregard which is shown to a revision and emendation of the common version, may, I beg permission to add, be traced to the exaggerated commendations of it which are so frequently promulgated : men often come to believe at length in the truth of assertions which are perpetually made, but which a thorough and candid investigation would prove to be unfounded ; so that they not merely themselves acquiesce in these vulgar errors, but are prone to regard with a suspicious eye the motives of those who will not be imposed upon by allegations which they know to be destitute of equivalent support.

It occurs to me to remark here, that if some person or persons of opulence would imitate the munificence to which we are indebted for the Bridgewater Treatises, we might hope to see this important desideratum supplied. We are now amply furnished with defences against the direct attacks of scepticism and infidelity ; why should we not be equally armed against the less manifest, but not much less dangerous influences, against which the multitude can be effectually secured, only by diffusing among them the most perfect and accurate transcript of the Holy Scriptures, which the beneficence and erudition of the present times can produce? The experience of many years plainly shows, that no private efforts to produce an improved version of the Bible will succeed, so far as to give it general currency, or induce the public at large to adopt it, in preference to that which is now in use. A more decisive stamp of authority than can be impressed by one or several individuals, however learned, or in all respects qualified for the important undertaking, is essential to secure a universal, or even general reception of it. The authority, however, let it be understood, which is intended, is not that which our civil governors are able to impart. A royal charter, an order in council, or an act of parliament, is altogether without competency in this case. The temper of men at this period, wonld incline them


VOL. 1. N.S.

to refuse acquiescence in such a species of authority. The only authority to which Christians of all parties would bow, must be drawn from the acknowledged skill, fidelity, impartiality, and general qualifications of the persons who should engage in the execution of such a work. If some of the most distinguished members of the two Universities would form an association for this excellent purpose, and freely invite the co-operation of learned and candid individuals belonging to the several communions of Christians in the United Kingdom, all pledging themselves to a fair and impartial arrangement and distribution of labour, the object would be accomplished : the more discerning and better informed readers of the Scriptures would gladly accept the boon thus offered ; and, through their agency, there is good reason to believe that the generality would gradually transfer their attention and regard to it.

LETTERS FROM ROME.--No, IV. Monte PincioPapal Finances-Political Feeling-Index Expurgatorius, Silvio Pellico-Ignorance of the Peasantry.

Rome, March, 1834. MY DEAR FRIEND.-I assure you that, however much an epistle from the Romans” may delight you, a letter from the “ultima thule" of the Romans is equally gratifying to me. Your letter was put into

my hands just as I was going out, and I therefore took it to à quiet corner of the Monte Pincio, and sat down to its perusal. The Pincian Hill is one of the fashionable promenades of Rome. It overhangs the Piazza di Spagna, and that part of the present city, which was formerly the Campus Martius, (but which is now termed the “ Quartier des Anglois,') commanding one of the finest views of Rome. The principal ascent to this hill, from the Piazza di Spagna, is by a double flight of steps, at the top of which stands a large Egyptian obelisk, in front of the handsome facade of the church of La Trinitá del Monte. This flight of steps is, perhaps, the finest thing of the kind in existence; but an Englishman's nose is so offended by the abominable filth which covers it from top to bottom, that one avoids ascending it oftener than is necessary, especially in hot weather. The whole of the Pincian Hill is now tastefully laid out in promenades, after the Italian fashion, with fountains and architectural ornaments. The work was planned and commenced by the French, though from its completion having been effected during the pontificate of Pius VII, he gets the credit of it; at least every thing is done to give him the credit, for inscriptions meet your eye at every turn, surmounted by the papal arms, stating that, “ to the beneficence of Pius VII., the public are indebted for this delightful and salubrious promenade.” This is not the only benefit that the French conferred on the Romans, though the evil they did is remembered, and the good forgotten. Such a work would not be very likely to be undertaken in the present day, for so poor is the government, that it has not the power, had it the will. 'It is with difficulty that money is obtained to meet the urgent necessities of the

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