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animated, Eph. iv. 16; yet it by no means follows, that all government of the church through human instruments was excluded, only those instruments who were called to take a prominent share in the government, were not to exercise any exclusive dominion; they were not to tear themselves loose from their connexion with the common organization of the several members, all freely co-operating for the attainment of a common end, nor place themselves in any new relation, either to the Head or to his body, the church.

“They had conferred upon them the xaproua kußepvndewc, by which they became qualified to exercise the government with which they were invested. The name of Presbyters, by which this office was at first designated, was transferred from the Jewish synagogues to the Christian assemblies. But when the churches came to be more widely planted among the Greeks, there was joined to this name, borrowed from the civil and religious constitution of the Jews, another designation, which was more adapted to express certain social relations among the Greeks, and consequently better fitted to denote the official duty which devolved upon the Presbytery. By & LOKOTTO! were meant overseers of the entire church and all its concerns, just as in the Attic government the name was given to those who were sent to organize such states as were dependent upon Athens; and as this designation appears to have been currently in use in reference to civil affairs generally, to denote any kind of public inspection or superintendence. Now as the name įTICKOTOS was nothing more than a transfer of the original designation originally employed by Jews and Hellenists, in adaptation to certain political relations which obtained among the heathen, it hence follows, that both names were originally applied to the same office; on which account also, they are frequently exchanged for each other. Thus Paul addresses all the Presbyters of the Ephesian church, for whom he had sent, as & T UTROTOVC. (Acts xx. 17–28.) If we were warranted to adopt the hypothesis, that not only the presidents of the Ephesian church are here meant, but also those of the other churches of Asia Minor, it might indeed be argued, that by these ETTIOKOTOL we are to understand the presidents of the presbyteries. But the other passages of Paul are opposed to such a distinction, and Luke, who confined this address solely to the presidents of the church at Ephesus, clearly regarded the names é FLOKOTOC and peoBurepos as perfectly synonymous.

“Thus, 1 Tim. iii. 1, the office of the Presbyters is called &TT LOKOT71, and imme diately after, the office of Deacons is mentioned as the only other ecclesiastical office extant, precisely as in Phil. i. 1, and also when Paul charges Titus to appoint Presbyters, be immediately afterwards calls them Bishops. It is certain, therefore, that every church was governed by a union of congregational elders or overseers, chosen from its midst; and we find among them no such distinction as would warrant the conclusion that one presided as primus inter pares, a distinction which was first introduced in the age succeeding that of the Apostles, (respecting which we possess so few genuine documents,) when such an individual obtained by way of eminence, the name of ¢ ALOKOTOS."

We understand that a translation of this interesting work has been published in America, but have reason to think that few or no copies have yet reached this country. It highly deserves the attention of all who wish to make themselves acquainted with the results of investigations respecting the earliest Christian antiquities, which have been instituted by one of the most profound ecclesiastical historians of the present day.

CRITICAL NOTICE. Apology for Parochial Education on comprehensive principles, more particularly

as illustrated in the School of Industry at Great Berkhamstead; with an Answer to certain statements, lately published by the Rev. Sir John H. Seymour. Bart., Rector of Berkhamstead, St. Mary's. By Augustus Smith, Esq.

London : Hyde, 1836, pp. 88. EDUCATION, as connected with the church of England, presents some curious illustrations of the virtue of consistency, illustrations of which, we have been reminded, while reading this pamphlet. Not many years ago, the great body of the church of England clergy were hostile to the instruction of the poor ; but no sooner were the dissenters fairly engaged in the work, than they became converts to its necessity; exhibiting in themselves a rare specimen of the sudden conversion, against which some of them, fearful, perhaps, that the profligate might too soon become virtuous, have very judiciously declaimed in the pulpit. Every body knows the amount of religious instruction, which is obtained at Eton or Westminster, and other places of patrician education, and yet, should a few benevolent persons combine to instruct a portion of the neglected, and half-brutalized population, to read the Bible, to write, and to cast up accounts, the conscience of some clergyman, which was quite at ease, while the people were living in savage ignorance, is most sorely distressed, at the exclusion of the church catechism. It is not very frequently, we apprehend, that the lads at Harrow and Winchester, our prospective legislators and lord bishops, are marshalled, even on Sundays, to say their catechism; and yet if the child of a non-conformist enters into a parish school, to acquire the rudiments of knowledge, the conscience of the reverend rector, who, perchance, some few years before, was a placid, peacefully minded usher, at this same Harrow, or this same Winchester, is in a dreadful commotion, because he is not allowed during six days in the week, with his gothic formulary in hand, to indoctrinate this poor little dissenter. The dissenter, that busy, factious creature, who is always labouring to pull the church down, is quite content, that in the accomplishment of a scheme of general education, the peculiarities of his belief should be thrown into the shade, but the thorough-paced churchman is no sooner assured of the absence of his catechism, than he tells you he cannot jeopard his salvation by its neglect, albeit he would feel his salvation quite secure, in the absence of the catechism, provided the bible were absent too. In Ireland, according to the clergy of the united church, the Bible alone is a proper basis for national education; but in England, this same Bible, unsubjected, no doubt, in our profane land, to the incantations of Saint Patrick, is assuredly a pestilential book, unless the parson be neutralized by the church catechism. “ So much may suffice," as good Archbishop Tillotson would have said, “ for consistency and sincerity."

The circumstances detailed in this publication are as follows. Some benevolent persons in Berkhamstead, belonging to different religious denominations commenced a parochial school, not absolutely connected with the British and Foreign School Society, but still, open to persons of every religious community. The rector of Great Berkhamstead, who was placed at the head of the committee, with a wonderful stretch of charity, declared himself willing to admit the children of dissenters, provided their parents would allow them to be instructed in the principles of the church. The supporters of the school, not symbolizing with the rector's notions of charity, an opposition school, on the exclusive, and, we must be forgiven if we add, sectarian and antichristian principles of the National School Society, was instituted.

Mr. Croft, the rector of Great Berkhamstead, assigned no very distinct reason, for refusing to countenance the parochial school. Sir John Seymour, the rector of Berkhamstead, St. Mary's, was more explicit. His conscience was too tender to allow him, to be the advocate of “indistinctness of doctrine, and an unsettled faith.” Could a museum be established for rare specimens of conscience, we really think, that this gentleman's conscience would deserve a place of distinguished prominence. What this same conscience cannot do, and what it can do, are both remarkable in their way. This conscience cannot allow its unfortunate

owner to teach poor children the indistinct and unsettled bible, without teaching them the distinct and settled catechism, it cannot allow him to teach them truths which he believes, without teaching them a creed, which their parents partly disbelieve, and, at the same time, without doing his part, to make the children through life regardless of truth, by teaching these unhappy little creatures to say they had sponsors, when they know, that they had none, to say that certain promises were made for them in baptism, when they know, that no such promises were made, and that, consequently, they ure uttering a falsehood. And yet this conscience can allow its owner to hold two prebends and two rectories; it can allow him, so far at least, as the second rectory is concerned, solemnly, and from the hands of the Omniscient Judge, to undertake the most important duties, which he has never discharged, and which, when he thus solemnly undertook them, he never intended to discharge. Most sincerely do we wish, that this strange specimen of conscience, this monstrum cui lumen ademptum, were unique.

During the stormy contests of the last two or three years, much as we love liberty, we have often sighed for peace. We have often said to ourselves, and to our fellows, who like ourselves, are for conscience sake separated from our brethren, let us solace our minds with the present enjoyments of religion, and with the prospect of a state, where no injustice, injustice attempting to hide its deformity, under a vision of sanctity, shall exist; thus, let us cease to strive with our brethren, with many of whom, we may hope for the equal intercourse in heaven, which is denied by the arrogance of earth. We may, sometimes, have blamed the asperity of our non-conformist brethren, in the conduct of recent controversies, not having forgotten, as in the sight of the heart-searcbing God, to take a full portion of the blame to ourselves. But when we recollect the injustice, which during nearly three long centuries, the successive races of non-conformists have received from the dominant party in this nation, we believe, that whatever errors we may have committed, we shall obtain the merciful consideration of Him, who has taught, even the worm to rise against the foot which crushes it. The spirit of the Tudors' and the Stuarts', the Whitgifts' and the Lauds', is cowed, but it is not dead; it has assumed a fresh metastasis, but it still walks abroad, through the whole length and breadth of the land. Still, we find it, first, treating us as aliens, in the country which gave us birth, the country of our fathers for fifty generations, and then, insulting us as anti-national ;--refusing our co-operation in schemes of general usefulness, unless we bend our necks to the yoke. Thus situated, we commit our cause to the just God, and as an act of obedience to our heavenly sovereign, we pledge ourselves to Him, that we will spare no effort to break the domination, which is as injurious to our opposers, as it is oppressive to ourselves. Meanwhile, we tender our best thanks to enlightened and liberal episcopalians, like the author of the pamphlet before us - assured that though assailed by suspicions and reproach, they have a far better reward than any thanks of our's, in the approbation of their consciences, and in the plaudit of their God.

We should be doing an injustice to the author, if we withheld from our readers a specimen of his sentiments, and of the mode, in which he conveys them.

* It behoves us to remember that the dissenters were not only the first to take the lead in promoting the education of the people, but that, as a body, they have ever been, and are, more zealous in the work than the members of the church. They seem to be, indeed, much more deeply impressed with the necessity and blessings of education. There appears to be something in the dissenting system besides, which depending in great measure on the voluntary exertion of its members, early initiates all its adherents in the duties and practice of tuition, and hence is probably the reason of the superiority of the British over the National School teachers. The one take up the office of teacher, merely as a profession, by which to gain a livelihood; while the other more frequently engage in the duties from taking a lively interest in the subject itself.” p. 37.

We trust our readers will not fail to peruse the “Apology for Parochial Education, especially such of them as are more deeply interested in the work of education.

Brief Records of the Independent Church at Beccles, Suffolk; including Biographical Notices of its Ministers, and some Account of the Rise of Nonconformity in the East Anglian Counties. By Samuel Wilton Rix. London: Jackson and Walford. 12mo. 38. 1837.

Memoir of the Rev. Rowland Hill, M.A. By William Jones, Author of Testamentary Counsels. With a Preface, by Rev. James Sherman, of Surrey Chapel. Fisher, Son, and Co. London, Paris, and New York.

Mrs. Henderson's Scripture Lessons, Part V. 18mo. Price 6d. Hamilton, Adams, and Co.

The Life and Persecutions of Martin Boos, an Evangelical Preacher of the Romish Church; chiefly written by himself, and edited by the Rev. J. Gossner Translated from the German: with a Preface, by the Rev. C. Bridges, M.A. Vicar of Old Newton. Seeley and Burnside. 12mo. 1836.

Britannia ; or the Moral Claims of Seamen stated and enforced. An Essay in Three Parts, by the Rev. John Harris, Author of “Mammon;" the “Great Teacher;" the “Christian Citizen," &c. Ward and Co. 1837. 8vo.

The Response of the Church to the Promise of the Second Coming of the Lord. A Discourse delivered on the occasion of the lamented Death of the late Mr. Heudebourck, of Taunton. By George Payne, LL.D. Exeter. To which is added, a Short Memoir of the Deceased; by a Member of the Family. Hamilton, Adams, and Co. 1837. 8vo. ls.

Spiritual Crumbs from the Master's Table. By Gerhard Zersheegen. Translated from the German; by Samuel Jackson. John F. Shaw. 1837. 12mo.

Christ in Believers the Hope of Glory: being the substance of several Sermons. By Rev. John Brown. With an Introductory Sketch; by Rev. J. Macdonald, A.M. John F. Shaw. 1837. 12mo.

Prayers for Morning and Evening Worship. Intended for the Use of Schools and large Families. By M. S. Haynes. Edinburgh, Oliphant and Son. 1837. 12mo.

The Little Villager's Verse Book; consisting of Short Verses for Children to learn by heart; in which the most familiar images of country life are applied to excite the first feelings of humanity and piety. To which is added, a Brief Account of the Parsonage House and Garden; also, Village Epitaphs; by Rev. W. L. Bowles, M.A. M.R.S.L. and Canon Residentiary of Sarum. Second Series. Simpkin and Co. 18mo.

Family Poetry, chiefly devotional. London: Tilt. 1837.

Sunday Scholar's Annual and Juvenile Offering. Edited by Rev. J. Burns. London: Whiteman. 1837.

Pastoral Appeals on Conversion. By Rev. Charles Stovel. London: Jackson and Walford. 1837.

Britain's Glory in the Evangelization of her Seamen: in which is considered, their Importance to the Empire; their Number; their Present Condition the Means existing for their Religious Welfare; the Means required for their Evangelization; and their Claims upon their Country. By Thomas Timpson. G. Highman. 1837. 18mo.

Recollections of David Davidson, who died at the Age of Seven Years and Eight Months. By his Father, Rev. David Davidson, Broughty Ferry. Edinburgh, Oliphant and Son. 1837. 9d.

Spring, or the Causes, Appearances, and Effects of the Seasonal Renovations of Nature in all Climates, by R. Mudie. London: Ward and Co. 12mo.

Temptation, a Treatise on Satanic Influence. By Samuel Ransom. London. Ward and Co. 1837. 18mo.

Sacred Philosophy of the Seasons, illustrating the Perfections of God in the Phenomena of the Year. By the Rev. H. Duncan, D. D. Ruthwell. Spring. Edinburgh: Oliphant and Son. 1837. 12mo.

The Manners of the Ancient Israelites; containing an account of their Peculiar Customs, Ceremonies, Laws, Polity, Religion, Sects, Arts, and Trades, their Division of Time, Wars, Captivities, Dispersion, and Present State ; written originally in French, by Claude Fleury; with a short account of Ancient and Modern Samaritans; the whole much enlarged from the principal writers of Jewish Antiquities. By Adam Clarke, LL.D. The Fifth Edition, with many additions and improvements. London. Tegg and Son. 12mo. 1837.

The Twelfth and last part of the Condensed Commentary and Family Exposition of the Holy Bible. By the Rev. Ingram Cobbin. Ward and Co. 1837. Imperial 8vo. and medium 4to.

TRANSACTIONS OF THE CONGREGATIONAL CHURCHES

AT HOME AND ABROAD.

CONGREGATIONAL LECTURE FOR 1837. We are happy to present our readers with the syllabus of the fifth conrse of the Congregational Lectures, which will consist of nine discourses, to be delivered by the Rev. George Redford, D.D., LL.D., at the Congregational Library, Blomfield Street, Finsbury Circus.

The Lecture will commence on Tuesday, April 4th, and be continued every succeeding Friday and Tuesday, at half-past six o'clock precisely.

SUBJECT:-Holy Scripture verified; or, the Divine Authority of the Bible confirmed by an Appeal to facts of Science, History, and Human Consciousness. LECTURE I, Tuesday, April 4th.-The physical and natural Circumstances of

Man, and the Creation in the midst of which he is placed. General Introduction; Date of the Creation ; Extinct Kaces ; Geological Epochs; Origin of the Human Race in a single Pair; Man's dominion over the Mundane Creation; The Social Propensity; The Sentence denounced on the Man and Woman respectively after the Fall.

LECTURE II. Friday, April 7th.-Same Subject continued. Traces of a Universal Deluge; The Covenant with Noah; The Rainbow, &c.; Tower of Babel ; Confusion of Languages; Origin of Nations; Tripartite Division of Mankind; Traditions of the Place whence the Human Tribes originally diverged; Principal Divisions of the Human Family; Prophecy of Noah respecting his Sons, &c. LECTURE III. Tuesday, April 11th.-The mental and moral Condition of Human

Nature as corroborative of the Biblical Doctrine of the Fall. Adaptation of the Mental and Moral Economy to the Social Relations and Personal Interests; The Doctrine of a Moral Apostacy-how it may be expected to affect our Nature-realized in Suffering, Mental and Bodily ; Social and Individual Degradation combined with traces of Primitive Excellence; Aversion from Moral Goodness; Objections and Specnlative Theories; Contrarieties and Contradictions; Notions of Human Perfectibility ; Passion for Immortality; Loss of the Knowledge of God, and thereby.of the Supreme Good; General Summary of this Review. LECTURE IV. Friday, April 14th. The Coincidences between the Doctrines of

Revelation and the Principles of the Divine and Moral Government, as deducible from the Facts which appear in the History and Constitution of Human Nature. General Explanation and Limitation of the Argument; Moral Government explained; Efficiency and Universality of its Jaws; Recognition of the Beiug and Perfection of a Supreme Governor; Vice attended with Suffering; Tendency of Virtue to well-being; Doctrine of Providence; Power and Universality of Conscience; Instinctive Propensity to Prayer ; Indelible Sense of Future Accountableness. LECTURE V. Tuesday, April 18th. Scriptural Scheme for the Universal Restora

tion of Mankind to Virtue and Happiness. The Bible proposes the Recovery of Man; Exhibits the Means; Assures the Result; The only Religion that ever proposed such an Object; Distinguished by a Universal Character and Adaptation ; Perfection of its Standard of Morals and Piety universally confessed; Objections against its Divinity; Representations of the Neologists examined ; Divinity of the Gospel proved from its Character and Effects. LECTURE VI. Friday, April 21st. The Origin, Perpetuity, and History of a

Special Society, distinct from the World, uniformly characterized by certain Peculiarities of Principle and Practice, denominated the Church, or People of God.

Origin of the Christian Community traced up to Judea and the Time of the Cæsars; The Jewish Church traced up to Moses, thence to Abraham; Patriarchal Religion traced to Noah; Continuity of its Profession from Adam; In what it consisted. VOL. I. N.S.

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