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slender, and expenses very great; that the terms I had to offer him were these : that two people should be at the captain's table only (Mr. and Mrs. C.); that two cabins only would be required ; and that two persons (Mrs. C.'s sister and myself) would go as attendants, and receive their dinner from or with the servants, or any way whatever, that would be convenient to the captain ; that for these accommodations I had three hundred guineas to offer him. I was moved with wonder, to see the hand of God on this occasion, in his accepting these terms, the lowest, I suppose, that ever were heard of. He said what wrought the most with him, was such a large family being actually advanced to go.
“ • Within twenty-four hours after our arrival in London, Mr. Carey and his family embarked for Dover, to catch the ship in passing, while I set off for Portsmouth to fetch the baggage. It would be too late if I brought it by land; and it was so dangerous to go by water, that the boatmen refused large sums, saying the Channel was full of privateers from France, which came hovering close on our coasts. At last, one man undertook to go in an open boat for twenty guineas. Terrified as I was lest the ship should pass by, yet I refused to give this sum ; and I spent two whole days in searching for a man, till a fisherman took me for nine guineas. In twenty-four hours more I arrived at Dover, having ran through all the privateers in the dark, if there were any, and met my brother Carey with great gladness of heart, and, without any other evil occurrent, embarked on board the Kron Princessa Maria, as you have heard. There, indeed, we could not expect the captain to treat us all as passengers, or to be very well pleased with such a crowd of people and such little money. But who can cease wondering, or praising, to find the captain gladly receive us all with the utmost tenderness and concern, admitting all to his table, and furnishing us all with handsome cabins.'"-pp. 91–97.
· Thus Denmark which, though now unhappily deluged by the Socinianism and Neology of Germany, once patronized the Moravians in Greenland, and encouraged their exertions in its West Indian possessions, which by their means attempted to evangelize the Nicobar Islands, and long cherished their successful toils on the coast of Malabar, now providentially furnished a passage for the earliest Baptist missionaries, and subsequently, when rejected by their countrymen in India, received them to its hospitable settlement at Serampore. These are honours which excel political superiority, and will surely be remembered by him who records and recompenses " a cup of cold water.”
The trials of Mr. Carey did not terminate with his voyage. The contracted means with which he had sailed, and the improvidence of his companion, whose aberrations at length terminated in derangement, reduced him to great extremities. A situation as superintendent of an indigo factory extricated him from impending want, and afforded him many facilities for acquiring the conversational language of the natives. Nor do we perceive how he could, with propriety, have declined a commercial station which, although not contemplated by his friends in England, and which ordinarily must be highly injurious to missionary consecration, was urged upon him by irresistible necessity, and justified by apostolic precedent. In this employment, at Mudnababby, he received a comfortable salary, and immediately manifested his disinterestedness by declining, for the time, the pecuniary aid of the society at home, by which he had been patronized. His position will be better understood by an extract from one of his letters.
.«« The particulars of my situation I mentioned in that letter, and only observe to you that a more eligible situation could not have been chosen. Mr. T. and I are only sixteen miles distant from each other, and our respective factories will furnish support for several thousands of people; so that there will be a comfortable and honourable asylum for all who lose caste for the
"• I have not yet seen Parbotee. Moonshi is with me, and I hope is a real Christian, but wants zeal and fortitude: he has not yet lost caste. Mohun Chund professes more zeal than Moonsbi, but there is something suspicious in him. It is very difficult to get these people together : travelling is expensive, and they are all poor; though Moonshi's was one of the first families in that part of Bengal, till ruined by Mr. Hastings. We are now just upon the point of forming a gospel church, which I hope may be prosperous,
“ As for the dangers and difficulties of the country, we think very little about them. Some diseases are very common here; as dysentery, which generally arises from the coldness of the night air, after the beat of the day. With this disorder my wife and eldest son have been afflicted for eight months : my wife is nearly well, but my son very ill now. Fevers are frequent in the rains, or rather agues; perhaps arising from the number of rice-fields which are full of water. But the country agrees better with my health than England did : I never was better in my life.
“ We have no fear of beasts, though there are many buffaloes, hogs, and tigers in our neighbourhood. Tigers seldom attack men, but comimit dreadful devastation among cattle ; except those of the Sunderbunds, a very large forest near the sea, where there are no catile; there they seize men. Serpents are numerous; and some so mortal that the patient never survives two hours, and often dies in five minutes ; but they give us no concern, or very little. Crocodiles no man minds: I have one in a pond about ten yards from my door, yet sleep with the door open every night. The whole country is one large valley or plain, without a hill ten feet high, unless made by art, or a single spring of water. The Ganges and Berhampooter run quite through it; each of them about three miles wide upon an average, though in many places ten, with large inhabited islands in the middle; and these branch out into some hundreds of rivers more, many as large as the Thames. Major Rennel's map, or rather atlas, of India, will give you a very just idea of the geography of this country; and Sonnerat's voyage will furnish you with the best epitome of Hindu mythology extant : allowing for the different writing of names in different dialects, he has related the whole in a very just and impartial manner.
“• The language is very copious, and I think beautiful. I begin to converse in it a lilile; but my third son, about five years old, speaks it fluently. Indeed, there are two distinct languages spoken all over the country, viz., the Bengali, spoken by the Brahmuns and higher Hindus ; and the Hindostani, spoken by the Mussulmans and lower Hindus, which is a mixture of Bengali and Persian. I intend to send you soon a copy of Genesis, Matthew, Mark, and James, in Bengali; with a small vocabulary and grammar of the language, in manuscript, of my own composing, to which you will afford a place on one of the shelves in your library. I have written to the society to stop my allowance, as I am amply provided for: perhaps it might be acceptable to Mr. Thomas to continue his a little longer on account of his debts.
“ I cannot say much about myself. I intend to send my journal soon; but it only relates to myself, or very little to other things. However, I may express my hope, nay, I may say contidence, that God, who has so astonishingly made our way plain and clear, will bless the word to the conversion of many, and thus crown the wishes of the praying ministers and people in England. ...
" At present, being incapable of preaching, I can say nothing of success; but my heart is engaged in the work, and I know that God can convert the most obstinate and superstitious, and has promised to do it. This is the VOL. I. N. s.
foundation of my hope, and in this confidence I engage in the work.'”pp. 193—195.
A letter of later date will more distinctly exhibit the missionary efforts of Mr. C. at this period.
" I wish to say something about the manner of my preaching, but scarcely know how. As a specimen, however, I will just describe one season at a large village, about four miles from Mudnabatty, called Chinsurab. I went one Lord's day afternoon to this place, attended by a few persons from Mudrabatty. When I got into the town, I saw an idolatrous temple, built very finely with bricks. In order to excite attention, I asked what place that was; they said it was Thakoorannee, that is, a Debta. I asked if it was alive; they said, yes; well, said I, I will see her, and accordingly went towards the place, when they all called out, No Sir, no, it is only a stone.' I however mounted the steps, and began to talk about the folly and wickedness of idolatry. A bazar or market, near, was very noisy; I therefore removed to a little distance under a tamarind-tree, where we began by singing the hymn, . () who besides can deliver.' By this time a pretty large concourse of people was assembled, and I began to discourse with them upon the things of God. It is obvious that giving out a text, and regularly dividing it, could not be of any use lo those who never heard a word of the Bible in their lives; I therefore dwelt upon the worth of the soul and its fallen state, the guilt of all men who had broken God's righteous law, and the impossibilty of obtaining pardon without a full satisfaction to divine justice. I then inquired what way of life consistent with the justice of God was proposed in any of their shastras. They, said I, speak of nine incarnations of Vishnu past, and one to come, yet not one of them for the salvation of a sinner. They were only to preserve a family, kill a giant, make war against tyrants, &c.; all which God could have accomplished as well without these incarnations. An incarnation of the Deity, said I, is a matter of too great importance to take place in so ludicrous a manner, and for such mean ends and purposes. The Mutchee Obeetar, or fish incarnation, said I, was to become the rudder of a boat, and preserve a family in a great food; and the wild hog incarnation was to kill a giant, and draw up the earth out of the sea when it was sinking; but this, God who created it could have accomplished without any such interposition. I then observed how miserable they were, whose religion only respected the body, and whose shastras could point out no salvation for ihe sinner. I then spoke of the way of life by Christ, his substitution in our place, suffering in the sinner's stead, and the like.
“'At another place I preached from Christ being a blessing, sent to bless in turning every ore from his iniquities. I observed the superiority of the gospel to all other writings, and Christ to all pretended saviours in that point; that believing on Christ was universally accompanied with turning from iniquity; and that their worship must be false, for they made images and offerings to them, and were abundant in their worship, but, said I, there is not a man of you yet tumved from his iniquity. There are among you liars, thieves, whoremongers, and men filled with deceit. And as you were last year so you are this, not any more holy; nor can you ever be so, till you throw off your wicked worship and wicked practices, and embrace the gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ.
"'This is the method of preaching that I use among them; nothing of this kind affronts them; many wish to hear; many, however, abhor the thoughts of the gospel. The Brahmuns fear to lose their gain; the higher castes, their honour; and the poor tremble at the vengeance of their debtas. Thus we hare been unsuccessful.
« • I sometimes preach twice a week, sometimes twice a day, as opportunity presents itself; and the translation of the word of God is my every day's work.'"- pp. 255-258.
(To be concluded in our next.)
FOREIGN THEOLOGICAL LITERATURE.
Geschichte der Pflanzung und Leitung der Christlichen Kirche
durch die Apostel, fc. “ The History of the Planting and Government of the Christian Church by the Apostles." By Dr. Augustus Neander. Vol. I. II. Hamburgh. 1832, 1833.
8vo. pp. 745. This is altogether a separate work from the important history of the Church which is in the course of publication by the same author, and part of which was translated into English, some years ago, by the Rev. H. Rose. It contains the results of his close attention to a number of minute points, connected with the establishment and early development of Christianity, to which he could not do full justice in his larger work. In the first chapter a particular investigation of the events on the day of Pentecost is instituted ; the primary form and germ of the Christian fellowship and worship are described ; and an account is given of the external condition of the first churches, their persecutions, and the consequences which followed. The Second Chapter treats of the point of transition by which Christianity passed into the Gentile world, and its diffusion by the church at Jerusalem among different pagan nations. The Third is chiefly occupied with the history, travels, labours, and writings of Paul, and the development of the principles of church government among the Gentile Christians. No topic of any importance, connected with the statements contained in the Acts and in the Epistles of Paul is here passed over; and many of the subjects are gone into at considerable length, and in the most interesting manner. The Fourth Chapter is occupied with the exertions of James and Peter, both as it respects their preaching and their writings; and the Fifth discusses whatever relates to the history and writings of John. The Sixth is entitled “The Apostolic Doctrine," and exhibits the particular aspects which it assumed, as developed by the four Apostles, Paul, Peter, James and John. Here the terms vojos, apapria, OLKALOOUVN, capě, avevua, amolutpwois, owinpia, FLOTIS, &c., are specially examined, and the importance which attaches to them is forcibly pointed out. The whole forms an admirable commentary on the facts presented to our notice in the latter half of the New Testament. .
Our readers will recollect how Mr. Rose was perplexed by the republican views of the government of the primitive church, so very undisguisedly set forth by Dr. Neander in the first volume of his Church History, and what efforts that high churchman made to counteract by his notes these views as exhibited in the text. It would appear, indeed, that there existed so little sympathy between the author and his translator, trammelled as the latter was by his church politics, that it was found necessary to abandon altogether the prosecution of the work in its English dress. Many of the opinions which had there been freely expressed, are stated more at large in the history before us ; some that few perhaps will be found
in this country to adopt without reservation ; but assuredly most of those which relate to the apostolical church order and government, run directly counter to the pretensions of prelatical episcopacy. The following are some of the statements advanced on this subject. Vol. I. p. 110.
“ The forms in which, at first, the constitution of the Christian society developed itself, were, as we have already observed, adapted to those social forms which already existed among the Jews. But these forms, having thus originated among the Jews, would never have gained admittance into the independent churches collected among the heathen, or been continued in them, if they had not been in accordance with the very nature of Christianity, and calculated by their exhibition to promote its objects. It was this peculiarity in the nature of the Christian society which could not but distinguish the religion of Jesus from all other religions; especially as Christianity, having broken up the forms of Judaism, stood forth with free and independent mien in the churches of the gentiles. Christ having once met the religious wants of men, in the feeling of which arose the universal idea of a priesthood, and having, by the redemption which he effected on behalf of mankind, relieved their deep-felt conviction of the necessity of a mediator between God and man the result of that separation from the Divine Being which was the consequence of sin—there was no room left for any other mediation. Accordingly, when in the apostolic writings, the Old Testament ideas of priesthood, sacerdotal services and offerings, are applied to the new dispensation, it is only done to show, that since the Redeemer has once for all realized that to which the priesthood and sacrifices of the Old Testament pointed, namely, the reconciliation of man with God; all who appropriate by faith what he has done on behalf of the human race, stand in precisely the same relation to each other, requiring no other mediation ; all being, in virtue of their union with Christ, consecrated to God, called to present their whole life as a spiritual offering of gratitude, well-pleasing to God, and to devote all their energies as the service of a spiritual priesthood, so that Christians constitute a divine state, made up purely of priests, Rom. xii. 1; 1 Pet. ii. 9. This idea of a universal priesthood of all Christians, proceeding from and founded solely on the consciousness of redemption, is in part definitely stated and developed, and partly presupposed in the predicates, figures, and comparisons which are applied to the Christian life.
"Now as all the believers had the same conviction of an identical common relation to Christ as their Redeemer, and participated in the fellowship with God which he had procured for them, it naturally involved a similar relation among themselves mutually, and dissolved every relation of the kind obtaining in other systems of religion, between a sacerdotal caste and the people on whose behalf they mediated with the deity. So far were the apostles from representing themselves as standing in any relation to the faithful that would convey the idea of priestly mediation, that they uniformly placed themselves on the same footing with them in this respect. As Paul assures the churches that he presented supplications for them, so on the other hand he also solicits them to present theirs for him. Thus it was determined that there should not be in the Christian church any who, like the priests of antiquity, should be the sole depositaries of esoteric doctrines, holding the unipitiated multitude in absolute dependance, and claiming the sole right of calling forth, guiding, and controlling the religious principle. Sueh a relation would have been diametrically opposed to a sense of equal dependance upon Christ, equal connexion with him, and an equal life in him, as the common Redeemer.
« Though the different gifts of the Spirit had been conferred upon individuals according to their peculiar adaptations, and no one was to exert a separate or exclusive influence over the church, but all, as composing different members of one whole were to grow up to the common Ilead by whom they were