deprive the reader of the thread to conduct him through the epistle, which must otherwise prove to him a mazy labyrinth. The difficulty, however, of this explanation must at once appear, when it is stated that, among all the interpreters with whom I am acquainted, scarcely two are to be found, who entirely agree, and I must confess, there is not so much as one to whose views I could subscribe. I shall therefore attempt a method of my own; and when this is done, examine the principal expositions of others.--Alaloovun denotes, not only in the N. T. generally, but also in certain parts of the writings of Paul himself, righteousness or virtue in general, see ver. 13, &c. 2 Cor. vi. 14, ix. 10. Eph. iv. 24, v. 9, vi. 14. The phrase dikuloovun cou would, at first sight, seem to convey no other idea than that of a property or perfection of God, or something in God analogous to righteousness or moral rectitude. But if we attempt to introduce this idea into the present passage, it will at once be seen that it neither suits the text, nor the doctrine of the apostle, of which every reader must be supposed to know at least so much, that it vindicates no claims to the divine justice. If we have recourse to Hebrew usage, according to which p78 and 17p78 are used even where we can only conceive of the goodness of God, we should obtain a meaning, which in itself is not to be condemned : 'in the gospel, the goodness of God is manifested to those who believe.' It cannot, therefore, be matter of surprise that we find expositors, who thus construe the phrase in the passage before us; such as Schöttgen, Semler, Morus, and at bottom Rosenmüller, who translates : beneficium. But to the rejection of this construction, I am led, 1. By the observation that in truth the Hebrew words just quoted signify nothing but righteousness, in so far as the Jewish people expected the divine benefits, not so much from the free goodness of God, as much more from his covenant fidelity, and in so far regarded them as proofs of his truth and rectitude. See my Christ. Philos. pt. i. p. 416, &c. 2. This idea will not suit other passages in which dik. Ocov occurs, as ch. iii. 21, 22, 25, 26. x. 3, which passages obviously treat of the great object of the epistle. Paul cannot have employed this expression differently in the proposition of his theme, than he does in the discussion of it. Here, therefore, the province of philological enquiry closes, and we are compelled to proceed by another path, which I may call the historico-dogmatical: viz. to develope from the ideas which Paul brought with him out of a state of Judaism, how the leading conception of the doctrine of salvation which he preached, presented itself to his mind, in order that we may obtain a key by which to unlock all the several passages. Now pily, Greek ÒLKALOS, was the highest ethical idea of the Hebrews. It denotes, indeed, like all moral terms, some individual virtue; but it not only constantly inclines to a more indefinite universality, but also designates one who has reached the highest perfection, of which the Jews had any notion ; namely, the perfection of him who has entirely fulfilled the law of God. But as all legal virtue is selfish, the idea of reward, (i.e. the divine approbation and the blessings springing from it,) was combined with it. p'98, therefore, was one who had by an uninterrupted observance of the law, acquired the approbation of God. His condition, when expressed by a substantive, was that of op7x, dikalovvn. Consequently ducalourn is the state of one who is subject to law, who by his obedience to the law, renders himself an object of the divine love. It is a dukalovyn, not merely before the tribunal of conscience, but before that of Jehovah: δικ. ένωπιον του Θεου, or παρα τω Θεω; it originates in obedience to law, consequently depends upon the law, and is thus dik. és Tov vopov; and being man's own acquired property, is ida dik. All this we are taught by Paul himself. He shews us that the Jews sought after Okaloouun (Rom. x. 3. Comp. ix. 30, &c ); that Moses describes the dialoouun éK TOV vouov (x. 5, where the words ο ποιησας αυτα ανθρωπος ζησεται εν αυτοις clearly shew us the nature of this dek.); he admits, also, that whoever really fulfils the law, will be just according to God's own judgment (Tapa T. 0. ii. 13); he calls such a dus one that is self-acquired, or which properly belongs to the person who has acquired it (x. 3. Phil. iii. 9.) It is further evident, that if man could acquire this dok. himself, he would, according to the ideas of the Hebrews, have a claim to those rewards, with a view to which it was rendered ; consequently, in blessing him, God would only give him what he had merited, or that which was justly his due. But now the question was: Is it, or is it not possible for man to become Oikatos? That no one could be such from his birth, was obvious from the nature of the case, since the fulfilment of the law must precede OLK.; but that it was attainable, it was scarcely possible for a Jew to deny. But here the Paulinechristian view divaricates entirely from the Jewish. By a long course of vain effort under the law, Paul had reached the conviction, that it was impossible for man to render it a perfect obedience, consequently that he could attain to no dik. of his own; the result of which conviction was, that on another way of salvation being presented to him, or rather being forced upon him, he entirely abandoned Judaism, and adopted it without any reserve. From that time he taught mankind, and the Jews in particular, that they had not only not fulfilled the law, (Rom. iii. 9—19); but that they could not fulfil it, (vii. 7, &c.); yea, that God himself, mankind having become sinners, had so ordered it that they could not do it, in order to magnify the glory of his grace, (xi. 32. Gal. iii. 22.) Men, both Jews and Gentiles, without exception, have sinned, and rendered themselves incapable of fulfilling the law, which only plunges thein more deeply in sin (iii. 23. viii. in var. places); to obtain DIKALOO vrn, therefore by the law is impossible (Gal. ii. 16, 21. iii. 21); the law only works death. Now since there is but this one way of obtaining a personal righteousness, namely, by rendering a perfect obedience io the law, and this is shut up, we must either relinquish all idea of becoming dik, and thus remain obnoxious to unavoidable perdition; or we must find a deliverer, who will knock off our shackles, (vii. 25,) and impart to us a dikaloouun, which, indeed in such case, will not be self-acquired, but & matter of pure favour. Such bestowment, however, can only be made by God. If, therefore, man who is á dikos is to be become DIKALOS, he must be made so by God, which can only be done, by his cancelling his past guilt, and henceforward treating him as if he were dikalos, which strictly speaking he is not. To express this, the term kaloũy must be employed, which explains to us such passages as iv. 5. Gal. iii, 8. (In the LXX. the word signifies to absolve. Exod. xxiii. 7. Isaiah v. 23, it is used for p'987). Now God has actually effected this by making atonement for the sins of the world by the death of Christ : so that from that period, he offers &ikalosurn to all, without any merit on their part, merely of grace-altogether gratuitously--with this only condition, that they receive the salvation, which he has provided, with believing confidence, just as it is presented to them. (iii. 20—30. iv. 5. v. 1, 9. Gal. ii. 16. iii. 11). This dialoouun, then is not idia; it is not EK TOV vouov, but ek TOV Ocov (Phil. iii. 7; it is wrought out or rendered possible by the death of Christ, who is on this account called our dikaloouum (1 Cor. i. 30 ); it is given by God to such as believe

Comp. iv. 11, 13. OLKALOS. MLOTEWC, i. E. EK MIOTEWS, genit. subj. or caussa efficientis ; v. 17. cwpea ons duk. 21. ix. 30. x. 6. Gal. v. 4, &c.) It consists in the state (or the relation to God) of bim, whom God has by pardoning his sins, received into favour, to treat him as duralos out of mere grace, and to impart to him the enjoyment of his rich goodness. God is the Author, Christ the Mediator, the recipient sinful man, the medium faith in the finished atonement, and the promise made in the gospel." itempris 942 is most in

We shall not trouble our readers by extending this extract to an exhibition of the numerous and discordant opinions of other expositors, but proceed to lay before them one from Reiche, on the very important term iXaornprov, Rom. iii. 25, and with it close the present article.

_"'Ilaotiprov, from the adjective idaornprog (ilaw) belonging to atonement, possessing and exercising expiatory power, like kavTEPLOC, ownpios. Erasmus, an article in the Berl. Bible, 1750, p. 578, Wahl and Vater take it to signify reconciliatorem. It is never, however, used by itself, of men, but only of things which possess an atoning virtue. Besides, to construe òy with an adjective following is harsh. According to Goodwin, Moses and Aaron, I. 1. Icken de propitiatorio, 1. 2. Piscator, Limborch and Semler, the neuter signifying that which atones, the atonement, stands for the conerete, just as Christ is said, 2 Cor. v. 21, to be åpapria. Thus also the Syriac, and perhaps the Vulgate propitiationem, which Elsner and Moldenhauer propose. But the neuter appears too indefinite and frigid for the intuitive style of the apostle, and the tone of the passage before us, in which we naturally expect a word that will furnish some delerroinately physical or spiritual view of the subject.

“Os consulting the usus loquendi of the apostolic age, we find two significations of the words as a substantive: 1. It is unquestionably used to signify the covering of the ark of the covenant. The LXX. often translate n?? (797 to cover, especially in Piel, to cover, remove, expiate sin) hy ilaornplov. They either had respect only to the signification in Piel—that which belonged to atonementa covering; or they expressed both significations of 757, on the principle, that the lid or cover of the ark was called N 2 on account of its being sprinkled with the blood of atonement. The latter is the more probable, since they combine idagtnpIOVETLOeua, Exod, xxv. 17, xxxvii. 6. of which phrase en ideua has unjustly been supposed to be a gloss. Josephus, in his Antiq. translates it properly by én ideua alone. Nevertheless, in the time of the apostles, iduotnplov was very commonly employed to denote the lid of the ark, Philo Vit. Mos. III. p. 668. énibea apoonyopevojevov idaotnplov; de profug p. 465. to ériDepa ins Kufwrov. Kalec d'autov idaornprov. Heb. ix. 5. In the former of the pas. sages just adduced from Philo, mwua idaot nplov also occurs, from which it is evident that usage had a constant regard to the adjective signification of the term. The itaornoLov was a golden plate which lay upon the ark of the corenant, Between the cherubim which overshadowed it was the invisible throne of Jehovah; and Jehovah himself was conceived of as present, Exod. xxv. 22. Num. vii. 8. 9: here the clouds of light, the veil of the deity, appeared. On this lid the high priest sprinkled the blood of the animals sacrificed on the day of atonem nt. Lev. xvi. 13. Buxtorf. Exercitt. hist. Bas. 1659. Vitringa de mysterio aurei arcæ federis operculi 1692. Jahn Archæol 3. 243. 2. Another substantive signification, namely, that of expiatory sacrifice (Scil. Oupa iepelov) according to the analogy of xapiotnplov, 2 Macc. xii. 42. owinpwv, ra yeveldua, ta èrnola, seems also to be sufficiently established. In the passage, indeed, in Joseph de Macc. 17. kai dia rov aquaros TWY Evoefwy EKELYWY Kau TOU dhaornplov rov Oavarov (atoning sacrifice of death, just before called αντιφνχον) αντων η θεια προνοια τον Ισραηλ διεσωσε, the τον appears to be spurious—in which case laornplov belongs to Davarov as a proper adjective. More unexceptionable instances we have in D. Chrysost. Orat. II. p. 184. inaotnplov, Axalot in Aonva in idarada (Conf. Bos ellips. p. 18); Symmachus, Gen. vi. 14. idaces itaornplov, which is only a different form of the same word; the Scholiast in Apollon. Rhod. II. p. 287, éledaormplov, piacular offering, Hesych. Suid. kalupolov.

“ Which now of these two significations is here the preferable? The fathers for the most part adopt the former, and are followed by Luther, who renders it (Gnadenstuhl) throne of grace, on which phrase see Lund's Jewish Antiq. Buxt, Vitrin. Deyling. Wolf. Ernest. Carpz. Flatt. The point of comparison is viewed differently by each of these interpreters, but most arbitrarily by Carpzov. 1. Ratione officii, legit et expiat peccata nostra. 2. Ratione inhabitationis, omnem plenitudinem Deitatis in se habet. 3. Ratione coronæ, regia splendet majestate. 4. Ratione ritus, adspersione sanguinis hilastici delet peccata populi. 5. Ratione tutela adumbrat suos ut sub ejus alis habitent et delitescant, Comp. Vitrin. Archisynogog. ix. Deyling. Wolf. The moderns place the resemblance in the symbolical representation, or also in the manifestation of grace, Comp. Tholuck, who after defending this signification, at last gives it up. Besides the undeniably greater security of the meaning, it may be alleged in favour of this interpretation, that a poedero refers to something that is visible, see Venema in De Brais, and Flatt; still the sacrifice, whether proper or figurative, is conceived of as something presented to the view of all. There are, however, the following objections to its adoption (see Cler. Heum. Moldenh. Koppe, Morus, Rosenm.); -1. A lid or covering is not placed before προεθετο, but Iaid upon επιτιθεται (èmideua.) 2. The comparison would only hold, if the cover itself had possessed atoning virtue or significance. But both consisted in the entire sacrificial transaction, namely, the shedding of the blood, of which the besprinkling of the covering of the mercy-seat, as the throne of Jehovah, was only accessary, not essential. That the later Jews have indulged in particular speculations respecting the covering, and considered it to be sedem expiatoriam, or signum gratiæ, or regarded it as possessing a real or symbolical power in reference to expiation and pardon, is more than the rabbinical learning of Vitringa, Deyling, and Schöttgen has been able to prove. All that they have had it in their power to adduce, is a statement of Aburbanel, that the Cherubim had a higher signification, and a marginal gloss of the Tract. Berachott, cap. 3., that heavenly truths shine forth from the types of the tabernacle and the Holy place. The allegories of Philo lib. de prof. Mijenua insidew duvauews, de vit. Mos. Ovußodov éOIK'E QUOIKÁTepov (naturale, evidens) rns idew TOU Oeov ovva uews cannot be regarded as a popular Jewish mode of representation ; besides, this philosopher derives it from the Greek etymology of the word. 3. At all events, to understand such a comparison, presupposes a profound acquaintance with more recent Jewish symbolicism, which the Apostle could not attribute to his readers. That the act of atonement was so important in the estimation of the Jews, that the most minute parts of traditional interpretation, must have been communicated by the Jewish Christians to their Gentile brethren (Tholuck) cannot be admitted : such minutiæ belong rather to the rabbins To this argument it may, indeed, be replied, that Paul did not always take into the account, what would be understood by all; Gal. iii. 20., 1 Cor. x. 1. Still, however, there must have been an obscurity in the brief allusion to the lid in its supposed reference to Christ, even to those who were initiated into its symbolical signification. 4. The comparison itself is harsh, destitute of dignity, and the mixture of two metaphors, the sacrificial animal, (év avtov åluare) and the lid on which the blood was sprinkled, is repulsive, and disturbs the sense. Rosenm. num Christi sanguis dici potest affusus esse ipsi Christo, quasi ipse similis esset ariæ fæderis operculo? Comp. Morus and Rückert, Tholuck's remark, that similar instances of mixed metaphor occur in the Epistle to the Hebrews in reference to Christ, does not enervate the objection, since the different figures there employed are particularly introduced and developed, but not melted into one in the same proposition. Accordingly in more recent times, the greater number of expositors, as Clericus, Elsn. Kypke, Krebs, Heum. Molden, Mich. Koppe. Flatt. Höpfner, have declared for the interpretation, to which no difficulty attaches: He hath erhibited him as a propitiatory sucrifice Under this symbol Christ is frequently represented by the Apostles, Eph. i. 7. v. 2. 1 Pet. i. 19. ü. 24, Heb. ix. 14. John i. 29. Schwartz de Soloecis, N. T. c. 23, supplies urnua, propitiatory monument, and refers to Josephus Antiq. 16. 7. 1, but there the word uinua itself occurs, and Rückert, who is unable to come to any other decision, expresses the idea generally; means of propitiation.


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