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Barnard Smith in Arithmetic and Algebra, the Trigonometry of the Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge, “ Mathematical Tables” (Chambers' Educational Course), and the “ Elements of Descriptive Geometry," (J. W. Parker, Strand), may be recommended. The Examiners will consider of no moment a familiarity with technical rules got up as exercises of the memory. A knowledge of the principles involved in the subjects of examination and a facility in applying them to particular cases will alone be valued.
They strongly recommend students who take an interest in the practical applications of Geometry, to master the principal propositions in the Eleventh and Twelfth Books of Euclid.
The Examiners desire to impress on the notice of the candidates the importance of making themselves acquainted with methods of investigation and principles. They believe that much valuable time is lost over curious problems, which have nothing to recommend them but their difficulty, and in solving Algebraical equations, which require nothing but expertness in manipulating symbols.
The Examiners are of opinion that a candidate by directing the course of his reading in this way, with no greater expenditure of time than at present is given to acquiring a knowledge of the rudiments of Mathematics, might obtain some acquaintance with the principle of Duality, learn something of the method of Poles and Polars, of Transversal lines, and acquire some familiarity with the elementary principles of Solid and Descriptive geometry, and of the methods of Projection applied to derive the principal proportions of the Conic Sections from the circle. To solve Algebraical equations or Geometrical problems is seldom required in the business of practical life. The Examiners will be prepared to test the candidates by an examination conducted in principles and methods which may be obtained by careful reading, rather than by setting curious puzzles to tax their ingenuity.
The Examiners in Mechanics would particularly direct the attention of candidates to the importance of obtaining a clear knowledge of the general principles on which all machines must be constructed. They are of opinion that this knowledge, though at first sight it may seem abstract, will in the end prove of far more value to the intelligent engineer than any early familiarity with the construction or working of individual machines. When the mind once lays fast hold of a general principle, it becomes a very easy matter to apply it as circumstances may arise. The uninstructed workman, after the familiarity it may be of years with the working of machinery in motion, comes at last to gather the general principle from a life-long induction of particulars. He invents for himself a theory of mechanics. Had he been properly instructed, he might have started where he ends. The Examiners will endeavour to test the candidates' knowledge of general principles applied to the construction of ordinary and familiar machines.
The Examiners in Physics desire to direct the attention of candidates to the study of the properties of Heat, a knowledge of which is of so much importance to the right understanding of the action of the great motive power Steam, the construction of furnaces, and the economical consumption of fuel. The principles involved in the theory of Hydrostatics are of daily practical application. Indeed there is no knowledge of a general principle or acquaintance with a particular physical fact that may not sometime or other be turned to account.
The Examiners in Mechanics and in the Natural Sciences recommend that the course should comprise :
The elements of Statics and Dynamics.
The Theory of Heat, especially with reference to the properties of steam.
The Examiners recommend the separate treatises by Galbraith and Haughton, Lardner's Handbooks of Natural Philosophy, and Brooke's edition of Golding Bird's Elements of Natural Philosophy.
The Examiners desire it to be distinctly understood that they can assign very little value even to correct answers, when unaccompanied by a demonstration, where practicable.
They consider the habit of accurate inductive reasoning to be an important secondary advantage accruing from the study of Mathematics and Physics.
*** Candidates in Mathematics or Physics, who are not prepared to be examined in the whole of the above subjects, may take up a portion of them and receive Certificates of the Grade to which the Examiners shall consider them entitled.
CHEMISTRY. The Examiners in Chemistry desire to point out for the guidance of students the following books: Professor G. Wilson's Chemistry (Chambers Educational Course). Fownes's Manual of Chemistry (Churchill). Dr. Gregory's Handbook of Chemistry, Organic and Inorganic, 2 vols. and Professor Miller's Elements of Chemistry.
AGRICULTURE. The examiners in Agriculture recommend the following works to the attention of candidates :
Johnson's Agricultural Chemistry.
The Examiners will require such a general knowledge of Farm Practice and the Management of Live Stock as must to some extent at any rate have been obtained in the field.
POLITICAL AND SOCIAL ECONOMY.
The importance of the knowledge implied under this head, and the very general ignorance which pervades the great mass of the public, as to the application of its principles to the every-day business and the ordinary relations of common life, have induced the Council to recommend to the Board of Examiners to add Political and Social Economy to the list of Subjects for Examination. The phenomena of industrial life, and the obscure but fixed laws which rule the international and social intercourse of men living in communities, have been too much overlooked and disregarded..
The Examiners recommend the following text Books on this subject :
Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations.
The Phenomena of Industrial Life. Edited by the Dean of Hereford.
GEOGRAPHY. I. The Examiners recommend that all candidates for certificates in Geography should acquire a sufficient stock of systematic information in elementary descriptive geography as a basis, before they proceed to the study of the more scientific branches of the subject. With this view they should qualify themselves to undergo a searching examination in such a book as William Hughes' “Geography for the use of beginners” (Gleig's series). Success in this limited portion of the subject will qualify a candidate to obtain a Certificate of Competency.
II. To those who already possess a good general knowledge of descriptive Geography, the Examiners suggest, as a special subject for the present year, a thorough study of the Geography of the British Empire and its dependencies.
The student will be expected to acquire, in regard to each part of the British Dominions
1. An exact and minute acquaintance with its Descriptive and Political Geography.
2. An elementary knowledge, sound as far as it may go, of its Historical Geography.
3. Such acquaintance with its Physical Geography as may bear on the chief natural productions and on the condition of its inhabitants.
Candidates who pass a satisfactory examination in the range of knowledge which has been indicated, will be entitled to a Certificate of Proficiency.
III. The more advanced study of Geography is so extensive inits connexions, that the Examiners would recommend candidates to take up some one or two branches of the subject, rather than to pursue a more diffusive course. They consider that a student who has well mastered the elements of Geography, will get most advantage by a careful study of some one of the following sciences, taken strictly in its Geographical relation ; that is, in its bearing on the condition of the human race.
e. Ethnography. As a special subject for the ensuing examination, the Examiners have fixed on Geology. They will be prepared to award a Certificate of Excellence to any candidate who may add an acquaintance with that science, considered in its purely geographical relation, to an extensive and sound knowledge of general descriptive geography.
The Examiners recommend all candidates diligently to study common maps, and to obtain a facility of drawing with clearness and precision, from memory only, maps of the principal countries, seas, and islands of the globe, so as distinctly to show the chief natural features and the situations of the principal towns. They prefer a style of map drawing in which the mountain chains and coast line are neatly and easily indicated, by mere lines, instead of that in which the usual style of en