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In the Itinerary are to be found the same attacks, the same energetic language against despotism :
66 Though I detest the manners of the Spartans, I do not overlook the greatness of a free nation, nor have I without emotion trampled on their noble dust. One fact alone attests the glory of that people when Nero visited Greece, he did not dare to enter Lacedemon. How noble a panegyric on that city!"
"When I contemplated the trees and palaces of the seraglio, I could not repress a feeling of pity for the master of that vast empire. Oh how wretched are despots in the midst of happiness! how weak in the midst of power! How much are they to be pitied, who cause the tears of so many fellow-creatures to flow, and are uncertain whether they shall not have reason to shed them themselves; who cannot enjoy the sleep of which they deprive the unfortunate !"
The author accompanies by such reflexions every step of his journey. When first he sees Egypt, he exclaims: "Then I saw for the first time the magnificent Delta, where nothing is wanting but a free government and a happy people. But there is no fine country without independence: where men are slaves, the mildest climate is hateful."
What courage, too, was necessary, to unveil the arcanum of Bonaparte's greatness, and show us in so pointed a manner, his portrait in the portrait of Genseric?" He was a prince of a sullen temper; subject to fits of the darkest melancholy; who, in the wreck of the civilised world, appeared great, because he stood upon ruins."
And a little after; "In the age of Belisarius, events were great and men little. This is the reason why the annals of that period, though replete with tragic incidents, disgust and weary the patience. We do not seek in history for revolutions which overpower and crush men, but for men who can command revolutions, and are superior to fortune. The world conquered by barbarians, excites nothing in us but contempt and horror; but we always read with interest the relation of a little quarrel between Athens and Lacedemon, in a corner of Greece."
Did not the following celebrated passage on St. Lewis, remind us in some manner of the imprescriptible rights of his posterity? "Lewis, canonised, became of our country the perpetual king." Every reader will feel the beauty of the extracts we have here transcribed. But, without expatiating on their literary merit, we will only advert to the uniform consistency of M. de C.'s language on the nature of governments, and the evils which neces sarily follow absolute power. So that, between the Génie du Christianisme, where he eulogises the representative government,
and the Réflexions Politiques, where he points out the advantages of that government, there is no kind of difference; a rare consistency of political principles.
When Providence at length overthrew the tyrant, every thing foretold his fall; the author of the Génie du Christianisme prepared himself in expectation of it. We can declare with truth, that two months before the allies entered Paris, we read the pamphlet intitled, De Bonaparte et des Bourbons. The effect which that admirable philippic had upon France and Europe, is well known. The struggle, however, of the moral against the physical power, between Bonaparte and M. de C., continued for a period of not less than 12 years.
It is a peculiarity which marks M. de C. that he persisted in exerting himself even after the fall of the tyrant. Any other person would have courted repose; but he thought he had done nothing while any thing remained to be done, and as long as the spirit of Bonaparte reigned predominant. On the same field of battle, he must necessarily have encountered the same enemies. If M. de C. or his family have not always been fortunate in their endeavours to serve the royal cause, it must be conceded at least, that few Frenchmen can boast of having done more. He must be included in the number of those royalists whose patience, as he said in his last work, " is never exhausted; and who, in perseverance and love for their king, are altogether strangers to fatigue."
The passage in regard to the allies, which concludes that pamphlet, was written anew for the occasion. We know that M. de C. had two versions of his work. He supposed, that in the event of any disturbance taking place in Paris, the citizens would assemble at the Hôtel-de-Ville; and for this exigency, had it occurred, he had composed a speech which contained in substance the pamphlet on the Bourbons, and ended by a motion for their restoration to the throne of St. Lewis. At the time we had the double MS. in our hands.
THE APPROACHING CRISIS:
ON THE IMPRACTICABILITY AND INJUSTICE
RESUMING CASH PAYMENTS AT THE BANK,
IN JULY 1818;
ON THE MEANS OF ELEVATING THE INTERNAL PROS PERITY OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE, TO A HEIGHT HITHERTO UNPARALLELED,
BY A JUDICIOUS APPLICATION OF THE PROFITS DERIVED FROM A FURTHER SUSPENSION OF PAYMENTS IN CASH.
THE RIGHT HONORABLE
SIR JOHN SINCLAIR, BART.
"There is a tide in the affairs of men,
Is bound in shallows and in miseries."
JULIUS CÆSAR; Act iv. Scene iii.
ONCE more I take up the pen, to enter my public protest against any attempt, in these inauspicious times, to restore a currency in
After all that has been written in support of an exclusive paper circulation, (which has been sanctioned by the successful experience of above twenty years,) it is hardly to be credited, that any individual, who feels an ardent wish to promote the prosperity of his country, should be desirous of plunging it into all the horrors of a scanty currency. As well might a farmer, whose fields had been accustomed to receive a great quantity of enriching substances, expect to reap an abundant harvest by scattering a few handfuls of manure over the surface of his fields; as well might an unfortunate individual, who by some fatal accident had lost threefourths of his blood, hope to regain his former health and strength, without having his exhausted veins replenished with that essential fluid; as that this country can expect to prosper, with such a load of debts and taxes, if its circulation be diminished.
It is said, that the quantity of circulation in any country cannot be increased, and will always be equal to the demand; but that is quite a mistake. If instead of being confined to towns, the circulation is spread over the country, and if a spirit for using it is excited, it may be increased, with great public advantage, to an extent, beyond what those, who have not examined the state of a country in detail, can have any conception of. The diminished circulation of country bankers, in England alone, is supposed to exceed thirty millions of pounds. Under a proper system, a circulation in the country might be carried on to that extent, in addition to what now exists in it. The want of that circulation materially contributed to those distresses in the country districts, which have been lately experienced; and which, after ruining the