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the original surrender, previous to the same being passed, or, what is tantamount to the registry of an unstamped deed as proposed, on the admission copy from the roll afterwards, under the direction and responsibility of the steward of the manor, who in this case may be regarded as the registrar. It may therefore be contended, that the mechanical operations necessary for the movements of the scheme are anticipated, and that little more is necessary than to apply their principle to another object.

The general advantages to be derived to the public from the measure recommended are various; but these appear to be the most prominent.

The first, in moral and political points of view, is the prevention of the recurrence of a crime of such magnitude, so highly penal, and pregnant with such extensive mischief, that one life has been already lost to the community, and legislative provision will be found absolutely necessary for remedying the injuries already felt or apprehended to the individuals more directly implicated.

As it would cease to be requisite for the attorney to provide stamps for the instruments he may be instructed to prepare ;1 the temptations for the committal of any of the offences which have been exposed, or for the evasion of the duties by using a less stamp than the law requires, are wholly removed: whilst the possibility of danger or inconvenience, arising from ignorance merely, either in the latter instance, or by the substitution of one stamp for another, is also averted.

The necessity, under which the party taking an interest by any instrument would find himself, of paying the duty within the limited time, in order to secure the transmission and investment of such interest (the registry of the deed and the payment of the duty being rendered co-essential and co-temporary)—would, by affording him an inducement to see to the actual payment, not only preclude the opportunity of committing a forgery of the registrar's certificate, in case of his personal attendance; but materially lessen the practicability of it, if he did not; for it would almost be impos

The necessity of the payment of the duties before the ingrossment of the instrument, as is now the case, is also often attended with great inconve nience, and sometimes loss; the interest of the money disbursed frequently amounting to more than the fair professional charges, before the bill is paid. Upon the plan suggested this partial evil would be remedied or much abated. The progressive increase of the ad valorem duties has imposed a most serious burthen upon the profession of the law, from which in common justice they ought to be relieved; as it is without relation to the circumstances of the times, or any adventitious occasion, by which persons in other professions take opportunity for the improvement of their wealth. An attorney of extensive practice is compelled to advance a large capital for disbursements, on his client's account, without interest.

sible to impose upon him a fictitious evidence of the payment; or at least, if attempted, the detection would be certain and speedy, by reference to the registrar's entry or the stamp-office returns. addition to which, it may be observed, that as it would not be necessary to provide materials to denote the duties prior to the occasion for their use (and in fact there would be no evidence of their payment until the actual receipt), there could be no opportunity for fraud in the departments used for their fabrication and delivery, or for theft or imposition in respect to them, either within the offices or elsewhere.

The next important properties of the plan, in reference to public utility, are, the utter impossibility of forging, concealing or misre presenting titles; the provision against the loss or detention of deeds; and the equalisation of the value of property as adverted to in the commencement of this treatise; all which objects would be effectually secured by the establishment of register offices.

A hope that the importance of the subject of these suggestions may attract the notice of some person able and willing to bring them before parliament for consideration, has induced the writer thus to submit them to the public.

RICHARD GARLAND.

POSTSCRIPT.

Hull, 1st May, 1815.

Since writing the preceding tract, an extensive robbery of the York Stamp Office was effected; for which five of the parties concerned were apprehended, convicted, and sentenced to transportation. The value of the stamps stolen was to the amount of upwards of 5000l.; but for which, it appeared by the confession of one of the party, the thieves would not have received more than 2007.-although there is no doubt that the receiver would have found means to vend the whole for nearly the original sum, without danger of detection. This circumstance affords an additional motive for adopting some mode of collecting this revenue, or as much of it as possible, in a way that may preclude the possibility of theft.

ΔΙΑΝΟΙΑ.

THE THIRD

ORGANON

ATTEMPTED;

OR

ELEMENTS OF LOGIC

AND

SUBJECTIVE PHILOSOPHY.

BY GEORGE FIELD,

AUTHOR OF TRITOGENEA. [Vide PAMPHLETEER, No. XVII.]

ORIGINAL.

LONDON.

PREFACE.

THAT literature has not hitherto produced a work deserving the title of an universal logic, must be admitted, since syllogism is, for the most part, strictly conclusive only in the homogeneous relations of mathematical quantity, and fails altogether in physics and ethics; while the logic of induction, or generalogism, however useful in natural philosophy, is equally unfruitful in ethics and the mathematics.

To induction, it is true, we are indebted for an important reform in the study of nature or physics, and for the means of adding greatly to the natural knowledge, necessaries, numbers and comforts of men :-it has notwithstanding been of fatal influence in morals; for here induction is of no theoretical, and of little other practical use, than to teach us how to counteract the fraud of others, and to become ourselves expediently honest; while, by placing morals upon experience, and multiplying objects of power and contention, it has weakened the bonds of society, robbed man of the comforts of conscience, and trampled religion under foot.

It is evident, therefore, that in the most important concerns of moral and intellectual science, neither of the foregoing organs serve, and that man is left without any legitimate rule for his judg ment, or a rational guide for his conscience: hence the lamentable uncertainty and discordance in religion, morals, and metaphysics; upon which depend perhaps the too evident neglect of intellectual philosophy, and moral, political, and religious duty, notwithstanding our high state of cultivation and advancement in the natural sciences and arts: the moral necessity of A THIRD ORGANON will not therefore be disputed; more especially, since there is a third organ peculiarly suited to these subjects, the basis of all ratiocination, and hitherto untried by logicians.

To place logic upon its basis by the instrumentality of this organ, is the principal design of the present attempt, however insufficient it may prove, or however little attention it is likely to receive while public taste lies in a contrary direction; but since fashion revolves with the season, the æra approaches in which these subjects will recover popularity under a government philosophically constituted, and among a people already famed for thought.

We have not hesitated therefore to avail ourselves of this respectable vehicle to the attention of those who do not measure by magnitude alone, nor estimate that by its fashion, the true value of which lies in its utility.

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