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efforts to the attainment of this end, by commencing the process with short and simple arguments, founded upon the plainest principles and leading to the most indubitable conclusions, and gradually increasing them in length and difficulty, as the mind strengthens and expands, till they become both abstract and complicated. For this purpose the study of Mathematics is admirably adapted, as no branch of human knowledge rests upon simpler or more obvious principles; none leads to such certain and satisfactory conclusions; nor does any require a closer application, or admit of more ingenuity and invention in the mode of treatment, than the modern analysis.

Geometry is well known as a powerful instrument, in the hands of a skilful tutor, not only for checking the wanderings of a volatile disposition and drawing off the affections from frivolous pursuits, but for inspiring the mind with a love of truth. The distinctness of its definitions, the self-evidence of its axioms and postulates, and the small number of its elementary principles, peculiarly adapt itto the memory of youth, and render it susceptible of being comprehended by the juvenile mind. Nor is the mode of reasoning in geometry less influential in producing a habit of steady attention, than the simplicity of its first principles is conducive to their clear comprehension. The lines and diagrams it presents engage the senses as auxiliaries to the intellectual powers. One truth is immediately deduced from another, by the application of some first principle or previously demonstrated truth; and thus the process is continued from what is intuitive to the most general propositions and remote analogies, by a chain of reasoning from which all doubt and uncertainty are excluded, and the mind suffered to repose upon the stability of truth at every step.

When the pupil has acquired a little dexterity in numerical calculation, the principles and processes of general analysis may be adopted with great advantage. By this means the mind will be led from the consideration of particular to that of general quantity. A train of new conceptions will be introduced, and, under the guidance of experience and judicious management, curiosity will be awakened, inquiry excited; and consequently the attention more firmly fixed.

The nature of calculation by symbols causes the whole of the operations to be distinctly preserved; the relations of the quantities to each other to be exhibited at every step of the process; and the result to be general. This enables the student to retrace the steps by which this result has been obtained; to gain a clear and comprehensive view of the whole at once; to connect the commencement with the conclusion; and to perceive that in passing from arithmetic to algebra he has risen from numbers to

quantity, and from facts to laws. Every fresh acquisition of this kind rouses the latent powers of the mind; gives new energy to its subsequent inquiries after truth; becomes an additional source of strength and courage; increases its perseverance; urges new pursuits; and ensures the certainty of conquest by imparting to it a determination to conquer.

History has also a direct tendency to engage the mind by the variety of sensible occurrences presented for its consideration. It causes the events of all ages to pass in review, and elevates the natural curiosity of youth into a constant expectation of something new. Voyages and Travels, accounts of distant regions and countries, with descriptions of singular and sublime appearances, have the same effect; and may be beneficially employed as a relief from the severer discipline of scientific studies. But as these present so many scenes which excite the imagination and interest the affections, they should be resorted to as sources of amusement and relaxation only; and when regarded in this light, and regulated by the hand of experience, they are calculated to give vigor and elasticity to the thoughts, without dissipating the more serious habits of the mind.

With this elementary preparation, it may be presumed that the pupil will be enabled to pursue that path in his future studies, which his prospects in life may render most advisable; but whatever may be his views, solid, useful, and practical information should be preferred to that classical reverie, mythology and fable, so often regarded as the perfection of education; for things, not words, constitute real knowledge. Classical attainments should rather be considered as the foundation than as the completion of the mental structure; for without a due regard to principles, and their application to the various purposes of life, all his acquirements will neither be beneficial to himself nor society; his intellectual powers will be merely sharpened instruments, swayed by a perverted judgment; and the man will be sacrificed at the shrine of the scholar.

As an individual and a candidate for immortality, passing through a state of probation towards the ultimate object of his existence, man's chief concern is to know himself and his Maker; and, in this respect, every step he takes involves consequences of the utmost importance to his future welfare. So far, indeed, is this knowledge from leading to any dereliction of duty, or exciting any misanthropic feelings in the mind, that its direct tendency is to strengthen the social compact; to elevate all the moral energies of the soul; and to diffuse an otherwise unknown felicity through all the endearments of life. Happily, however, the means of instruction on these points are so general in this country, as to be

within the reach of all classes, and therefore to render any particular specification of them in this place unnecessary :-a diligent study of the Holy Scriptures, however, cannot be overlooked.

The duties of man as a member of the community may be classed under the two heads of social and political.

The first of these embraces all those duties arising from family connexions and the common intercourse of society; and necessarily implies an acquaintance with the rights and privileges of individuals, as members of that society, and consequently includes a knowledge of the laws and customs by which these are determined and secured. A conviction of the absolute equality of all men in the sight of God, accompanied with a proper respect for the various ranks Providence has established in society, should be early and deeply impressed upon the mind. Whatever knowledge, however, may be obtained on this subject, it can neither supersede the necessity, nor equal the efficacy, of a constant attention to that admirable precept of doing to others as we would have them do to us.

In this free and civilised country, all who receive a liberal education are supposed to extend their views beyond this narrow circle, and to participate more or less in those transactions which relate to the community at large; and this extension embraces political knowledge, both in its application to the internal and external affairs of the nation. This requires a thorough acquaintance with the past and present state of the country; implying an attentive study of its most accurate historians; of the most luminous expounders of its constitution, both theoretical and practical; and of the best writers on political economy, by which its internal resources and external circumstances may be turned to the greatest general advantage.

In the study of these subjects three things deserve particular attention; the facts, their causes, and their consequences. That the student may have a clear and comprehensive knowledge of any subject, his acquaintance with it must be general; his mind must be able to grasp the whole at once; to bring its diversified parts into contact with each other in all the varied combinations of which they are susceptible; to compare them together, and from these comparisons to derive such practical conclusions as are best adapted to the purposes he has in view. The mind acquires the clearest ideas of any subject at the least expense of time and labor, by commencing its inquiries with a compendious system in which the leading principles are clearly explained, and the most important conclusions deduced in a connected form and within a narrow compass. When these are clearly comprehended, much advantage will be derived by enlarging the sphere of study, and entering more minutely into its particular branches.

Thus the study of history should commence with a short and perspicuous account of our own country; and the attention of the student should be principally directed to the facts it contains. But, as facts are chiefly valuable, in any practical application, as the connecting links between their causes and effects, to trace events to the sources from which they flow, on the one hand, and follow them to the consequences to which they lead, on the other, should constitute the ultimate object of the historical student. None of the important transactions recorded in national history occur instantaneously: all have their preparations as well as their consequences; and successive causes frequently unite in producing the same effect. To ascertain the tendency of each of these causes, to assign its proper place in the series, and to determine its appropriate influence in producing the combined effect, constitute the only means by which we can hope, either to discover the various intricacies in the complicated drama of human actions, to become acquainted with the purposes of the politician and the perversions and natural reasonings of the mind, or to foresee the events that may fairly be expected in the ordinary course of human affairs.

By viewing the world in the mirror of faithful history, the defects of our own observation are supplied; and we become familiar with scenes and periods rendered inaccessible through every other medium. The rise and progress, the decline and fall of nations and empires pass in review before us; the legislation and government of states, the diversified manners, customs and opinions of man, with the progress and developement of the human mind, are exhibited to our view amidst the calmness of contemplation; the most striking revolutions and events which have changed the face of society are presented to the decisions of the judgment, freed from that false coloring which a participation in the scenes themselves never fails to impart; while the inventions of art, the discoveries of science, and the struggles and triumphs of genius, that constitute the varied links in the chain of civilisation, assume their relative proportions and appropriate aspects when reflected from this mirror. It is indeed by the study of these faithful records, which Cicero has so emphatically denominated "the flambeau of truth," that we are enabled to compare man with himself in the various divisions and periods of the world; and to gain possession of that accumulated mass of knowledge which has been. deposited by previous ages as they have rolled down the everebbing stream of time.

Biography, so justly denominated, History teaching by example, is a branch of this science pre-eminently adapted to interest the youthful student. By delineating the astonishing efforts, and the

interesting discoveries of genius; by exhibiting the hero in the scene of action-the patriot devoting himself for his country, and the philanthropist for mankind; and by painting virtue herself in all the lovely lineaments of her character, faithful biography is admirably calculated to inspire the susceptible mind with an abiding love of truth, and a sacred regard for the principles of true honor. By thus contemplating the lives of men who have been the chief instruments in the establishment or subversion of empires; in liberating or enslaving nations; in curbing the passions, cultivating the taste, or enlightening the minds of mankind, the student is not only furnished with points of reference which serve him as guides through the labyrinth of historical records, "but with standards of comparison, by which he can more easily and accurately estimate the actions, and weigh the conduct of the minor actors in the historic drama.

A perfect knowledge of the external connexions of the state belongs more particularly to those of the superior classes upon whom the important and arduous business of legislation and government devolves. In addition to an acquaintance with its internal affairs, these should be familiar with the fundamental principles in the constitution of society; with the laws of Nature and of Nations; with the civil and military resources of foreign states; and with the relations which these bear to each other, as well as with the changes they undergo, so far, at least, as these changes may affect the welfare of the community to which they belong. A knowledge of the physical and moral state of mankind in all ages and countries will also furnish them with the most effectual means of comparison, and the most instructive examples, in the discharge of the high and important duties of enfranchising the slave; dispelling the clouds of ignorance; supporting the best interests of the nation; and ameliorating the condition of mankind : -duties from which those born to rank and affluence cannot shrink without betraying that trust which the decrees of an allwise Providence have committed to their charge.

One of the most important duties of the statesman, as a patriot and a philanthropist, is to employ the various characters and dispositions of men for their mutual advantage; and therefore, the study of these characters and dispositions should engage his early and serious attention; as that by which alone he can discover the secret springs of their actions, and distinguish between the real and ostensible motives which actuate their conduct. For any measure, a motive of safety, honor, or zeal, of right or convenience, prevention or retaliation, may be readily urged. But when these relate to public concerns or national affairs, the true patriot will be anxious to distinguish between those things and circumstances that

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