autres pouvoirs seront nécessairement ses rivaux ou ses alliés, ses antagonistes ou ses ministres. S'il les néglige dans ses calculs, il sera trompé dans ses résultats ; mais s'il les fait concourir à ses vues, il une force immense. On ne peut espérer de les réunir que sons lé'tendart de l'Utilité.

“La sanction naturelle est la seule qui agisse toujours, la seule qui opère d'elle-même, la seule qui soit immuable dans ses principaux caractères : c'est elle qui ramène insensiblement à soi toutes les autres, qui corrige leurs écarts, et qui produit tout ce qu'il y a d'uniformité dans les sentimens et les jugemens des hommes.

“ La sanction populaire et la sanction religieuse sont plus mobiles, plus changeantes, plus dépendantes des caprices de l'esprit humain. La force de la sanction populaire est plus égale, plus continue, plus sourde et plus constamment d'accord avec le Principe de l'Utilité. La force de la sanction religieuse est plus inégale, plus variable, selon les tems et les individus, plus sujette à des écarts dangereux. Elle s'affoiblit dans le repos, elle se relève par l'opposition.

“La sanction politique l'emporte, à certains égards, sur toutes les deux : elle agit avec une force plus égale sur tous les hommes ; elle est plus claire et plus précise dans ses préceptes ; elle est plus sûre et plus exemplaire dans ses opérations ; enfin, elle est plus susceptible d'être perfectionnée. Chaque progrès qu'elle fait influe immédiatement sur le progrès des deux autres, mais elle n'embrasse que des actions d'une certaine espèce; elle n'a pas assez de prise sur la conduite privée des individus ; elle ne peut procéder que sur des preuves qu'il est souvent impossible d'obtenir, et on lui échappe par le secret, la force ou la ruse. Ainsi, soit qu'on examine dans ces différentes sanctions, ce qu' elles font ou ce qu'elles ne peuvent pas faire, on voit la nécessité de n'en rejeter aucune, mais de les employer toutes, en les dirigeant vers le même but.

“ Ce sont des aimans dont on détruit la vertu en les présentant les uns aux autres par leurs pôles contraires, tandis qu'on la décuple en les unissant par les pôles amis.”

Note 2, page 319. The following extract from a work of Mr. Bentham's seems founded upon this supposition, that the legal punishment ought necessarily to increase with the temptation to commit the crime: and, if so, to be contrary to his own principles, as explained in the last note that the whole punishment ought to increase, is indisputable : but the whole consists of the legal punishment, the moral punishment, and the religious punishment: which may be embodied under what he terms tutelary motives.

BentHAM. The value of the punishment must not be less in any case than what is sufficient to outweigh that of the profit' to the offence.?

· [Profit). By the profit of an offence, is to be understood, not merely the pecuniary profit, but the pleasure or advantage, of whatever kind it be, which a man reaps, or expects to reap, from the gratification of the desire which prompted him to engage in the offence.* It is the profit (that is, the expectation of the profit) of the offence that

! See ch. xi. (Dispositions] xxix.

- If it be, the offence (unless some other considerations, independent of the punishment, should intervene and operate efficaciously in the character of tutelary motives)' will be sure to be committed notwithstanding :the whole lot of punishment will be thrown away: it will be altogether inefficacious.3

The above rule has been often objected to, on account of its seeming harshness: but this can only have happened for want of its being properly understood. The strength of the temptation, cæteris paribus, is as the profit of the offence: the quantum of the punishment must rise with the profit of the offence: cæteris paribus, it must therefore rise with the strength of the temptation. This there is no disputing. True it is, that the stronger the temptation, the less conclusive is the indication which the act of delinquency affords of the depravity of the offender's disposition. So far then as the absence of any aggravation, arising from extraordinary depravity of disposition, may operate, or at the utmost, so far as the presence of a ground of extenuation, constitutes the impelling motive, or, where there are several, the sum of the impelling motives, by which a man is prompted to engage in the offence. It is the punishment, that is, the expectation of the punishment, that consti. tutes the restraining motive, which, either by itself, or in conjunction with others, is to act upon him in a contrary direction, so as to induce him to abstain from engaging in the offence. Accidental circumstances apart, the strength of the temptation is as the force of the seducing, that is, of the impelling motive or motives. To say then, as authors of great merit and great name have said, that the punishment ought not to increase with the strength of the temptation, is as much as to say in mechanics, that the moving force or momentum of the power, need not increase in proportion to the momentum of the burthen.

2 Beccaria, dei Delitti, 6. id. trad. par. Morellet, $ 23. 1 Seech. x. [Motives] $ 1.

2 It is a well known adage, though it is to be hoped not a true one, that every man has his price. It is commonly meant of a man's virtue. This saying, though in a very different sense, was strictly verified by some of the Anglo-saxon laws: by which a fixed price was set, not upon a man's virtue indeed, but upon his life: that of the sovereign himself among the rest. For 200 shillings you might have killed a peasant: for six times as much, a nobleman: and for six-and-thirty times as much, you might have killed the king.* A king in those days was worth exactly 7,200 shillings. If then the heir to the throne, for example, grew weary of waiting for it, he had a secure and legal way of gratifying his impatience: he had but to kill the king with one hand, and pay himself with the other, and all was right. An earl Godwin, or a duke Streon, could have bought the lives of a whole dynasty; It is plain, that if ever a king in those days died in his bed, he must have had something else, besides this law, to thank for it. This being the production of a remote and barbarous age, the absurdity of it is presently recognised: but, upon examination, it would be found, that the freshest laws of the most civilised nations are continually falling into the same error. This, in short, is the case wheresoever the punishment is fixed, while the profit of delinquency is indefinite: or, to speak more precisely, where the punishment is limited utosech a mark, that the profit of delinquency may reach beyond it.

3 See ch. xiii. (Cases unmeet] $ 1. + See ch xi. (Dispositions] xlii.

• Wilkins Leg. Anglo-sax. 71, 72. See Hume, voli, Append. p. 219.

resulting from the innocence or beneficence of the offender's disposition, can operate, the strength of the temptation may operate in abatement of the demand for punishment. But it can never operate so far as to indicate the propriety of making the punishment ineffectuak, which it is sure to be when brought below the level of the apparent profit of their offence.

The partial benevolence which should prevail for the reduction of it below this level, would counteract as well those purposes which such a motive would actually have in view, as those more extensive purposes which benevolence ought to have in view : it would be cruelty not only to the public, but to the very persons in whose behalf it pleads : in its effects, I mean, however opposite in its intention. Cruelty to the public, that is cruelty to the innocent, by suffering them, for want of an adequate protection, to lie exposed to the mischief of the offence: cruelty even to the offender himself, by punishing him to no purpose, and without the chance of compassing that beneficial end, by which alone the introduction of the evil of punishment is to be justified.

NOTE W, page 324,

Forging of Bank of England Notes. An account of the Total Number of Forged Bank Notes, discovered by the Bank to have been forged, by Presentation for Payment, or otherwise, from 1st January 1812, to 10th April 1818; distinguishing each Year, and also distinguishing the Number of Notes of il. of 21. of 51. of 101. of 20l. and above 201. in Value:

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10 Ap.

107,238 17,787 5,826 419 2 54 35


The Total nominal Value of the 131,361 Notes reported above, excluding those above 201, of which no individual Return is made, was ONE HUNDRED AND SEVENTY-SEVEN THOUSAND TWO HUNDRED AND FORTY-TWO POUNDS.











Author of a Compendious System of Modern Geography; a Statistical Chart or Europe; an Essay on Improving the Condition of the Poor; and Translator of M. de Rossel's Treatise on finding the Latitude and Longitude

at Sea, with Notes and Additions.








&c. &c. &c.


The following Remarks were written solely for your Lordship’s perusal; and under the auspices of that approbation which your Lordship was pleased to bestow upon them, they are now submitted to the public. The importance of the subject must plead for the temerity of the attempt; as whatever has a tendency to place the cultivation of the intellectual powers and moral principles of man in its true light, and to stamp its genuine impress more indelibly on the public mind, is not without real claims to indulgence.

Sanctioned by your Lordship’s patronage, the present effort to produce these effects, however feeble, cannot be in vain. Allow me, therefore, to observe, that its success must be ascribed to your Lordship’s condescending encouragement; while for its defects, he alone is responsible who has the honor to remain, with every sentiment of respect,

Your Lordship's much obliged,

and most faithful Servant,


December 15th, 1817.

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