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IN the above account I have spoken only of those diseases which belong to Europeans in temperate climates, and which we daily witness. The same mode of reasoning, however, I believe to be applicable to other diseases, the peculiarities of which being dependent on the atmosphere and customs of distant countries, are known only abroad in the polar or tropical regions. People have in general rather appeared assiduous to describe the varieties in the external appearances of such diseases, than to investigate their history, and the habits of life and state of general health of the patient, antecedent to their occurrence. Till, however, such an inquiry shall be made, and the results delivered to the public, I shall continue to reason from analogy, and to think the evidence afforded in this country, and before my own eyes, and corroborated by the history of diseases given by superior and eminent observers, sufficient to establish the opinion that whatever may be the peculiarities of diseases, varied by the multiplicity of co-ope rating causes alluded to, whether they principally affect the bony fabric which supports the body, the ligaments that connect it, or the muscles that move it; whether they affect chiefly the absorbent sanguiferous or excretory vessels, or disorder particular viscera ; whether they attack individual nerves, destroy particular organs of sensation, or so disturb the sensorium as to derange the whole body, or to interrupt the operations of the mind; a disorder of the digestive viscera by the conjoint influence of bad chylification and sympathetic irritation, is more or less concerned in their production and maintenance, the cure of which becomes the principal object. Finally, that the nature of an animal is such, that no part or organ can be much diseased independently of disorder of those important organs which nature has provided for the nourishment and conservation of the whole.
THE END OF NO. XXII.
The Punishment of Death
FOR CRIMES WITHOUT VIOLENCE.
BY BASIL MONTAGU, Esq.
In rebus quibuscumque difficilioribus non expectandum, ut quis simul et serat et metat, sed præparatione opus est ut per gradus maturescant.
IN THE ADVANCEMENT OF KIND FEELING,
IS AFFECTIONATELY INSCRIBED TO HIS FRIEND,
I HAVE been long employed in preparing a work on crime and punishment. I did not intend to publish for many years. With the hope of good from reflection, I knew there was more to fear from haste than from delay. But I have unexpectedly heard the voice of the community; and however feeble my efforts may be, I will secure to myself the consciousness that I have not been silent: I will contribute my mite to the general fund.
'The progress of knowledge respecting sanguinary punishments, which began in the year 1651, and from thence slowly advanced, has of late rapidly increased.
I subjoin a list of eminent authors and statesmen, who have been advocates for a mitigation of sanguinary punishments; with a list of the members of Parliament who have supported and op posed the punishment of death, for privately stealing to the amount. of five shillings, or stealing to the amount of forty shillings from a dwelling.
Sir Thomas More
Sir S. Romilly
Charles James Fox