and give any collateral information on the subject that they may possess. In many instances, the children will neither be able to supply omissions nor to offer meanings, in which case the teacher should help them out of the difficulty with considerate kindness and good humour. Care should be taken not to hurry the children, but leave them a little time to recall their vagrant memories, before assisting them over the impediment. In this species of colloquy, care must likewise be taken not to overwork the infant mind. The child must not be crammed with too much explanation. Only very simple ideas are to be roused, and such matters alluded to as may be supposed to interest and encourage the dawning faculties. We cannot also too earnestly recommend the practice of illustration by pictures and sensible objects. The black board should be in constant use, and every teacher should qualify himself to give ready off-hand sketches. The rudest outline done on the spot excites more interest than the finest engraving:

We present the following as an example of this enlarged method of instruction, taking the first lesson, A Walk in the Fields, for our text. The language in Roman letter is by the master; that in Italics is from the pupils :

Now, children, we shall go over the first lesson, and I will see if you remember what you have been reading. Come, let us walk...out. What do you mean by out? It is out of the house (or, perhaps, cries another), out at the door. Just so, we go out; now, what are we going to walk into? The fields. Very good, the fields. Can any of you spell fields? Yes, I can spell it-fields. Right; now, see if you can spell it, James. [James perhaps fails in the attempt, but another does it, and so the teacher proceeds.] Well, we have walked out into the fields. Do


you know what the fields are like? Large. Yes, they are large ; but what is their colour? Green. Can you tell me what green is like; show me something that is...green. That tree in the picture is green (pointing to a picture on the wall). Do you see any thing else of a green colour? Yes, the ribbon on that girl's bonnet is green. Very well answered. Now, do you know what grows in the...fields. Grass. What is the use of grass ? Cows eat it. Do cows give us any thing? They give us milk. Do you know any other animals which eat grass ? Sheep. What are sheep like? (No answer). Are they larger or smaller than cows? Smaller. Exactly. What kind of skins have they? They have wool. Have cows wool? No. What have they? Brown spots. Spots

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of wool! No, hair. How many legs has a sheep? Four.
Many sheep together make a flock-make a...flock. You
will remember this, that a number of sheep together make
a...flock. Is grass always green, think you? Yes. Did
you ever see grass any other colour than green? No. You
never saw grass any other colour than green? No. But
suppose, during a hot summer, when the sun is shining very
bright for a long time, perhaps for six or eight weeks at a
time, and no rain, what colour do you think grass would
be? Brown. Then, grass is not always green? No, sir.
It sometimes is...brown. Whether do you think that sheep
would like to eat green....grass, which is full of...sap, or
brown...grass, that is very...dry ? Green grass. Quite
right. Now, tell me what it is that shines in the...sky. The
sun. What does the sun do when it...shines? Yes, when
it shines? It gives light. Does the sun always...shine?
No, it does not shine at night. Now I must tell you where
the sun goes at night. [Here the master gives a slight idea
of the sun shining continually at one place or other, so as to
correct the natural supposition that it goes to bed, or sinks
into the sea at night.] Well, now, we say the sun shines
in the...sky,&c. &c.

By this method of omitting words, cross-questioning, and easy conversational explanation of difficulties, it is impossible that a child can learn his lessons merely by rote. His infant faculties are excited to listen, to comprehend, and to answer. He cons over and reads his lesson, not with the bald design of repeating it, or drawling monotonously over the words, but of acquiring information

, and exhibiting his
little store of knowledge among his schoolfellows. It is
almost unnecessary to say that his progress depends very
much, if not altogether, on the tact and professional slot
the master, as well as on the assistance with this parents
may give him at home. One very material abrannage
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the subjects incidentally introduced, is continued to the very last. Hence an English education, in point of fact, includes a vast variety of topics-elocution, etymology, grammar, elements of physical science, the arts, history, geography, &c.—all preparatory to the special study of any of these branches of learning.

These explanations of what constitutes the intellectual method of instruction, will help to show the fallacy of appending a string of questions to every lesson in books for schools. To all such set-down questions we most decidedly object. When questions are printed, the pupils learn the answers, and nothing more ; whereas every word in the lesson may form the basis of a dozen questions at least, exclusive of the collateral explanations which may be suggested. Skilful teachers require no printed sets of questions for their guidance; they are able to construct a thousand varied questions out of every lesson that passes through their hands, and they have only to guard against the error of allowing their zeal to carry them away to subjects irrelevant to the lessons before them.

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COME, let us walk out in-to the fields. The sun shines in the sky. The air is sweet and pleasant. There is no smoke in the fields. The smoke is on-ly in towns. The fields are ve-ry large, and spread a great way.

But we shall far. Now, see how beau-ti-ful all things _are. Hark, did you hear a-ny noise ? Yes. It is

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open air?

birds sing-ing among the bush-es. Pret-ty lit-tle birds, I love you all. Do not fly a-way, for I will not hurt you. Here are some crumbs, which I have put on the ground. Come, pick them up with your beaks.

beaks. They will be food for your young.

I hear other sounds. They come from the next field over the fence. Oh, it is men and wo-men sing-ing. Why do they sing in the

Be-cause they are at work. Some have hoes, and some have spades. It is good to be bu-sy.

The bu-sy may sing, for they are hap-py. The i-dle are ne-ver hap-py, and they have not the heart to sing.

I smell a sweet scent. It is from the hawthorn blos-soms on the hed-ges, and from the flow-ers a-mong the grass. Yon-der is a beauti-ful cow in the mea-dow. Wild dai-sies, and cow-slips, and prim-roses, and white clo-ver

grow there.

Do you love flow-ers? Yes, be-cause they are pret-ty, and have a sweet scent. They will cheer us when we look upon them, and make us love God who made them, and all things for

our use.

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