grasp of his mental faculties, are displayed in his grand Mosaic Vision of Creation, woven of such coloured shadows as may have rolled in a gorgeous panorama before the eye of the prophet, sitting upon a hill top in the lonely Midian desert.

John STUART MILL, the son of the historian of India, and the author of a System of Logic, Ratiocinative and Inductive (1843); Essays on Unsettled Questions of Political Economy (1844); Principles of Political Economy (1848); and Liberty (1859), takes rank among the first thinkers of the time. His philosophy is opposed in most respects to the system of Bacon. He held, as did his father, the office of Examiner of Indian Correspondence, retiring when the Company was dissolved in 1859. Born in 1806, Mr. Mill is yet in middle life.

Supplementary List.

WILLIAM SMITH.—(1769–1839)—Churchill, Oxfordshire—founder of English geology—Geological Map of England; Organic Remains. WILLIAM BUCKLAND.—(1784–1856)—Dean of Westminster—one of the Bridgewater treatises on Geology and Mineralogy in Reference to Natural Theology. GIDEON MANTELL.-(1788–1852)—an English physician—The Fossils of the South Downs; The Medals of Creation; Wonders of Geology. DIONYSIUS LARDNER.—(1793–1859)—Hand-Book of Natural Philosophy and Astronomy; Museum of Science and Art; edition of Euclid. MICHAEL FARADAY.-(1794—still living)—a blacksmith's son—greatest English chemist—Researches on Electricity; Popular Lectures on Chemistry of a Candle, &c. SIR CHARLEs LyFL.L.—(1797—still living)—Kinnordy, Forfarshire—Principles of Geology; Elements of Geology; Travels in North America. RICHARD Owen.—(about 1803—still living)—Lancaster—a distinguished surgeon and physiologist—History of British Fossil Mammals and Birds; British Fossil Reptiles. JAMEs FERRIER.—(1808—still living)—Professor of Moral Philosophy at St. Andrews—Institutes of Metaphysic; edition of Wilson's Works.

Dr. MANSEL of Oxford, author of Limits of Religious Thought, and jointeditor of Sir William Hamilton's Lectures—Dr. MoRELL, Inspector of Schools in England, author of A History and Critical View of the Speculative Philosophy of Europe during the Wineteenth Century—Professor M'Cosh of Belfast, author of the Method of the Divine Government—Professor ALEXANDER BAIN of Aberdeen, author of The Senses and the Intellect ; The Emotions and the Will— and HERBERT SPENCER, author of First Principles of Psychology, have made valuable contributions to the scientific literature of the present century.



The Dissertations, written for the Encyclopædia Britannica from time to time during the last hundred years, trace the progress of Physical and Mental Science with remarkable clearness and effect. DUGALD STEWART and SIR JAMES MACKINTOSH took up Ethical Philosophy ; Archbishop WHATELY dealt with the History of Christianity ; while Mathematics and Physics have been treated successively by JOHN PLAYPAIR (1748–1819), Sir John LESLIE (1766–1832), and JAMES DAVID FORBES (born 1808—now Principal of the United College, St. Andrews). Leslie wrote also remarkable work on Heat; and Forbes is well known for his books upon Glaciers.

THEOLOGLANS AND SCHOLARS. THOMAS CHALMERS, born in 1780, at Anstruther in Fifeshire, was a merchant's son. Educated at St. Andrews, he was ordained in 1803 as minister of Kilmany in his native county. Twelve years later (1815) he removed to Glasgow, where his splendid fame as a pulpit orator was chiefly won. Jeffrey's striking characterization best conveys the marvellous power which this wonderful man had over every audience he addressed,—“He buries his adversaries under the fragments of burning mountains.” In 1823 he went to St. Andrews as Professor of Moral Philosophy in the United College ; and in 1828 he exchanged this post for the chair of Divinity in the University of Edinburgh. When the Disruption of 1843 took place, Chalmers was prominent among the founders of the Free Church of Scotland. On the 31st of May 1847 he was found dead in his bed, with no sign of suffering on his placid face. A most interesting and graphic Life of this eminent orator and scholar has been written by his son-in-law, Dr. Hanna of Free St. John's, Edinburgh. Thirty-four volumes are filled with the gathered works of Chalmers. His Natural Theology, his Evidences of Christianity, his Lectures on the Romans, and his magnificent Astronomical Discourses, may be singled out as noble specimens of literary work. But the qualities which distinguish these pervade all his writings. From heaven and earth and sea, from the world of mind and the world of matter, he drew countless illustrations to clothe his subject in a fitting garb. He touched a pebble, and it became a gem. He looked on a scene, and it brightened into beauty or faded into gloom, as wrath or mercy lit his eye. His


audience heard with his ears, saw with his vision, and followed in rapt wonder the man whose resistless spirit had flung its lightning chains around them. IsAAc TAYLOR, born in 1787 at Lavenham, the son of an Independent minister, settled down at Stanford Rivers, not far from his home at Ongar in Essex, to write The Watural History of Enthusiasm. It appeared anonymously in 1829. The Physical Theory of Another Life, and Ancient Christianity, may be named among his many works. He is a writer of great learning and power. WILLIAM MURE of Caldwell, born in 1799, a colonel in the Renfrewshire Militia, is distinguished for his learned and carefully written Critical History of the Language and Literature of Ancient Greece. In the Homeric controversy Colonel Mure sides with those who consider the Iliad and Odyssey to have been the work of a single poet. He died in 1860. THOMAS GUTHRIE, born in 1800, at Brechin in Forfarshire, is a minister of the Free Church of Scotland. The “Times,” in a review of one of his works, calls him “The greatest of our pulpit orators.” His principal works are, A Plea for Ragged Schools; The Gospel in Ezekiel ; The City, its Sins and Sorrows; Christ and the Inheritance of the Saints. JoHN WILLIAM DoNALDSON, born about 1810, was the son of a London merchant. He became a Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, and was for many years head-master of the Grammar School of Bury St. Edmunds. His principal works, The Theatre of the Greeks, The New Cratylus, and Varronianus, have won for him a first-rate reputation among the classical scholars and philologers of the century. Dr. Donaldson, who resided lately at Cambridge, died within the present year (1861). HENRY RoGERs, a professor in the Independent College at Birmingham, is celebrated as the author of The Eclipse of Faith, or a Visit to a Religious Sceptic. This work, published in 1852, deals with all the controversies and new questions in theology that have arisen in England or Germany during the last twenty years. It is a reply to Newman's Phases of Faith. A Reply and Defence have been exchanged between the rival champions since



the publication of the “Eclipse.” Mr. Rogers has contributed largely to the Edinburgh Review; and many of his essays have been republished.

Supplementary List. RALPH WARDLAW.-(1779-1853)—Dalkeith-Independent minister at Glasgow

Discourses on the Socinian Controversy. John BIRD SUMNER.—(1780—still living)-Kenilworth-Archbishop of Canter

bury-St. Paul's Epistles ; Records of Creation (second Burnett prize);

Evidences of Christianity. Thomas HARTWELL HORNE.—(1780-still living)-London-Episcopal minister

and librarian in the British Museum-Introduction to the Study of the

Scriptures. John Brown.-(1785–1859)-minister of the United Presbyterian Church in

Edinburgh-Commentaries upon Romans, Galatians, First Peter, &c. Hugh M‘NEILE.-(1795-still living)-Ballycastle, Antrim-rector of St. Jude's,

Liverpool--a celebrated pulpit orator. JULIUS HARE.-(1795-1855)--archdeacon of Lewes—a leader of Broad Church

party-sermons on Victory of Faith and Mission of the Comforter ; Life

of John Sterling ; Niebuhr's Rome, (trans.) Rubt. S. CANDLISH,- (still living)-minister of Free St. George's, Edinburgh

Lectures on Genesis ; Scripture Characters; The Atonement; Reason and

* Revelation, &c. John KITTO.-(1804–1854)-Plymouth--deaf-Pictorial Bible ; Cyclopædia of

Biblical Literature; Daily Bible Readings. RICHARD CHEVENIX TRENCH.—(1807—still living)—dean of Westminster Justin

Martyr, and other poems; Notes on the Parables and Miracles; Syno

nyms of the New Testament; Study of Words ; English--Past and Present. WILLIAM EWART GLADSTONE.—(1809-still living)-Liverpool-present (1861)

Chancellor of Exchequer-Homer and the Homeric Age. SIR HENRY RAWLINSON-(1810-still living)—Chadlington, Oxfordshire-de

cipherer of Assyrian inscriptions-Outline of the History of Assyria. HENRY ALFORD.-(1810-still living)-London-minister of Quebec Street Cha

pel-edition of the Greek Testament; Sermons and Poems. WILLIAM ARCHER BUTLER.—(1814–1848)—Annerville, near Clonmel - Professor

of Moral Philosophy, Trinity College, Dublin-Sermons ; Lectures on

Ancient Philosophy. ARTHUR PENRHYN STANLEY.—(1815-still living)--Alderley—canon of Canter

bury-Discourses on Corinthians ; Life of Dr. Arnold ; Memorials of

Canterbury. ROBERT ANCHOR THOMPSON.—(1821–still living)—Durbam-once curate of

Louth in Lincolnshire-first Burnett Prize Essay.
John TULLOCH.-—(1822—still living)—Tibbermuir in Perthshire-Principal of

St. Mary's College at St. Andrews—Theism, (second Burnett Prize) ;
Leaders of the Reformation ; English Puritanism.


John CAIRD.—(1823—still living)—Greenock—minister of Park Church, Glasgow—Sermons, (Religion in Common Life.)

NoHMAN MAGLEOD.—minister of Barony Church, Glasgow—eloquent preacher— editor of Good Words.

The leaders of the Tractarian party in the Church of England (so called from the publication of Tracts for the Times, between 1832 and 1837) were Edward PUSEY and JoHN HENRY NEWMAN, the latter of whom wrote also an Essay on the Development of Christian Doctrine. Mr. NEWMAN has since become a member of the Roman Catholic Church. His brother, FRANCIS NEWMAN, Latin Professor in University College, London, is author of a sceptical work, The Phases of Faith, to which Henry Rogers replied in the “Eclipse of Faith.” The well-known volume, Essays and Reviews, written by seven Oxford men, among whom BENJAMIN JowHTT is the leading name, represents a free-thinking section of the Church of England. J. FREDERICK DENISON MAURICE, a Cambridge man, lately Professor of Divinity in King's College, London, and well known for his association with Kingsley and others in efforts to raise the educational standard of the working classes, is the author of Theological Essays, The Religions of the World, and several other able works, which contain opinions at variance with the tenets of the Church of England, their “liberalism” sometimes going the length of heterodoxy. These opinions led to the removal of Mr. Maurice from his chair. JAMES MARTINEAU, a Unitarian minister in Liverpool, has produced some most eloquent works, among which may be named Studies in Christianity, and the Rationale of Religious Inquiry.

Cardinal WISEMAN, born at Seville in 1802, represents theology from the Roman Catholic point of view. He has published an interesting contribution to general literature, entitled Recollections of the Last Four Popes.


SAMUEL LAING, of Papdale in Orkney, is the author of A Residence in Norway (1834-36); A Tour in Sweden (1838); Notes of a Traveller (1854). This agreeable writer is a younger brother of the Scottish historian already named.

DAVID LIVINGSTONE, born about 1817, at Blantyre in Lanarkshire, has travelled much in Africa as a missionary. His work, Missionary Travels in South Africa, a valuable repertory of facts concerning that region, was published in 1857. The basin of the Zambezi has been the chief scene of his explorings, and he is at present engaged in striking out new paths in the same dimly-known ground. The discovery of Lake Ngami was one of his achievements,

« ElőzőTovább »