« ElőzőTovább »
Hence then b = 994, e = 820, v = 2J = f. 142*'—tJ 1403011—672400
Hence = == -01722.
64r - 64 x 672400
812 And «' = —» == 5T'j.
16 Theref. -01722 x 5,', = -0872 ft. = 1 in. the fall required; which is about half an inch more than the greatest fall observed by Mr. Labelye. v
And, for Blackfriar's-bridge, the fall will be much the same as that of Westminster.
On the whole, we cannot but congratulate the public upon the appearance of this volume, and the country upon thaf improved state of the Woolwich Academy, which renders such a volume necessary. The two ingenious authors seem to have been stimulated solely by a desire to compress into the smallest possible compass the greatest possible quantity of curious and useful matter. Both may be said to have studied the art of compression with the greatest success; though with Dr. Hutton it would rather seem to be a natural faculty, while in Dr. Gregory it appears like an acquired habit: for the former never deviates a single line from his purpose, while the latter appears fond (though iu this work he has very seldom indulged that propensity) to make excursions into connected and surrounding subjects. Neither of them, however, manifests any inclination for parade. So far as their writings indicate their motives, it may be fairly inferred that they write, not for the purpose^ of catching admiration, but of imparting instruction. And this volume, especially, will, we doubt not, be found as striking and durable a memorial of their talents, as it seems intended to be of their friendship. We cannot always permit authors to adjust their own claims; but, on the present occasion, we think Dr. Hutton is fully justified in expressing his conviction, 'that, with the assistance of his friend and coadjutor in this supplementary volume, he has now produced a Course of Mathematics in which a greater variety of useful subjects are introduced, and treated with perspicuity and correctness, than in any three volumes, of equal size, in any language.'
Art. 111. Sermons, by Samuel Horsley, LL.D. F.R. S. F.A.S. Late Lord Bishop of St. Asaph.
(Concludedfrom page 877.J
'HE next discourse to which the course of our examination conducts us, is on John xiii. 34, "a new commandment, &c. It must, before this time, have struck the
reader, that there is nothing of sentimental whining—or affected pathos in the sermons of Bishop Horsley; and yet, when the subject has naturally admitted of descriptive and touching appeals, no one seems more completely in command of our feelings, or more capable of inspiring the consciousness, on after-reflection, that all those fpelings were deserved. We have seldom read a finer specimen of appropriate and affecting exordium, than the following. «In that meirtorable night, when divine love and infernal malice, had each their perfect work,—the night when-Jesus was betrayed into the hands of those who thirsted for h;s blood, and the mysterious scheme of man's redemption was brought to its accomplishment, Jesus, having finished the pascal supper, and instituted those holy mysteries, by which the thankful remembrance of his oblation of himself is continued in the church until his second coming, and the believer is nourished with the food of everlasting life;—When all this war finished, and nothing now remained o( his great and piinful undertaking-, but the last tryingpart of it, to be led like a sheep to the slaughter, and to make his life a sacrifice for sin,—in that trying hour, just before he ref'red to the garden, where the power of darkness was to be permitted' to- display on' him its last and utmost effort, Jesus gave it solemnly in charge to the eleven apostles, (the twelfth the son of perdition was already lost; he was gone to hasten the execution of his intended treason),—to the eleven, whose loyalty remained as yet unshaken, Jesus, in that awful hour gave it solemnly in charge, "to love one another, as he had loved them." And because the perverse wit of man is ever fertile in plausible evasions of the plainest duties,— lest this command should be interpreted, in after ages, as an injunction in which the apostles only were concerned, imposed upon them in their peculiar character ofthe governors of the church, our great master, to obviate any such wilful misconstruction of his dying charge, declared it to be his pleasure and his meaning, that the exercise of mutual love, in all ages, and in all nations, among men of all ranks, callings and conditions, should be the general badge and distinction of his disciples. "By-this shall all men know that ye are my disciples, if ye love one another." And this injunction—he calls '* a new commandment—" &c. p. 255—7.
The R'. R. author then proceeds to explain the novelty of this commandment—because 'it was new in the practice of mankind—in the lessons of divines and moralists, it was a topic' out of use—and the disciples were required to love one another, after the manner, and if the frailty of human nature might so far aspire, in the degree in which Christ loved them.' The remaining part of the sermon after the illustration of these topics, is occupied by some remarks on the perfection of the example of Christ; and gladly would we transcribe several pages of this truly eloquent and scriptural discourse, but for the length to which our notice has already extended. For this reason, we must notice very briefly what rertiaifts before us. , .
The twelfth sermon is an ■ explanation of MaCt.xvi. 28. "Verily I say unto you, there be some standing here, which shall not taste of death, till they see the son of man, comiffg in his kingdom." Agreeably to the interpretation of the phrase, "the coming of the son of man," which he had already established, the Bishop considers this passage as an intimation, that a certain individual present when Christ spake these Words, should not suffer the full punishment of his crimes, till the day of judgement; and the unhappy victim of thi* prophetic doom, was, in his opinion, the traitor Judas.
'Not to taste of death' [says his lordship] * is riot to feel the bilUrnest of it. In this sense Was the feme expression used by our Lord upon other occasions. U If a man keep my saying he shall never taste of death." The expression is to be understood, with reference to the intermediate state between death and the final judgement, in which the souls both of the righteous and the wicked exist in 4 conscious state, the one comforted with the hope and prospect of their future glory,—the other mortified with the expectation of torment. —It may be truly said of the wicked, that they have no real taste of death, till they taste it in the burning lake.'—p. 285.
Having ingeniously established the special reference of this passage to the betrayer of our Lord, he adverts to the doctrine of the eternity of future punishment; the justice of which he vindicates from rational views of the divine government, and the explicit assertions of Scripture.
The well-known declaration, recorded in Matt. xvi. 18, 19, on which the Romanists support the supremacy of St. Peter, is the subject of the next discourse, which was preached, in 1795* before the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts. The learned prelate differs from many protestant writers, in his interpretation of this passage; and irt the following'confident tone, scruples not to assert' his convictions.
• St Peter, on this occasion answered only for himself:—the blessing obtained was for himself singly, the reward, of His being foremost in the faith which he confessed :-*-to be the carrier of the keys of the kingdom of heaven—to loose and bind on earth, in any sense which the expressions may bear in this passage—were personal distinctions of the venerable primate of the apostolic college, appropriated to him in positive and absolute exclusion of all other persons,—in exclusion of the apostles his contemporaries, and of the Bishops of Rome his successors. We neea not scruple to assert, that any interpretation of this passage, or of any part of it, founded upon a
Vol. VII. 4 K
notion, that St. Peter, upon this occasion, spake or was spoken to as the representative of the apostles, is groundless and erroneous.' pp. 316—7.
Vastly as this sounds like the tone of the Vatican, we soon resumed our complacency towards the Bishop, on finding him a very orthodox and consistent protestant, and, after all his apparent concessions, making the passage before us completely hostile to every papal claim. He proves, most satisfactorily, that the power of the keys, entrusted to St Peter, was • not a perpetual but a temporary authority,' and differed materially from that subsequent grant of authority given to all the apostles without distinction. By referring to the sacred records he shows, that St. Peter opened the kingdom of heaven, ' applied the key, pushed back the bolt of the lock, and threw the gates of the city open for the admission of the whole gentile world, in the instance of Cornelius and his family ;' and that 'to this, and to this only, our Lord prophetically alluded, when he promised to St. Peter the custody of the keys.' p. S20.
The "binding and loosing" he considers as illustrated in the confirmation of the moral, and the abrogation of the ceremonial law; and refers to the decision of the council at Jerusalem, on the appeal of the church of Antioch, as formed by the special suggestion and persuasion of St. Peter. Here, however, we think the Bishop's idea of exclusive reference to this apostle, is contradicted by the narrative. The apostle James, as must appear to any impartial reader of the account, appears the sole framer of the resolution which was transmitted to the gentile churches,—and the authoritative preamble to that resolution unites all the Apostles together, without any distinction: '* it seemed good "to the Holy Ghost and to us." By the rock in the text, his lordship understands the truth of that memorable confession, for which the Apostle was so highly rewarded. Adverting to the phrase "gates of hell," he considers it as a periphrastic description of death; and views the promise as securing the continuance of the church, notwithstanding the successive mortality of its members. This, we think, is evidently included in the declaration: but we hesitate in admitting it to be the whole import of the passage. We are aware that Whitby and Campbell are authorities for the opinion: still we are disposed to imagine, that the gates of hell refer to the councils and projects of invisible enemies against the church; and that there is an obvious allusion to the practice of the courts of judicature and deliberative assemblies being held at the "gate of the city." * The sermon concludes with two observations; that 'the church is a building raised by Christ himself, founded on his truth alone; and that the promise of perpetual stability is only to the church catholic, and affords no security to any particular church, if her faith, or her works, should not be found perfect before God.' From this last remark the Bishop is led to a strain of solemn and affecting admonition, peculiarly applicable to the clergy of our establishment, and adapted to arouse them to the more vigilant discharge of their duties. It is an admirable specimen of hortatory eloquence.
We can only just mention the next sermon on 1 Cor. ii. 2, which contains many ingenious remarks on apostolic gifts, and the necessity of learning in a christian teacher, (a subject by the bye, on which the sectaries as (hey are generally called, are much more enlightened than most bishops are aware of,) in order to hasten to the first four sermons of the second volume, on the important topic of prophecy^—its nature and design, and the principles on which the scriptural interpretation of it should be founded. The text of these discourses is in 2 Peter, 1. 20, 21: the English rendering of which he amends by a translation much more intelligible in itself, and much more accordant with the scope and connection of the passage. 'The precise meaning of the original may be thus expressed: Not any prophecy of scripture is of self interpretation—-or, is its own interpreter? Having established this 'improved version,' he remarks, that the maxim contained in it is to be
* applied both to every single text of prophecy, and to the whole. Of any single text it is true, that it cannot be its own interpreter; for this reason,—because the scripture prophecies are not detached predictions of separate independent events, but are united in a regular and entire system, all terminating in one great object—the promu'gation of the gospel, and the complete establishment of the Messiah's kingdom. Of this system, every particular prophecy makes a part, and bears a more immediate, or a more remote relation to that which is the object of the whole. It is therefore very unlikely, that the true signification of any particular text of prophecy, should be discovered from the bare attention to the terms of the single prediction, taken by itself, without considering it as a part of that system to which it unquestionably belongs, and without observing how it may stand connpcud v.ith earlier and later prophecies, especially with those which might more immediately precede or follow it.
*See Harmer's Observations—Burnet on the articles—and Beza in loc.