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He states, without any hesitation, that Mack was bought; and that the bargain was completed by a round sum of money in hand, and a principality in promise.
We are trespassing upon the narrow space which articles of this kind usually demand from us; but we cannot refuse admission to the following most important paragraph: it points out the only efficient inode of making and maintain. ing a good and well officered army.
That Bonaparte is perfectly acquainted with the art of war, is not his greatest merit. His great secret is his intimate knowledge of the human heart. He does not disdain to converse with the subalterns. He will sometimes keep a regiment under review for six hours. He questions the colonels, the majors, the captains. When he is pleased or dissasisfied with any individual, one of his aides de camp makes a memorandum, and at night he reviews the written transactious of the day. The field of battle is less the element of Bonaparte than the cabinet; he has no equal in the investigation of questions relating to the politics of Europe, and the administration of France. He avails himself, with extraordinary skill, of gold as the key of the human heart. A captain of grenadiers atchieves some brilliant exploit; he examines his memoranda ; if he be an experienced officer, he gives him a ma. jority; if that post be above his talents, he send him 100 louis. The consequence is, that, in the very first action, this man who before was only brave, eagerly seizes every opportunity of appearing daring.'
General Sarrazin's classification of the great generals of the eighteenth century is somewhat singular. He ranks Kleber first, Moreau second, and Bonaparte third. Of those who are now alive he appears to consider Soult as the ablest: it is asserted of this commander, that he combines the peculiar excellence of Napoleon in making arrangements for a battle, with the talent of Moreau for maneuvring during the heat of the conflict; acd that he is equal to either in the important faculty of improving victory. Lord Wellington is classed in the second order of great commanders ; with the Archduke Charles, St. Cyr, Bernadotte, Macdonald and Massena .
We cannot help suspecting that General S. overrates Kleber; who appears, indeed to have been a brave and generous soldier, with much of that chivalrous honour of which -so little is now to be found among the officers of the French army; but who in our opinion did not do enough, probably for want of opportunity, to intitle him to rank above the greatest generals of the day. An anecdote is related of Kleber, in this volume, which is illustrative at once of his character and of Napoleon's exquisite knowledge of it. Kleber had some important subject of complaint against Bonaparte when in Egypt, and repaired to his tent full
of aiger, for the purpose of stating his grievances. Aware of Kleber's irritability, the subtle commander suffered him to cool, by leaving him to walk backwards and forwards before his tent, muttering, and striving with his impatience, After an hour or two of this wholesome and evaporating exercise, the general in chief appeared, yawning, stretching, and carelessly inquiring his business. Kleber made his complaint with great energy: and Bonaparte, siernly and .coutemptuously, bade him go about his business, threatened to have him shot, turned upon his heel, and left him; while the astonished Alsatian retired, confounded and abashed. Napoleon knew his man, and was aware, if he had encountered his first fierceness, that the gigantic and exasperated Kleber would probably have knocked him down; but be also knew, probably from experience, the uncomfortable feeling, the sensation of comparative littleness, produced by an hour's attendance in an antichamber, or by a quarter... deck walk, for the same space of time, before a great man's tent.' He tried the experiment on Kleber, and, as it appears, with complete success.
General Sarrazin announces two or three additional important political and military productions, but speaks of difficulties in the way of publication. For this, we are apprehensive, he has partly to thank himself. It was rather too .. much to expect, that this nation should receive an untried deserter from the enemy's ranks with open arms. Instances of sudden and total tergiversation are always viewed, at first sight, with some little distrust; nor, we think, did Ge. neral S., in the present instance, pursue the most likely way to remove it, by a noisy forwardness in proclaiming his own merits. He clearly acted, too, with some ill judgement, in assigning the neglect with which he had been treated in France, as the sole motive for his throwing bimse!f on our protection.-We shall, however, be glad to find that the. obstacles he alludes to, are now removed; and hope that the public will soon be favoured with the result of the General's inilitary experience and extensive information Art. ' X. Biblica Hebraica ; secundum ultimam editionem Jos. Athiæ,
&c. &c. A new Edition of Everard van der Hooght's Hebrew Bi. ble; by the Rev. Joseph Samuel C. F. Frey. Part I. 8vo. pp. 128. Price 4s. 6d. Large Paper 6s. At the Office of the London Society for promoting Christianity among the Jews; and sold by the Editor, Longman and Co, Rivingtons, Lunn, &c., 1811. A MONG the signs of the times which wear a favourable
aspect on the interests of Christian knowledge and ety, the apparent revival of a taste for Hebrew learning
ety, aspect the sign.
may be justly reckoned a peculiarly propitious circumstance. Without an intimate acquaintance with the language of the primitive Oracles of God, the literature of the New Testainent must languish; but, by the combined and reciprocal aid of both, the man of cool judgement and fervid religion will enter the penetralia of revealed truth. The proper and rational methods for the conversion of the Jews to the faith of Christ, must ever rest on the correct knowledge of their original scriptures. And, for the work of translating the Bible into numerous and hitherto unchristianized languages, which the noble-minded enterprize of British Christians now contemplates on a grand scale, this learning is indispensa
For such reasons as these, it has given us great pleasure to find that, besides the hope of a new and magnificent polyglutt, three editions of the Hebrew Old Testament have been lately announced or begun in England. The work before us is intended to be an exact copy of Van der Hooght's celebrated edition, which has always been in high estimation for its clearness, accuracy, and conveniency. It is not, therefore, a subject for criticism any farther than with relation to its typographical execution, and the care and
diligence employed to secure accuracy. The type is at least .. equal in strength and distinctness to the Dutch edition, and
the paper of the common copies is decidedly superior : the large paper copies are beautiful. From some circumstances which have come to our knowledge, we think it just to say, that the editorial labours of the Rev. Mr. Frey deserve high commendation. The difficulty of printing Hebrew correctly with the points and all the accents, is known to be so great as to be next to impracticable, with even the best English compositors. Mr. Frey, therefore, has wisely engaged Jewish compositors, who, from their childhood, were trained up to a familiarity with the punctuated and accentuated Hebrew. He himself carefully revises every word and mark, by the Bible of Salomon Proops, which the Jews consider the most accurate ever published; and he has engaged another colverted Jew, who is an accomplished Hebraist on the Masoretic plan, to assist him in the vast toil of correcting. By these means he has detected an unexpected number of errors in Van der Hooght's original edition. The work is to be completed in twelve parts, one of which will be published each alternate month,
While we would not detract from the praise due to Mr. Frey's undertaking, we, at the same time, are not without our fears that it may contribute to keep up the undue reverence for the Masoretic text, which a false opinion of its perfection so long. suppported among Christian, as well as Jewish divines, and scholars. After the proofs of numerous and material errors in that text, which our illustrious Kennicott has established, no reasonable man can maintain the fiction of its purity. Mr. Boothroyd's edition proceeds upon just principles; but the want of the points will be a hindrance to its general utility. An edition which should exhibit a critically corrected Hebrew text, with the vowel-points, but without the accents, according to the plan of Mr. Reeves's Hebrew Psalter, London, 1804,) is still a great desideratum. Art. XI. A Sermon occasioned by the death of the Rev. Thomas
Spencer, who was drowned at Liverpool, Aug. 25th. aged twenty years : Preached at Union Street Meeting, Brighton, August 18th,
By John Styles. 8vo. 'pp. 30. Price 1s. 6d. T. Williams. 1811. Art. XII. A Sermon delivered at Hoxton Chapel, on Thursday,
Aug. 15, 1811, on occasion of the much lamented death of the Rev. Thomas Spenser, of Liverpool, including a short Memoir of his Life: to which are added 'Extracts from his Letters to intimate friends. By Henry Forster Burder, M. A. One of the tu tors of the Hoxton Academy. 8vo. pp. 60. Black, and Co.
Gale and Curtis, &c. 1811. SO powerful a sensation has been excited by the mournful
event which gave occasion to these discourses, that we shall bestow rather more notice upon them, than is commonly due to single sermons. They are by no means destitute of merit, considered as sermons only, but are undoubtedly most interesting, as biographical memoirs. Our first object, therefore, will be to put the public in possesion of some particulars respecting the character and accomplishments of the excellent young man, whose untimely and afflicting fate thcy have been already taught to deplore.
Mr. Spencer was born at Hertford, was religiously edu. cated by his parents, and at a very early age not only discovered proofs of piety and genius, but a remarkable inclination to the Christian ministry. Having spent twelve months under the tuition of the Rev. W. Hordle of Harwich, with whom he had been placed by some pious and benevolent individuals, who had become acquainted with him, he was admitted as a student at Hoxton academy, when not quite sixteen. During the two last of the four years, which completed his course of study at this seminary, he was frequently engaged in preaching; and attracted multitudes to hear him at different chapels in London and its yicinity. It was not a peculiar vivacity of fancy,' says Mr. Burder, which gave life to his addresses, although in this
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respect they were not deficient; but they rather owed their effect to the energy and animation infused by the ardour of his soul, and to the unaffected fervour of his religious feelings, the impression of which was aided by no small advantages of person, voice, and elocution. In an anonymous sketch of his character wbich appeared in a Liverpool paper, he is stated to have been in person and countenance eminently prepossessing, and of manners most amiable, conciliating and engaging. His discourses were rather persuasive and hortatory, than argumentative and disquisitive; they were addressed more to the imagination and affections than to the judgement. It is added, that he was distinguished, by a surprising " fluency of language, by "an uncommonly distinct articulation, a tone of voice singularly melodious, and great gracefulness of action.' "As a man,' says Mr. Styles, who appears to have known him intimately, he was intelligent, amiable, and interesting: without suspicion, without guile. Nature had framed him of her finest materials, and moulded him in her loveliest form. As a Christian, his pięty was rational, refined, exalted : he had the simplicity and gentleness of Christ; was most forgiving of injuries, and that upon principle.' The leading feature of his character, Mr. S. observes, in another place, was animation. As far as such a delineation can be verified by the concurrence of unconnected writers, by the facts which are stated, and the letters of this amiable young man, some of which are inserted in each of these publications, it appears to be strictly correct.-In June last, at the age of twenty, he was ordained pastor of a dissenting church at Liverpool, where his unprecedented popularity had occasioned the building of a very large chapel. He engaged in the various duties of his office with great activity: and, not confining himself to the precise sphere in which he was appointed to labour, began to extend his instructions to the neighbouring villages. It appears, too, from one of these sermons, that he was on the eve of forming a tender connection, with one whose excellencies might well engage his affections. From the midst of such prospects of happiness and utility, was he suddenly snatched away by a violent death. On the 5th of August, as he was bathing in the river near Liverpool, he sunk in deep water without power to recover himself,-either in conse. quence of falling down an abrupt declivity in the bed of the river, where he was wading, or from being swept away by an eddy. The body having been under water nearly fifty minutes before it could be found, the most diligent and persevering exertions to restore animation proved ineffectual.