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ing among the very first letters in the series, an order sent to a governor, to have certain public functionaries who were paid by the state, soundly flogged', because- but it will never be believed in this more civilized and moralized country ;-we will however assign the reason ;-it was because these gentlemen were making their offices sinecurts;—not that they were doing the business wrong, but that they wished to do no business for their salaries !
If we had not exceeded due limits already, we would insert a few of the letters; but we repeat that, for any reader who is not minutely examining the history of the period, they are just nothing; they will not supply the smallest gratification even to curiosity. The editor and translator has taken the greatest pains to make the version accurate in the first instance, and then to make the letters intelligible, and to deduce from the many points of historical information. To the historian, therefore, of the Indian affairs of those times, the work will be valuable, and only to him.
Art. IX. Principia Botanica, or a concise and easy Introduction to the
Sexual Botany of Linnæus. Containing the Genera, their mode of growing, &c. arranged in a Tabular form under each class and order, and digested Alphabetically under several generic distinctions. Toge. ther with three Indexes, &c. Third Edition corrected and enlarged, with many curious and useful additional Notes. 8vo. pp. 326. Price 10s. 6d. Longman and Co. 1810. To understand a system of Botany, it is not only ne
cessary to be able to discriminate its genera and spe. cies by their distinctive characters, but also to comprehend the relation in which they are placed, and the connexion they have with one another on account of common proper. ties. In so immense a combination as the Linnean system at present consists of, sucha survey of its outlines can only be facilitated by a separate sketch ;-for a mere list of the classes and orders is insufficient;-and a catalogue, including the generic distinctions, is already too perplexing. The idea, therefore, of giving a table of the genera, collected into their approximate families, orders, and classes, could not but meet with the approbation, as well of the tyro, as of the proficient, enabling either to consult at pleasure the station of any genus in the system. This purpose, we are sorry to observe, can be effected by the work before us, only in a very limited degree. Having made frequent use of the former edition, (published about 1795 or 1796, we were not a little eager to see it come forth enriched with the acqusitions of the last fourteen or fifteen years and not a little disappointed, therefore, on opening the present edition, to cast our eyes on the old note :
• The number of genera is taken from the 8th edition of the Gen. lantarum printed in 1791, with some others. The number of species is taken from the systema vegetabilium, 14th edition, printed in 1784, with some others since discovered.' p. 48.
Almost the only improvement which the lapse of so many years, distinguished by the unremitting labours of an unprea cedented number of botanists, have enabled Mr. D. to make to his Principia Botanica, is the addition of a few notes, some useful and interesting some unnecessary and occasionally repeating in one place what has been said in another, with a mere change of words; e. g. the notes on Horned Poppy, pp. 101-298. In the Introduction, Linneus's ingenious fancy respecting the origin of the pistillum from the pith, the stamina from the wood, &c. though long since proved to be but a theoretical dream, maintains its post, with all the pertinacity of a once credited ghost story ; and Ginkgo is still condemned to languish among the Palms, under its barbarous Japanese nickname, though its now discovered inflorescence proves it to belong to a very different class, whither it has been removed under the name of Salisburia. Dr. Smith's having dismissed the order Monogamia from the class Syngenesia, is indeed hinted at, in a note, on the authority of the Panorama for Sept. 1808 ! But as proof how nimbly the author keeps pace with recent discoveries, we need only mention, that the number of species assigned to the genus Aloe is 12 ! to Erica, 74! to Geranium (including Pelargo. nium and Erodiuni) 37 !-while the Cape of Good Hope, exclusive of other sources, has furnished us with more than four times these numbers in each genus. We are the less disposed to tolerate Mr. Darwin's rudeness in pretending tu entertain his friends with what may have been a treat fifteen years ago, because he might have provided better fare so easily. With the assistance of Smith's or Wildenow's Introduction to Botany, and Wildenow's Species Plantarum, a few hours' labour would have rendered the work valuable. It may still, indeed, be in some degree useful, as the catalogue of British names is tolerably correct, and the notes often convey interesting, though not very novel information : but few will open the volume without censuring the negligence and indolence of the author. Of the Notes, which will be the most attractive part to general readers, we insert one as a specimen, which has not been much injured by passing through Mr. Darwin's mould,
j Quercus. Kermes (a species of insect called “coccus infectorius ) is found on an evergreen oak (quercus coccifera), and was much used in dyeing before cochineal was known. (See scleranthus and cactus). Both this and cochineal were for a long time considered as a grain ; hence clothes dyed with these drugs were said to be dyed in grain. Quercus suber is the cork tree, which Mr. Miller says requires stripping of its external bark (out of which they cut corks) every eight or ten years, for the health of the tree, which would otherwise sooner perish ;-But Mr. Dillon (in his travels through Spain, printed in 1782) says that they strip off the bark every four years as far as a white sap, which they leave on the tree ; a liquid · humour afterwards issues out, which thickens with the sun and air, and forms a new bark in about four years.--See note to spondias. Quercus nigra (black oak) is so called in Pensylvania, New Jersey, New York, and New England. Mr. Bartram (in his travels through America, printed in 1792) says that he measured several black oaks that were eight, nine, ten, and eleven feet diameter, five feet above the ground, from whence they ascended perfectly straight, with a gradual taper, forty or fifty feet to the Jimbs ; the bark called the quercitron bark) is found to afford a valuable yellow dye ; discovered by Edward Bancroft, M. D. F. R.S. who obtained an exclusive privilege for importing, using, and vending it. Professor Martin is of opinion that our common English oak (qaercus robur) produces by much the best timber of any of the species; the leaves are deciduous, have no foot-stalks, and the acorns generally grow single, or at most two together, on long foot-stalks. There is also an oak, not uncom. mon in England, which hath the leaves on foot-stalks, and the acorns in clusters, sitting close to the branch ; but the timber is much inferior, In some counties the woodmen call it durmast.' pp. 155, 156. Art. X. Sermons on Select Subjects. By John Hyatt. Svo. pp. 369.
Price86. Williams, and Gale and Curtis. 1811. TN publishing these Sermons, the author had it principally
in view to furnish an additional and permanent mean of improvement to the numerous congregation to which they had been addressed: and it will be gratifying and useful to many of his auditory to be thus enabled to renew and confirm the impressions received in hearing them. .
The subjects though called 'Select,' are not chosen with any affected singularity of taste. They are the following: The importance of Mediation-Abundant Grace - The Christian's Desire of Heaven- The Death of the Righteous The Advantage of remembering the Redeemer's Words-Pilate's Question--Walking with God-The Redeemer's SympathyThe Precious and the Vile-The Redeemer's Ascension Assurance-The Privileges of Tried Saints-Officious Meddlers with God warned–The Recollections of Gratitude, and the Pleasures of Hope.
Their doctrinal complexion will be deemed highly Cal vinistic. The preacher is pleased with every fair occasion
not intro but a dispropexperience
bf adverting to the subject of the divine sovereignty, and the several topics most immediately related to it. But he does not introduce them by violence, nor so ex patiate on them as to leave but a disproportioned room for the instructions more directly bearing on experience and practice: and he sos licitously guards, and very earnestly protests, against the Antinomian perversion of the doctrines of grace. There is indeed, throughout, a zealously moral strain of exhortations and every opportunity is seized, of marking the various points of contradistinction of Christian holiness from the dubious, or lax, or licentious morality, which most immediately borders on the erroneous apprehension, or corrupt application, of the most peculiar of the doctrines of the gospel. Many brief sketches of virtue and vice, sometimes evidently drawn froni living reality, enliven this course of practical instruction.
Investigation, in a strict sense, was not to any considerable extent the preacher's object : but rather a spirited, popular inculcation of whatever it is, in heart or practical conduct, that most decidedly distinguishes Christians from the rest of mankind. There is a good deal of vivacity in the train of ideas, and they are generally enounced in short sentences. The too large proportion of trite or self-evident propositions, is relieved by the frequent occurrence of a bold reinark, an earnest appeal, or a sudden figure, very much adapted to popular effect. The advantage, however, attending a quick, brisk succession of brief sentences, is liable to be countervailed by some defect of train and continuity of thought: we think our preacher's composition is in the opposite extreme to this lengthened dependence and concatenation of thought,
which is, it must be confessed, of all things the least adapted to the puipose of a popular address.
If we note it as a fault in this volume that it contains too large a portion of quotation from the Bible, we shall be understood to mean simply that this practice has, in some degree, the effect of putting rather a little fraud on the purchaser, who obtains really a great deal less of the proper workmanship of the author, than the size of the volume seems to promise. It is also unquestionable, that a great accumulation of texts tends, especially in a discourse that is to be read, to destroy the distinctness, and weaken the force, of any train of thought that is directed to a specific object.
It is nearly at random that we select a short passage or two as a specimen of the preacher's manner. In recounting the 'hiudrances that lie in the way of obtaining right views of truth,' he illustrates one of them by this spritely sketch of characier.
• The natural A-xibility of some minds is a hiridrance. They are so - Credulous that they receive an opinion as true without the least dubitation.
Being either unable to distinguish the difference of sentiment which many hold, or, too indolent to examine the reasons for their own belief, they dispute nothing. Every author is sound, every preacher is örthodox. If they hear a discourse in the evening as opposite to the one they heard in the morning, as darkness to light, they believe both. The list preacher, with such persons, is the best ; especially if he be a stranger, even though he may be desicient in talent, or most erroneous in sentiment. Such characters are strongly biassed by the opinions of professed friends, who dogmatically cry down one minister, and enthusiastically extol another. It a book is put into the hands of a character of this description, with an opinion of the merit of the author suggested, he is predetermined by the suggestion of the individual who advised him to read the work. Hence, from obsequiousness of mind, a man may subscribe as many new creeds in a year, as there are new moons in the same space.' p. 140.
We add the following passage from the sermon on the • Redeenier's Ascension.'
• What an interesting scene ! What an affectionate, what a captivating look did the Redeemer give his disciples, when they beheld his face the last time in this world! Infinite love breathed in his language-sparkled in his eyes, and smiled on his brow. We frequently hear persons say of their departed friends, “ We shall never forget their last looks; their very eyes seemed to speak.” Could the disciples ever forget the parting words, and the last looks, of their dear Lord ? It seems to us, that had they lived upon earth to the age of Methuselah, the recollection of these would have been vigorous even to the last hour. With what holy ecstacy did they converse together on the kindness and grace of their ascended Saviour! How often would one and another of them, remind the rest of the last words, and the parting smiles of their adorable Master, and each would say, I shall never forget them.' p. 247.
Observations like the following plain but very interesting one, cannot be made too often from the pulpit.
• The reason we are not more affected by many terms, which are in general use among us, is, our comparative ignorance of their important meaning. How frequently do we use the terms, sin-salvation and others of vast moment, without any thing like. adequate ideas of their importance, and, consequently, without any proportionate feeling. The glorious inhabitants of heaven cannot think of grace without holy rapture ; yet, alas ! we can often think and speak of it without any extraordinary emotion.'
An attentive revisal will enable Mr. H. to clear a second edition (which we understand is called for) of a considerable number of typographical and grammatical blemishes.