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himself also entertains very inadequate conceptions of this peculiar class of geometrical magnitudes. We need not, therefore, devote any room to the transcription of his remarks,
Our author's animadversions upon the Treatises on Plane Trigonometry published by Simson and Playfair, are often acute, but seldom of a nature that admits of quotation in small compass. The following are his principal reinarks on Playfair's Trigonometry,
The Professor begins again with his corollaries from definitions. His Ist. cor. from Def. 1. is, that all great circles of a sphere are equal. This he proves from their having the same radii, that is, by Euclid's definition of equal circles, though this definition he formerly rejected. This is not the first or second instance of his having used it for a proof, although he did not acknowledge it. His second definition is, « The pole of a great circle of a sphere is a point in the superficies of the sphere, from which all straight lines drawn to the circumference of the circle are not equal.” This definition is not correct, for two reasons : first, this property is common to all circles upon the superficies of the sphere; and secondly, the lines drawn from these circles to their common pole, are not right lines. Every one who pays attention to a great circle will observe, that the great circle is always 90° from its pole, and that the lines drawn from the great circle to the pole, are each of them quadrants of a great circle of the sphere. * The Professor's 4th Definition is a spherical triangle is a figure upon the superficies of a sphere, comprehended by three arches of three great circles, each of which is less than a semicircle.” This last part, each of which is less than a semicircle, is not a part of the definition, and remains to be proved.' .
We shall here terminate our extracts, out of respect ta the feelings of our unscientific readers. The harvest of blunders Mr. Douglas has gathered is so abundant, that we might have gone on much further; but we have satisfied ourselves with selecting those which seemed most likely to mislead the young geometrician. We earnestly recommend, that such Preceptors as are in the habit of employing the books which Mr. Douglas has examined in the Essay before us, will avail themselves of his labours to render their copies more correct; or, at least, that they will note upon the margins of those copies the comparatively few errors which are specified in this article.
624 Art. VII. Letters to a Sister. By a Lady. 12mo, pp. 152. pr. 2s.6d.
Haniilton, Blanchard. 1811. RECORDS of mutual affection between sisters, are, if
we mistake not, extremely rare in the court of literature. We have not even a classical term for the disposi. tion. Parental, paternal, maternal, filial, and fraternal affec. tion, often occur in composition; but to define the motive and leading subject of the letters before us, we have no epithet bat the old Go:hic word sisterly; the uncouthness of which sufficiently demonstrates its unfrequency. Yet, what can be more 'reasonable than the following paragraph of the preface i . Few persons so lay open the inward movements of their hearts, and the public actions of their life, in their intercourse with the world, as with a bosom friend ; and what is more amiable, than to choose, and to find such a friend in a sister? In a sister's friendship there is no room for suspicion, none for disguise. They are perfectly known to each other, which precludes all design of imposition. Their interests are so closely interwoven, that there is no apprehension in either party of their confidence being betrayed. From such a source, we derive the most satisfactory knowledge of the mind of the writer.' p.iv.
Were these letters, therefore, fictitious, they would afford a very advantageous vehicle for moral delineation and colouring; and if they were not too serious to gain much notice from either writers or readers of modern, novels, night not impossibly become a prolific source of imitation. Their authenticity, however, will be unquestioned by every attentive reader. They consist of extracts from a series of letters ad.. dressed by one siscer to another; and are the genuine effusions of an intelligent and reflective mind, prompted by warın affection and tender sympathy, and chastised, and gradually refined, by severe illness. The unreserved friendship, and the fervent devotion, to wbich this correspondence gave utterance, were not (as night naturally, though perhaps uncharitably, be conjectured) the substitutes of conjugal affection, or the results of disappointed passion. The writer's firm attachment to her sister, evidently did not weaken that which she felt for her husband, who appears to have justly merited and requited her love. . In short, we seldom recollect to have observed so consistent, so well proportioned and regulated, and at the same time, so energetic an exercise of the domestic affections, as that which is evinced by these letters.
A work like this, is obviously a fitter subject of moral contemplation, and of practical improveinent, than of critical discussion. The letters, however, in general, considered as designed only for a sister's eye, are remarkably well written; and the language, while too natural to have undergone much change in the prospect of publication, is free from those grammatical inaccuracies, which often mar the performáncès of eren our best female authors. In some instances, expressions are used, which evidently arose from the feelings of the moinent, that are not easy to be reconciled with others, arising likewise from temporary, but dissimilar, sensations. That a considerable change of disposition, and even of sen. timent, may be traced, in the course of five or six year's correspondence, appears to us to enhance, rather than to diminish, its value; especially as that change demonstrates & progressive improvement in religious knowledge and conduct. At the commencement, the author manifests a conviction of the importance of religion, but a deficiency of practical attention to its dictates. In the course of her personal afictions and consequent mental exercises, she acquires a stronger relish for devotion, and more abiding principles, though at times interrupted by her natural vivacity, and unavoidable intermixture with irreligious society. At first, she appears, in some respects, as the pupil of her younger sister, of similar principles, and more advantageously situated : but toward the close, by the refining force of almost unremitted sufferings, she becomes capable of admonishing her friendly monitor, and of teaching her affectionate instructor. Before the correspondence terminates, she had become acquainted with Mr. Wesley's societies--a circumstance which may, perhaps, clash with the prejudices even of some serious readers : but the substance of genuine piety is the same, whatever incidental modifications it undergoes, and with us it is the thing, and not the name, that excites either approbation or censure :
- Tros Tyriusve mihi nullo discrimine agetur. Whoever peruses the volunie before us with the same disposition, will, we apprehend, derive from it both pleasure and profit. We recommend it, especially, as an useful and acceptable present to our well disposed female youth-welope, a very numerous class from their parents and real friends. More particularly, where there are sisters of this description, it may teach them to cherish and maintain, throughout their respective vicissitudes in life, an unreserved friendship, which cannot but promote their mutual comfort and benefit.
We close with a few extracts, which are selected, not for superior merit to other parts of the work, but as illustrative of its general character. We might easily have enlarged them; but, as the volume is remarkably cheap, most of our readers, probably, will choose to possess the whole.
Nov. 22, 1791. No, Sarah, my sufferings have not yet taught me how to live as I ought to do. How is it that rebellious Nature holds Reason so long at defiance? I know full well that “now is the accepted time," and that we have got a moment to spare, though we are squandering away hours and weeks in a lethargic drowsiness. I feel myself guilty of the utmost extravagance respecting my invaluable time. I ardently wish to employ it properly, but I do not endeavour. I am so inured to trifles and vanities, that I know not how to shake them off ; they are become habitual, nay, I fancy indeed that they are natural. Tell me how to gain this important victory. I saw your tender solicitude for my eternal welfare. I saw, I felt, that I wounded your gentle bosom by my obstinate adherence to folly. But, my dear sister, my more than sister, my friend, I must remind you, that you know not the most powerful of all earthly claims, the won. derful influence of the tenderest of all human ties; and how, therefore, can you be capable of feeling what my situation is ? What can you urge? True, you may bid me tear every soft affection from my breast, and root out the remenibrance of every dear-bought comfort alas, I cannot! I see ten thousand difficulties on every side, and coward nature shrinks from them. Can my Sarah, like a guardian angel, dispel the clouds, and make the rugged path a little smoother? Try your power with me, I would wish to be convinced that the airy nothings I so eagerly cling to, will soon elude my fondest grasp.' pp. 10, 11.
• Nov, 21, 1793. • Still spared, to struggle a little longer with the ills of life; to suffer and to conquer. The crown-so dazzles me, that I see no real hardships. Adversity is become a welcome guest, for glorious is her errand. Oye who are entered into his ineffable presence, teach me how infinitely below regard, the sufferings of this moment are, when viewed in competition with what you enjoy. Your letter, my dear sister, is arrived. Alas, where is your faith? Have you forgotten, how miraculously almighty power has been exerted, in raising me from the borders of the grave ? " Is the arm of the Lord shortened?"? Is infinite goodness weary of bestowing favours ? or are the divine stores exhausted? Do you “ seem to be deserted ?” O harbour not so injurious a thought; the omnipresent God still holds you in the fortress of his love. Doubtless there is a time, when the dearest earthly ties must be dissolved; but frequently when the last glimmering of hope is filed, that love which surpasses the comprehension of angels, recalls. it to the forlorn breast, in all the radiance of admiring praise,' p. 72,
(Without date.) I would I could aid my dearest sister in her search after that noble prize, “ the mind which was in Christ.” As we advance in holiness, so in humility: as we advance in humility, we advance towards the renewal of our minds in the image of Christ. But recollect the Prophet's decla, ration, “ he that believeth shall not make haste.” We must expect gra. dually to ascend, and be constantly pressing forward to gain the happy snmmit. But do we? I answer for both, No! Your self. accusations are many; but I have observed, you are blind to the most glaring of evils, and the greatest hindrance in the divine life. Do not start, my beloved sister, when I assert, that your heart is full of pride. This is not discoverable in either yonr words or actions, as they respect outward things ; but in this,
that you cannot, at all times, submit to be guided by a wise and good God, who so well knew the inestimable value of precious souls, as to lay down his life for them, and has, by his own example, enforced obedience to his mild and unerring commands. You sometimes say, “ thy will be
dope,"_and yet wish your own will to be gratified: this is pride. Is it not an usurpation of one of the attributes of God, who alone knows what is best for you? Till we can lie like clay in the potter's hand, perfectly subnrissive in thought, word, and work, we cannot attain “ the mind which was in Chri:t,” I am persuaded that pride will be the last, and most hardly-conquered evil. But let us ever remember Jesus hath said, “ my grace is sufficient for you ;” and by a firm confidence in that allsufficient grace, we shall prove, that pride itself (which cursed the very angels: may be subdued, through the influences of his Holy Spirit, in the breast of regenerate sinners. Let us adopt he determination of that highly favoured saint, Paul, which was, “ to know nothing save Jesus Christ, and him crucified." We are indeed constrained to know many other thingsi; but I apprehend it is the Christian's choice to seek that knowledge only, to cultivate that only, to rejoice in that oply, and to treasure it up as the only knowledge which can bear the scrutiny of an heart-searching God, įn that day when every secret thing” shall be discovered, and every work į tried as by fire.” Is not this knowledge our deliberate choice? Yes: but we do not cultivate it with that studiousness, that earnestness, which its importance requires. Let us take shame to ourselves, and pray sincerely for a child-like spirit, dependant, submissive, obedient, resigned, and thankful: let us ask. wisdom, (for “ he giveth liberally, and upbraideth not,”) that peerless wisdom, by which we shall secure “ an inheritance with the saints in light.”
In depicting your proud heart, my Sarah, I drew a very favourable likeness of my own. O join me, in praying the Father of mercies, to root out this grand enemy of our spiritual advancement. He will condescend to hear and answer the prayer of humble faith. O how sad, yet how true it is, that we are less willing to receive, than he is to bestow ;-backward to ask, whilst he waits to give ! pp, 135–137.
We are sorry to observe among errors, of the press (with which almost every book now printed abounds,) soine that confound, or pervert, the sense of several passages in these letters. Our good-will, and our hope that there will be future opportunities of correcting them, prompt us to instance,
received' which should be revived' p. 17. and scarcely, which (we suppose) should be seriously.' p. 27.
Art.VII. Select Letters of Tinpoo Sultan to various Public Functionaries : including his principal Military Commanders ; Governors of Forts and Provinces ; Diplomatic and Commercial Agents; &c. &c. &c. Together with one addressed to the Tributary Chieftains of Shânoor, Kurnool, and Cannanore, and sundry other Persons. Arranged and translated by William Kirkpatrick, Colonel in the Service of the Honourable East-India Company. With Notes and Observations, and an Appendix, containing several Original Documents never before published.
4to. pp. 640. Price 21. 2s. Black, Parry, and Kingsbury, and Booth. * 1811, A CONSIDERABLE part of the public records of the 4+ Mysore Government was burnt, during the tumult and disorder attending the storm of Seringapatam, in 1799. A considerable part fell into the hands of various individuals of