while, we should think, as regarding Dr. B. himself, to caution him against the impolicy of employing, relative to these men, and their operations, a diction tending to convey any other estimate, than that whih will be fixed in the permanent award of learning and Christianity. And that history, in describing, among the great modern novelties, the scheme of Asiatic biblical translation, which is now becoming so magnificent both in its practical progress and in its proinises, will have to record, that with these men the attempt began; insomuch that, in all human probability, the Bible would not, but for them, have been accessible to one man of nunerous millions, to whom it will be accessible before. the termination of the lives of these identical missionaries. The history will at the same time state, and cannot avoid the necessity of stating, that this great design was nct, as many other great designs have been, much more indebted for its efficacy and execution to other agents, subsequently drawn into the employment, than to the originators theinselves; but that those who formed it, began and prosecuted its execution on an extent, and with a rapidity, evincing that they were likely (a moderate prolongation of life being granted) to accomplish the greater part of the project, even though they should have no co-adjutors or successors. Nor will the account stop here; but go on to relate, that they continued to be the active leaders through all the stages of the progress thus far, and, very probably, that this precedency devolved, after their decease, to their sons, who are likely to have no superiors in the qualifications for carrying forward the great work. The history will assign to the names of these missionaries, that high and perpetual distinction always conceded as due to those, who accomplish the first successful achievement in a new province. The increasing knowledge and accuracy of the Indian school will progressively supply valuable means, for adding the last improvements to these works ;, but to have been the first to undertake and finish such important labours in several languages, is to have pre-occupied the highest ground. We will just add, that history will also testify that these men, while gladly acceding to all liberal plans of cooperation, and accepiing every kind of assistance with all thankfulness, and even 'humility,' did, notwithstanding, inaintain a very dignified spirit of independence; and rejected instantly any proposals of such modes of coalition with the projects of other Europeans, as would have merged their well organized system, and controuled their operations.

We are not to be understood as implying, in this cautionary hint to the Doctor, that he has used with respect


per for alle sel and in shorte

to the missionaries, in this or his other works, any terms of a directly depreciating nature, excepting so far, as the one we have particularly noted is such. But we read with a very perverted apprehension, if there is not a systematical avoidance to give due prominence of representation to their energy, their talents, and their performances; if there is not an obvious disposition to throw a fuller, richer light on the exertions, even the much more limited and less important exertions, of other scholars; if there are not, in short, some indications of a sectarian feeling, that is far from pleased that persons not connected with the Church of England should have obtained a precedence, from which they can never be displaced in the biblical literature of the East. Even the formal expressions of applause have certain qualified turns and touches, that will not escape the attention of a reader whose vigilance is a little excited. Mentioning Dr. Carey and Mr. Marshman (p. 225) Dr. B. says, 'two men whose names will probably go down to the latest posterity in India, as faithful translators of the Holy Scriptures. The adverb of uncertainty might as pertinently have been introduced, we suppose, into an assertion of the perpetuity of the fame of Wickliffe, Tindal, Luther, and so forth in Europe. And it is curious to compare this with the full, broad, and half poetical terms in which, in the passage we have extracted, the everlasting remembrance is assured to Mr. Colebrooke, on the condition of his translating the Pentateuch into Sanscrit, after, and even at any distance after, the inissionaries have translated the New Testament into that language; ' his name, as a Sanscrit scholar would then, indeed, live for ever.' We are far from wishing to press this point unfairly; but, viewing the subject in the most impartial light, we are conipelled to think, that our author assigns but a scanty tribute of applause to men whose names will be classed throughout all ages with the world's best benefactors; men whose works speak for them in candid ears, with an energy that will bear them up, whatever means of diminishment may be employed by those, to whom we may, devoutly wish a larger portion of magnanimity.

To return to our abstract. The enlarging schemes of translation had suggested the propriety of a rather extensive inquiry into the state of superstition and Christianity in Asia; and, as some degree of contradiction appeared in the various accounts received,

« The Author conceived the design of devoting the last year or two of his residence in the East, to purposes of local examination and inquiry. With this view, he travelled through the Peninsula of

India by land, from Calcutta to Cape Comorin, a continent cxtending through fourteen degrees of latitude, and visited Ceylon thrice. And he soon discovered that a person may reside all his life in Bengal, and yet know almost as little of other countries in India, for instance, of Travancore, Ceylon, Goa, or Madura, of their manners, customs, habits, and religion, as if he had never left England. * The principal objects of this tour, were to investigate the state of superstition at the most celebrated temples of the Hindoos ; to examine the churches and libraries of the Romish, Syrian, and Protestant Christians; to ascertain the present state, and recent history of the eastern Jews; and to discover what persons might be fit instruments for the promotion of learning in their respective countries, and for maintaining a future corrrespondence on the subject of disseminating the Scriptures in India In pursuance of these ojects, the Author visited Cuttack, Ganjam, Visa apatam, Simuleotta, Rajamundry, Ellore, Ongole, Nellore, Madras, Mailapoor, Pondicherry, Cudalore, Trana quebar, Tanjore, Tritchinopolv, fughoor, Madura, &c. &c. &c also seven temples o the lindoos, viz Seemachalum in the Telinga country, Chillunbrum, Seringham, Madura, Ramisseram, Elephapta, and juggernaut. He visited the Jews and the Syrian Christians in Malabar and Travancore a second time before his return to England.' 7. 7.

The journal which Dr. B. undoubtedly kept, throughout the whole of these movemenis, must have recorde 1 a great variety of interesting particulars, and would furnish materials for a very acceptable book, if we may judge from the comparatively small portion of its contents here extracted. The greater part of the present work consists of general statements and observations respecting the various divisions of the Asiatic population, as relative to the designs for an universal communication of the Scriptures. He begins with a short reference to China, and to the

Malayan Archipeligo,' wbich, he says, 'includes more territory and a larger population than the continent of India,' He notices the important acquisition of Mr. Lassar, the Armenian, for a Chinese translator, and the progress of his lavours. It appeared desirable to some of the persons connected with the College, that Mr. L. should be employed, partly, in instructing some young persons in the Chinese language, th're being an extreme and unaccountable scarcity in all our Indian territories of persons understanding it. As no young men, however, could be obtained from the Company's service to be bis pupils, it was proposed to the missionaries at Serampore that he should reside with

**Of the Books published in Britain on the discussion relating to Missions and the state of India, the most sensible and authentic are, in general, those writtenby learned men of thc Universities who þave never been in the East.'

them, on the condition that one of their elder missionaries, and three at least of their youths, should immediately engage in the study of the Chinese language: Dr. Carey declined the offer, but Mr. Marshman accepted it, and was joined by two sons of his own, and a son of Dr. Carey; and they have prosecuted their studies with unremitted attention for about five years. The wonderful progress of these vouths, who in 1803 maintained a public disputation in the Chinese language, is well known; and Dr. B. ad is,

One most valuable effeci of these measures is a work just published by Mr. Joshua Marshman, the elder pupil of Mr. Lassar. It is ihe first Vol. of “the Works of Confucius, containing the Oriental Text, with a Translation ; to whi h is prefixed a Dissertation on the Chinese language, p. 877, 4to;" to be followed ly four volumes more.” This translation will be receive, with gratitude by the learned, and will be considered as a singular monument of the indefatigable labour of an English Missionary in the acquisition of a new language.' p. 14.

Honourable mention is a'so made of the distinguished progress of the London Society's missionary at Canton, Mr. Morrison, who has completed, with the help of native scholars, a translation of the New Testament into the Chinese, and is preparing a Dictionary, and has finished a Granmar of that language.

A considerable portion of the translation of the New Testament, executed by Mr. Lassar and his associates, is already printed off from blocks, after the Chinese manner.

Our attention is next directed to the Hindoos, whose moral and religious condition the Doctor proposes to place in contrast with that of the native Christians, in the southern part of the peninsula. And certainly he could not have taken a nore effectual way to qualify himself for exhibiung the first of the two pictures, than to visit the grand metropolitan temple of Jaggernaut * in Orissa, at the time of the great annual festival, --celebrated by an assemblage of many hundreds of thousands of persons of both sexes, and all ages and castes, drawn from all parts of India. He gives from his journal a selection of most striking descriptions ; from which our room, however, will not admit of considerable extract, and of which the whole is so compressed, and every part so essential, as to preclude the possibility of any satistactory abridgement. -The series of description begins at a station caled Buddruck,

mar of onsiderable part by Mr. Las fier the

* He writes it Juggernaut. There is no end of the capricious variations in the European orthography of this and other leading denominations of the Indian superstition.


* We know that we are approaching Juggernaut and yet we aro more than fifty miles from it) by the human bones which we have seen for some days strewed by the way. At this place we have been joined by several large bodies of pilgrims, perhaps 2000 in number, who have come from various parts of Northern India Some of them, with whom I have conversed, say that they have been two months on their march, travelling slowly in the hottest season of the year, with their wives and children. Some old persons are among them who wish to die at Juggernaut. Numbers of pil rims die on the road; and their bodies generally remain un'buried. On a plain, by the river, near the pilgri n's caravansera at this place, there are more than a hundred skulls. The dogs, jackals, and vultures, seem to live here on human prey. The vultures exhibit a shocking tameness The obscene animals will not leave the body sometimes till we come close to them. This Buddruck is a horrid place. Wherever I turn my eyes, I meet death in some shape or other, Surely Juggernaut cannot be worse than Buddruck.' p. 17.

The next extract purports to have been written some hours after coming in sight of the hideous place of destination.

• Many thousands of pilgrims have accompanied us for some days past. They cover the roads before and behind as far as the eye can reach. At nine o'clock this morning, the temple appeared in view, at a great distance. When the multitude first saw it, they gave a shout and fell to the ground and worshipped. I have heard nothing to-day but shouts and acclamations by the successive bodies of pilgrims. From the place where I now stand, I have a view of a host of people like an army, encamped at the outer gate of the town of Juggernaut; where a guard of soldiers is posted to prevent their entering the town until they have paid the pilgrim's tax.--I passed à devotee to-day who laid himself down at every step, measuring the road to Juggernaut, by the length of his body, as a penance of merit to please the god. p. 18.

When our author advanced with the crowd toward the outer gate of the town of Juggernaut', (we are not informed in wiat sense and extent the place is a town,) a great number of the pilgrims pushed tumultuously round him, in order to enter by force, without paying the appointed tas, when the gate should be opened for him by the guard of soldiers stationed on the inside. He was warned of the danger too late for him to displace himself from the head of this dense and impetuous column; which russed irresistibly forward on the opening of the gate, impelling hin violently before it, and choaking up the entrance in such a manner, that he believed numbers would have been crushed to death if one of the wooden posts had not given way and fallen to the ground, The British

« ElőzőTovább »