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The most prominent circumstance in the experiment, hqwever, was the gradual diminution of temperature, notwithstanding the continuance of the circulation: and this diminution was found to proceed faster than in another animal newly killed and exposed to the same atmosphere. The following table shews the corresponding temperatures of two full grown rabbits, of the same colour and size. The artificial respiration was performed about 35 times in a minute, and the contractions of the heart, during the first hour, were 144 times in the same period.
Though particular attention was paid, in most of the experiments, to the state of the bladder, no urine appeared to have been secreted, in any of them; and it is highly probable that all the other secretions were also completely suspended. Now this circumstance alone, we conceive, must have had very great influence upon the temperature of the animal: and it is generally admitted by physiologists, that the actions of the various secretory organs form one very abundant source of that caloric which, in warm blooded animals, keeps their temperature so much above that of the atmosphere in which they live :—and there is pretty strong proof that these actions cannot go on without the influence of the nervous system. But besides this, no notice, it seems, was taken of the production of carbonic acid, in these experiments: and the only information which we find on this part of the subject, is contained in a note at the conclusion of the volume, stating that carbonic acid was produced in one experiment in which 'oxygene was used. But as the proportion of carbonic acid was not determined, the quantity which might exist in the lungs, previous to the death of the animal, may be sufficient to have produced the precipitation of the lime, which took place on passing it through lime water.
III. On the expansion of any functions of multinomials. By Thomas Knight, Esq. Communicated by Humphry Davy, Esq. L. L. D. Sec R. S.
This ingenious paper is not susceptible of abridgement. It seems to have been suggested by a perusal of M. Arbogast's abstruse work, 'Du calcul des Derivations,'' in which, as is well known to most mathematicians, the expansion of multinomial functions is very fully treated. But Mr. Knight has traced some new and rather remarkable theorems, which could not easily have been found by Arbogast's methods. In regard to the functions of one simple multinomial, his rules of direct derivation are the same as those or that author. But in the more difficult cases of double and triple multinomials, &c. or functions of any number of them, he presents new and expeditious methods which are so demonstrated as to be easily kept in memory, by those who are fond of such researches. His notation, too, is much simpler than M. Arbogast's, and gives his method a i>reat advantage over that in point of conciseness; though we think he will be able, should he pursue these researches, to give it still greater simplicity and freedom from ambiguity. >
IV. On a case of nervous affection cured by pressure of the cat otitis; with some physiological remarks. By C. H. Parry, M. D. F. R. S. Read December 20, 1810.
This case affords a very complete illustration of an ingenious theory of some morbid affections, usually called nervous: it is proposed by Dr. Parry, and appears to have been the result of careful and attentive observation. He was first led to conclude that many of the symptoms in question arise from a violent impulse of blood into the vessels of the brain, from a very interesting case which occurred to him in 1786, and which was published in the memoirs of the Medical Society of London in 1788. And he states that a mode of practice conformable to this principle, has enabled him to relieve a great number of nervous maladies, which had resisted the usual means of cure.
The subject of the present communication, was a lady more than 50 years of age, who became indisposed from being chilled by sitting a considerable time in a room without fire, in the month of February, 1803. She endeavoured to warm herself by exercise within doors, but in vain. The chilliness continued several hours; and, during this period, a sense of numbness seized the left side, with a momentary deafness, but without any pain or giddiness of the head, or any diminution of the other senses. After the deafness went off, the sense of hearing on the left side became more acute than natural; and there was a sense of rushing—a tingling in the fingers of the left hand, which led her to conclude that "the blood went too, forcibly there." In about six weeks, the numbness extended itself to the right side; and she began to have occasional violent flushings of the head and face, even while her legs and feet were cold, together with a rushing noise in the back of the head, especially in hot weather, or from any cause producing increased temperature. These sensations were followed, sometime afterwards, by convulsive twitchings or vibrations of certain portions o the flexor muscles of the fore arm and of the deltoid on the left side, which were increased in frequency and force by any thing which heated or agitated the patient. The convulsive motions were constant when the muscles were . in a state of relaxation; and were usually about 80 in a minute. .The pulsation in the carotids was very full and strong, and they appeared dilated for about half an inch in length, the canal above and below being of the natural size. Dr. Parry found, that strongly compressing the right' carotid artery, uniformiy stopped all these convulsive motions; while pressure on the left had no apparent influence upon them. He naturally attributes the cessation of the diseased action to the interruption of the flow of blood to the head; and concludes from this, and from many similar facts, that irritation of the brain, from an. undue impulse of the blood to that organ, is the common, though not the only cause, of spasmodic and nervous affections.
Art. VI. Short Discourses, to be read in Families. By William Jay. Vol. III. 8to. pp. 474. Williams, Hatchard, &c. 1811.
"\XfHlLE many volumes of sermons have been published for the use of families, it may be safely affirmed that very few have been composed for that purpose. Indeed, the materials of which the greater part of such works consist, as well as the general cast of the composition, make it a matter of doubt, whether the authors of them have ever endeavoured to form a just or adequate conception of the qualities that should constitute the character of family sermons.
Those pious persons, who are in the habit of assembling their children and domestics, on a Lord's clay evening, for the purpose of devotion; intend, it is evident, in reading a sermon to them, to instruct them in, the principles of Christianity, to impress on their hearts, a sense of the importance of such principles, and excite in their mind* devotional and virtuous feelings. But it is very difficult to procure compositions adapted to accomplish, this truly Christian intention. Our great preachers, such as Taylor, or Barrow, or South, have a vastness in their conceptions, and a depth in their reasonings, by no means suited to the instruction of unexercised minds. Our moralizing preachers are too dry, too cold, too studious to avoid, the peculiarities of the Christian scheme: while a third class of preachers, although zealous and highly evangelical, are yet deficient in method, technical in their language, often coarse and local in their illustrations, and devoid of all the proprieties and graces of good writing.
Family sermons being intended to convey instruction to. children, who are not able to form very abstruse or complex ideas, or to pursue a train of abstract and subtle reasoning; and to domestics, who, though of larger growth, are for the most part children in understanding; should be distinguished by great plainness and simplicity. It might almost be questioned, perhaps, whether the plainness requisite in such works, is compatible with useful moral instruction, and the general interest and animation that: should pervade them. But, while the appeal is made directly to scripture, all our duties may be deduced by an easy process: the character of the virtues and vices may be rendered intelligible to very obtuse minds: and the constantly judicious use of scripture maxims and examples— of its threats and promises—of its motives, derived from every quarter of the intellectual world, and touching our nature at every point,—would certainly give spirit and dignity to the most familiar compositions. As such discourses should be just and correct, rather than profound or sublime, they may safely dispense with the higher ornaments of style; hut should be carefully purged from every' thing low and vulgar in both the thoughts and language, from whatever would give an air of meanness to the mysteries, of the gospel.
It being far easier to form in imagination the type- of such a work, than to bring it into existence, perfect in all its parts, we, in the mean time, thankfully accept of the Short Discourses of this very agreeable preacher. Several of the qualities requisite in a family preacher, he displays in a remarkable degree. In plainness of speech he is almost without a rival. While he reaches the understanding of rude ana uncultivated persons, as well as touches their hearts instead ot'offending those or large views and cultivated minds, he fixes their attention, and contributes to their gratification and improvement. As it is this rare capacity of producing such opposite effects that constitutes, in our opinion, the peculiar excellence of Mr. Jay, and gives him a decided superiority over most other preachers, it may be worth while to employ a few words in the description of it.
He is possessed, then, of a prevailing desire to benefit the souls of men; which, while it makes him solemn, earnest, and sometimes severe, induces him not so much to aim at amusing or astonishing, as at becoming useful to his hearers. With gravity he unites mildness and affection. Although he does not appear to be studious of continuity in the thoughts, or of union and dependence among the paragraphs, of his discourses; yet there is a weight and point in individual sentences—a prettiness' or importance in his observations—a degree of truth, of freshness, vivacity, and universality in his moral delineations—a mistuie of both the didactic and historical parts of scripture in his proofs and illustrations, as well of its consecrated phraseology in his language—which never fail to interest, and often produce a powerful effect. Besides all this, he abounds in similes, which are always familiar, and sometimes wonderfully apt and expressive. He delights, too, in discoursing upon his'orical passages. Here he is most at his ea>e, and finds the greatest scope for his peculiar talents ;—a remark in illustration of.which, we might point out several of the sermons both in this and the former volumes.'1
We must now cite a lew passages, in order to verify the description that we have given of Mr. Jay's character, as a maker of sermons.—The following passage illustrates our author's very pious and solemn, yet striking and lively manner
* The spirit of grace is always a spirit of tufifilication. It brings a man upon his knees. It leads him to speak to God, rather than to talk of him. And much will he see, much will he feel, to urge him to seek the Lord. A hell to escape! a heaven to obtain! Sins to be pardoned and subdued! Duties to be performed! Trials to be endured! and God to be glorified! His generation to be served! His own wants! and the necessities of others!—All these are enough to induce him to pray—and to pray without ceasing.' p. 176.