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any guile or deception whereby his works hereafter may vend only at a Discount, and his purse prove that he had been working a sum in Reduction in lieu of sterling Multiplication of Money.

That the novel figures he has introduced will enable the student more readily to turn the TABLES to account, accelerate his progression, and spare the tutor (and himself) the pain of "measuring by the rod," is the sum total of the Artist's hopes.

MEASURING BY THE ROD.

a. C.

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TABLES OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.

TROY WEIGHT.

24 Grains make 1 Pennyweight. 36 Pounds

20 Pennyweights 1 Ounce. 12 Ounces .. 1 Pound.

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56 Pounds

60 Pounds

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36 Trusses 1 Load.

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DEFINITIONS.

Arithmetic-is the art or science of computing by numbers; viz. an Art, because it determines the method of solving questions; a Science, as it estimates the nature and quality of numbers.

A Whole Number or Integer-consists of an exact number of units, as 1, 5, &c.

A Fractional Number-whether vulgar or decimal, is part of an unit, as 1, 1, &c.

A Mixed Number-is a whole number and a fraction joined to it, as 41, 52, &c.

A Prime Number-is that which cannot be divided by any other number, except a 1, without leaving a remainder

A Square Number-is the product of a number multiplied once by itself, as 16 is 4 times 4. A Cube Number-is the product of a number multiplied twice by itself, as 3 times 3 is 9, and 3

times 9 is 27.

A Composite Number-is the product of any two whole numbers, as 20 is produced by multiply

ing 4 by 5.

Component Parts—are those of which any number con

sists, as 4 is composed or consists of

the whole number 4, and the fraction; these are its component parts.

Aliquot Parts-are such as are contained an exact number of times in a unit, as is contained

exactly twice in one.

Digits, Units, or Figures-are the marks by which numbers are expressed; they are 1 one, 2 two,

3 three, 4 four, 5 five, 6 six, 7 seven, 8 eight, 9 nine, and 0 cipher or nought.

NOTE. All operations in Arithmetic consist of increasing or diminishing, and are performed by the first four rules, viz. Addition and Multiplication for increasing; Subtraction and Division for diminishing.

EXPLANATION

OF

THE CHARACTERS USED IN ARITHMETIC.

Equal The sign of Equality; as, 4 qrs. = 1 cwt. signifies that 4 qrs. are equal to 1 cwt.

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