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When Ciphers are at the end of the Divisor,

Cut them off with a comma, and also as many places from off the dividend, and divide as usual; then annex the figures that were cut off from the dividend to the remainder.

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NOTE.-£ denotes pounds, from libre, the Latin for pounds; s shillings, from solidi ; d pence, from denarii; q farthings, from quadrantes. denotes one farthing, or one quarter of any thing.

denotes a halfpenny, or the half of any thing.

denotes three farthings, or three quarters of any thing.

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The usual value of gold is nearly 4. per ounce, or 2d. a grain; and that of silver is nearly 5s. an ounce. Pure gold, free from mixture with other metals, is of so pure a nature, that it will endure the fire without wasting, though it be kept continually melted. But silver, not having the purity of gold, will not endure the fire like it: yet fine silver will waste but a very little by being in the fire any moderate time; whereas copper, tin, lead, &c. will not only waste, but may be calcined, or burnt to a powder.

Both gold and silver, in their purity, are so soft and flexible, that they are not so useful, either in coin or otherwise, (except to beat into leaf gold or silver) as when alloyed, or mixed and hardened with copper or brass. In England the standard for gold and silver coin is,-22 parts of fine gold, and 2 parts of copper, melted together: 11 ozs. and 2 dwts. of fine silver, and 18 dwts. of copper, melted together; and which may be regarded as the true standard for Sterling money.

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MEASURE is a more comprehensive term than WEIGHT, and it is distinguished into six kinds, viz.

Measure of

1. Length.

2. Surface.

3. Solidity, or Capacity.

4. Force of Gravity, commonly called Weight. 5. Angles.

6. Time.

The several denominations of these Measures have reference to certain standards, which are entirely arbitrary, and vary among different nations. In Great Britain Length is a Yard.

The standard of

Surface is a Square Yard.
Solidity is a Cubic Yard.
Capacity is a Gallon.

Weight is a Pound.

The standards of Angular Measure and of Time, are the same in all European, and most other countries.

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These are the denominations of Troy Weight when used for weighing gold, silver, and precious stones (except diamonds).

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This weight is used by Apothecaries in compounding medicines, but they buy and sell their drugs by avoirdupois weight. They also use the following liquid measure :-60 minims or drops 1 fluid drachm, 8 fluid drachms 1 fluid ounce, 12 fluid ounces 1 pound.

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