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THE

MECHANICS' MAGAZINE,

AND

JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING, AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY,
MANUFACTURES, AND SHIPBUILDING.

v ,-cn ij
YQL. II.

(new Series.)
JULY TO DECEMBER, 1859.

EDITED BY

R. A. BROOMAN AND E.

"Man is a tool-using animal. Weak in himself, and of small stature, he stands on a basis, at most for the flattest soled, of some half square-foot, insecurely
enough; has to straddle out his legs, lest the very wind supplant him. Feeblest of bipeds! Three quintals are a crushing load for him; the steer of the meadow
tones him aloft, like a waste rag. Nevertheless he can use tools, can devise tools: with these the granite mountain melts into light dust before him; he kneads
plowing iron, as if it wore soft paste; seas are his smooth highway, winds and lire his unwearying steeds. Nowhere do you lind him without tools : without tools
he is nothing, with tools he is all."—Caklyle.

"Every structure or machine, whoso design evinces the guidance of science, is to be regarded not merely as an instrument f jr promoting convenience and
profit, bat as a monument and testimony that those who planned and made it had studied the laws of nature: and this renders it an object of interest and value,

bow small soever its bulk, how common soever its material The engineer or mechanic, who plans and work* with understanding of the natural laws that

regulate the results of his operations, rises to the dignity of a sage."—PfioFEasoE Bahkine.

IL, OUST ID OUST:

ROBERTSON, BROOMAN, & CO., "MECHANICS' MAGAZINE" & PATENT OFFICES,

1GG FLEET STREET, E.C.

LONDON:

JUDD AND GLASS, NEW BRIDGE 8THEET, AND QUAY'S INN ROAD.

PREFACE

[graphic]

^N placing the Second Volume of our New Series before our readers we avail ourselves of the opportunity which a Preface affords for 'offering a few remarks that cannot well find a place elsewhere.

We would first express our thanks for the firmness with which men of scientific tasfes and pursuits continue to support, in its new form, this Magazine, which other pens than ours made popular many years ago. A thousand things have shown us during the past year that those old friends who long looked upon this journal with even more than a friendly interest, have not had their regards alienated by either the external or the internal changes which it has of late undergone. We have likewise had many proofs of the support which new friends are in various ways according us. By all these manifestations of good feeling we are delighted, and for them we are grateful. •

Many subjects of great importance have engaged our attention during the half-year which now expires. Among the earliest of them was that Admiralty Committee on Dockyard Economy, upon which some thousands of pound* of public money were squandered, and which did its best to effect changes involving the squandering of miny thousands more. We have good reason to believe that our simple explanations on this subject have left the Committee but little hope of accomplishing its designs. The Coinage of the Realm is another subject that has been discussed with manifest effect in our columns. The manufacture of the new bronze coinage, now in course of preparation, is an acknowledged concession to our representations and efforts. In the present activity of the War Department and the Admiralty in reference to Rifled Ordnance we believe we see a consequence of our urgent remonstrances, followed up as they were by the speeches of that veteran patriot, Lord Lyndhurst, in the House of Peers. The Great Eastern has occupied much of our attention, not altogether, we trust, without effect. It was not possible to speak of her in terms that would be pleasant to all parties, because,' as a commercial speculation, she has excited an immense amount of partizanship ; moreover, since the memorable explosion which we had the pain of witnessing on her first sea trip, she has been continuously enveloped in a blaze of raging controversy. Happily we have had no interest in her to blind us, and no antipathies to colour what we have seen ; so that we have been able to offer unprejudiced and fearless criticisms on this subject, which have not, as we ar° often assured, been valueless. The abuse of the British Association—by which it was rendered a medium "for advertising inventions" r.xther than for advancing science—to which we, and we only, drew attention in October last, will in future, we are informsd, be guarded against. The Royal Navy, to which we give much attention, and with which we claim a real although humble association, was never in a more prosperous or more efficient condition than it is at present. The movement made by the French in respect of iron-coated ships has been met in a most spirited manner by our Admiralty, and the remonstrances which we publicly made on this subject in May last have been followed by the issue of contracts for no less than four iron-defended ships for Her Majesty's Navy—all of them vessels which promise to be of unparelleled power and invulnerability. Our articles on the Theory of Ship-building and Laying-off have been slowly but steadily and carefully proceeded •with, and will be continued until they become complete. In reference to Naval Architecture generally we have not been inactive, as is evidenced by the hostility which certaitl amateur writers on this subject are evincing towards us. The complaint of these gentlemen is, not that we do not understand naval architecture, or that we are devoid of the ability to express ourselves clearly in a literary sense, but that we have too much confidence in ourselves—too little respect for others—for them they mean, of course. We can only say we hope this is not so; we shall certainly not believe it is until competent judges express the opinion. We will leave this subject by promising to all who are concerned in it—friends and " unfriends"—an interesting novelty, which will come before them, we doubt not, before we pen another preface —a novelty that will gladden the hearts of all true lovers of the noble art of shipbuilding. We must not say more just at present.

But we have said enough in this egotistical strain, and will therefore end here—end with the hopo that, notwithstanding the proud burst of new literature with which the year 1860 is opening, our voice will still be waited for with interest, and listened to with attention.

THE EDITORS. December, 1859.

INDEX.

LEADING ARTICLES.

Admiralty Committee On Dockyard Economy, 81,98,

259
„ Marine Boilers for the, 84
„ The New Works Department of the, 114,

146
Advertising Inventions, The British Association for,

225
Agricultural Benevolent College, The Royal, 35
Agriculture, The Forces Used in, 386
American Bided Cannon, The New, 66
„ Shipbuilder Abroad, An, 38a
Anchors for the Royal Navy, 49
Armstrong Gun, Captain Blakely and the, 841
Association for Advertising Inventions, The British,

225
Auxiliary Steam-power in Merchant Ships, 338

Benevolent College, The Royal Agricultural, 35
Bessemer (Mr.), And the Iron Manufacture, 1
Blakely (Capt.), And the Armstong Gun, 341
Blakely's (Capt.), Improvements in Cannon, 51
Boat-Lowering Apparatus, 129
Boilers for the Admiralty, Marine, 81
British Association for Advertising Inventions, The,

225
Bronze be Coined. Where will the, 164

„ Coinage, The New, 115, 140
Builders' Strike and Lock Out, The, 114,161

Cable. Hcarder's Submarine Telegraph, 227
Cables, New Submarine Telegraph, 1

„ Submarine Telegraph, 1,06, 83, 227, 293

„ The Laving of Submarine Telegraph,- 05
Cannon, Capt. Blakely's Improvement in, 51

„ The New American Rifled, 00
Cast-iron, The Woolwich Experiments on, 102
Chart, The Wreck, 09

Chinese Lesson on National Defence, A, 195
Clock. The Westminster, 147
Coal Mines, Life or Death in, 309
Coinage, Decimal, 34,104

„ Our Copper, 1

„ The New, 05, 81

„ „ Bronze, 116, 146

„ „ Mixed Metal, 99

„ The Penny Press, and the New, 163
Coining by Contract, 292

College, The Royal Agricultural Benevolent, 35
Commission, The National Defence, 145
Committee of Economy, The Dockyard, 81, 98, 259
Company, The Library, 275
Compasses of Iron Ships, The, 338, 371
Consort, Science and the Prince, 241
Contract, Coining by, 292
Copper Coinage, Our, 1
Cort Testimonial Fund, The, 309

„ The Family of Henry, 51, 116, 369
Cost of Government and Merchant Ship-building,

The, 50, 273
Cunningham's System of Reefing Sails for the Royal

Navy, 290

Death in Coal Mines, Life or, 369
Decimal Coinage, 34, 164

„ System of Measurement, The, 83
., The, 17
Defence, A Chinese Lesson on National, 195

„ Commission, The National, 145
Defences, Our National, 113, 401

„ River, 130
Department of the Admiralty, The New Works,

114, 140
Dockyard Committee of Economy, The, 81, 98, 259
Dockyards, The Cost of Ship-building in the Royal,

50, 273
Douglas's (Sir Howard), Improvements of the Screw

Propeller, 194
Drainage of London, The, 100,131, 305, 322
Drinking Fountains, Free, 116
Dwellings, The Ventilation of, 260

Economy, Steam-ship, 243

„ The Admiralty Committee on Dockyard.

H1, 08, 259
Educated Female Labour, 321
Education of Mechanical Workmen, The, IB

„ Naval Architects, The, 337

Employers and the Employed, 211
Engineering Progress in 1859, 417
Engineers, Foremen, 196

„ in Scotland, The Institution of, 361
Engraving by Light, 210
Exhibition of 1862, The, 321
Experiments, Mr. Fairbairn's Steam, 274

„ On Cast-iron, The Woolwich, 162

Explosions at Gunpowder Works, 2
Explosion, The Great Eastern, 177,193

Fairbairn's (Mr.) Steam Experiments, 274

Family of Henry Cort, The, 51, 110, 369

Female Labour, Educated, 321

Forces used in Agriculture, The, 386

Foremen Engineers, 195

Founder of Mechanics' Institutions, The, 2C3

Fountains, Free Drinking, 116

French Admiral, A Naval Lesson by a, 225

Frigates or Rams, The Iron Steam, 17

Government and Merchant Shipbuilding, The Cost
of, 273
„ Dockyard Committee, The, 81, 98, 259

Great Eastern Explosion, The, 177,193

The, 97,177,193, 241, 401
Greatest Ship, The, 97

Great Seal Patent Office Library, The, 292,307
Gun, Captain Blakely and the Armstrong, 341
Gunpowder Works, Explosions at, 2
Guns for the Navy, Rifled, 49, 68

Hoarder's Submarine Telegraph Cable, 227
Hot-blast Iron Question, The, 209
Increase of the Navy, Last Year's, 33
Institution of Engineers in Scotland, The, 354
Institutions, The Founder of Mechanics,' 293
Inventions, The British Association for Advertising,

225
Iron Manufacture, Mr. Bessemer and the, 1
„ Question, the Hot blast, 209
„ Ships, The Compasses of, 338,364, 871
,, Steam Frigates or Rams, The, 17
„ The Woolwich Experiments on Cast, 162

Labour, a Lord on, 19

„ Educated Female, 321
Law Reform, Patent, 209
Laying of Submarine Telegraph Cables, The, 65
Lesson by a French Admiral, a Naval, 225

„ On National Defence, A Chinese, 195
Library Company, The. 275

„ The Great Seal Patent Office, 292, 307
Life or Death in Ccal Mines, 369
Light, Engraving bv. 210

Linc-of-bat tie Ship Victoria, The New Screw, 305
Lock-out, The BuiHers' Strike and, 114, 181
Locomotive, its Place in History, The, 35
London, The Drainage of, 101,131,305, 322
Lord on Labour, A, 19
Lowering Apparatus, Boat, 129

Main Drainage Scheme, The, 100, 131, 305, 322
Manufacture, Mr. Bessemer and the Iron, 1

„ Revolutionized, The Steel, 06

Marine Boilers for the Admiralty, 84
Measurement of Waves, The, 321

„ The Decimal System of, 83

Mechanical Workmen, The Education of, 18
Mechanics and their Tools, Pre-Adamite, 67
Mechanics' Institutions, The Founder of, 293
Merchant Shipbuilding, The Cost of Government
and, 60, 273
„ Ships. Auxiliary Steam-power in, 338
Metropolis, The Main Drainage of the, 100,131, 305,

322
Mines, Life or Death in Coal, 369

• National Defence, A Chinese Lesson on, 196

„ Commission, The, 146

National Defences, Our, 118, 401
Naval Architects, The Education of, 837

„ Lesson by a French Admiral, A, 325
Navy, Anchors for the Royal, 49

„ Cunningham's System of Reefing Sails for the

Royal, 290
„ Last Year's Increase of the, 33
., Lord Clarence Paget on the, 33
„ Rifled Guns for the, 49, 60

Officers, The Training of Shipwright, 368
Ordnance, Rifled, 145

Paget on the Navy, Lord Clarence, 33
Patent Cases, The Trial of, 309

„ Law Reform, 209

„ Office Library, The Great Seal, 292. 807
Penny Press and the New Coinage, The, 163
Poetry by the Poet Laureate, Working Men's, 182
Polytechnic, The Royal, 3
Pro-Adamite Mechanics and their Tools, 67
Press and the New Coinage, The Penny, 168
Prince Consort, Science and the, 241
Progress, The Working Man, History of His, 08
Propeller, Sir Howard Douglas's Improvements of the

Screw, 194
Purification of the Surpentine, The, 131

Rams, The Iron Steam-Frigates Or, 17

Reefing Sails for the Royal Navy, Cunningham's

System of, 280
Reform, Patent Law, 209
Rifled Cannon, The New American, 00

„ Guns for the Navy, 49, 00

„ Ordnance, 146
River Defences, Our, 130
Robert Stephenson, 257
Royal Charter, The Wreck of the, 289

„ Navy, Cunningham's System of Reefing Soils
for the, 290

„ Polytechnic, The, 3 .

Ruskin (Mr.), On the Workman and his Work, 374

Sails for the Royal Navy, Cunningham's system of

Reefing, 290
Scheme, The Main Drainage, 100,131, 305, 322
Science and the Prince Consort, 241

„ The Study of, 300
Scotland, The Institution of Engineers in, 354
Screw Line-of-Battle Ship Victoria, The new, 305

„ Propeller, Sir Howard Douglas's Improvements
of the, 194

„ Ships, Our, 101
Serpentine, The Purification of the, 131
Shilling, The Sovereign and the, 275
Shipbuilder Abroad, Ah American, 385
Shipbuilding in the Royal Dockyards, The Cost of, 50,

273
Ships, Auxiliary Steam-power in Merchant, 338

„ Our Screw, 101,

„ The Compasses of Iron, 338, 354, 371

„ Unsinkable, 291, 305
Ship, The Greatest, 97, 177, 193,241

„ Victoria, The New Screw Line-of-Battle, 306

Shipwright Officers, The Training of, 353
Sovereign and the Shilling. The, 275*
Steam Experiments, Mr. Fairbairn's, 274

„ Frigates or Rams, The Iron, 17

„ Power in Merchant Ships, Auxiliary, 338

„ Ship Economy, 243

„ Ships, The Stokeholes of, 323 •

Steel Manufacture Revolutionized, The, 65
Stephenson, Robert, 257

Stokeholes of Steam-ships, The, 323 •

Strike and Lock-Out, The Builders, 114,101
Study of Science, The, 300
Submarine Telegraph Cable, Hoarder's 227
„ „ Cables, 1,83,227,293

n »» »> £tew, 1

„ „ „ The Laying of, 05

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