THOMAS WEBSTElCM.A.,F.R.8.,&c.lBarrister-at-Law. XII.

Ox the 22nd May, 1800, Henry Cort died, and was buried in Hampstead churchyard, having enjoyed only six years the pension of £200 a year granted on the memorial to Win. Pitt. The extension of a pension of £125 to his widow was not likely to satisfy the sense of justice of those who were reaping the benefit of Cort's inventions without any payment to their benefactor, the rest of the family being left wholly without compensation for the injustice to their father.

At a general meeting of the British Iron Trade, held at the King's Head Inn, Gloucester, on the 29th March, 1611, present the representatives of 14 firms of the princip.il mumfaoturers then using the patents for puddling and rolling, a petition was presented by Mr. Robert Thompson, uncle to the late Alderman Thompson, from Elizabeth Cort, the widow of Henry Cort, representing the pecuniary dist^ss of herself and family. The meeting in consideration that the iron trade was much indebted to her late husband for his inventions in the manufacture of iron,

Resolved,—"That a subscription bo raised for her relief, that the disposal of the same be referred to a committee of four gentlemen, to consider how it should be converted for the use of herself and family, and that such a subscription be transmitted to the bank of Hill and Co., Stourbridge."

Resolved,—" That such committee shall consist of Mr. Reynolds, for Shorpshire; Mr. Robert Thompson, for South Wales; Mr. Gibbons, for Staffordshire; Mr. Butler, for the North."

The list of subscribers composed forty-one firms then using the patents, and the sum subscribed amounted to .£871; being a contribution of 30 guineas from one, and 20 guineas from forty firms, in acknowledgement of the enjoyment during twenty years of inventions, which but for the extraordinary circumstances above set forth would probably have yielded to the family a quarter of a million sterling. The firm of Crawshay, Hall, and Bailey, who were prominently indebted to Henry Cort, he having personally superintended the erection of their works from his own plaua, assisted by his own workmen, headed the list with the largest subscription. The amount due from that firm under the contract signed by the luta Mr. Richard Crawshay, and secreted with the patents and other contracts by the Treasurer of the Navy in 1789, was not far short of £2.~>,000, for iron manufactured from 1789 to 179S, during the subsistence of the patent right.

The amount so subscribed h is been occasionally contrasted with the £250,000 which would have been paid in royalties for patent right, and with the much larger amount of profits nude by the manufacturer, by reason of Cort's labours during the subsistence) of the patents; and contrasts have been suggested unfavourable to the liberality or generosity of the persons engaged in a trade which received so great an impulse from the labours of Cort. But it may be doubted whether this is quite a proper view of the matter; if the contracts ana patent rights had been enforced the amount of the royalty, and something probably in addition, would have been added to the trade price of the manufactured iron. The public would have paid in the price of the article the amount which Cort ought to have received as his reward and

remuneration. That the iron masters, as a class, are extremely wealthy cannot be doubted, but there have been great periods of depression, and the trade has for a century past been in the hands of a sufficient number to ensure keen competition whenever the profits of manufacture might happen to yield an extraordinary return on the capital employed.

The case of jlenry Cort ought to be urged .as a claim on and against the nation rather than the iron masters; the nation at large has benefited by his genius and laborious persevering industry; the civilization, the comforts, the convenience, the capacity of the community, has advanced with the manufacture of iron in a most wonderful manner; the Railways, the Brittmia Bridge, the Crystal Palace, and the Great E.istcrn, are types of this advance of the iron age of the last half coutury.

The iron-masters encouraged Cort's inventions, they were no party to the defalcations arid to the gross injustice of the seizing and locking up the patents until after the expiration of their respective terms. The gain from Cort's inventions has been a national gain; the injustice which deprived him of his certain reward was the fraud of public officials; the compensation for such injustice should be a national act.

The meeting at Bristol was followed by a petition to the House of Commons from Coningsby Cort, the eldest son of Henry Cort, its to which the journals (vol. 07, 24th January, 1812, p. 77,) contain the entry, of the petition on behalf of himself a,n<f the family of Henry Cort, consisting of a widow and nine other children, being presented to the House of Commons by Mr. Manners Sutton, by command of His Royal Highness the Prince Regent, who recommended it to the consideration of the House.

A Committee of the House of Commons was moved for by Mr. Manners Sutton, then Judge Advocate, and appointed to inquire into the claims of the petitioner. The committee comprised the Secretary to the Treasury, the Secretary to the Admiralty, and the Comptroller of the Navy; the son of the defaulter who had ruined Henry Cort, and whose impeachment had taken place only a few years before, was at the time first Lord of the Admiralty; votes influenced by the relatives of that defaulter were important to the Ministry struggling to carry on a war at a great cost in the fuce of a powerful opposition. This was an inconvenient, not to say a dangerous, crisis for the renewal of the political agitation attending the impeachment of Henry Cort's destroyer only six years before, a revival which must have led to the inevitable consequence of a full inquiry into the petitioner's claims, involving as it would the merits of Henry Cort and the cause of his ruin.

The case of the petitioner was supported by Mr. R. Hill, brother to Mr. Antho'hy Hill, the only surviving iron-master who witnessed the introductions of Cort's inventions; Mr. Benjamin Hall, father of Sir B. Hall, the present Lord Llanover, partner in the firm of Crawshay, Hull, and Bailey ; and other experienced ironmasters ; one witness was called by the chairman in opposition, Samuel Homfray, who attributed the improvement in the iron manufactures to some improvements of his own, founded on, so to speak, and involving the processes of Cort; his " liner's metal," as it was called, being subjected to the puddling process of Cort. Upon such testimony, notwithstanding that Homfray had concurred in the resolutions of the meeting at Gloucester, and been a subscriber to the fund then raised, and had twenty-five years before written the letter

already quoted in direct conflict with his subsequent statement, the committee suddenly dosed the investigation, excluded all evidence in explanation or refutation of his statements, tnd reported to the House that though a considerable share of merit was due to Henry Con they could not satisfy themselves it was sufficient to entitle the petitioner to a Parliamentary reward. The committee,further reported,recommending that in consideration of Henry Cort's share of merit the expense of prosecutin;; the petition should be defrayed by a vote of the House.

It is more than probable that the same political considerations which had led to the hasty and premature closing of the inquiry rendered it advisable that the chairman should not move the vota of the payment of the expenses, amounting to £250, which the committee had recommended, and that all future applications for any investigation of the excluded evidence which might have re-opened the whole question should be discouraged. Certain it is that the House never was moved for the payment of the expenses so recommended, that Mr. Coningsby Cort and the puor applicants had to bear and discharge the expense of the petition, amounting to ,£250, and that the children of Henry Cort were never able to obtain an inquiry into the voluminous mass of evidence collected within three months of the close of the inquiry from the most eminent men, in refutation of the disengenmms and unexpected statement of Mr. Samuel Homfray.

It cost Mr. Giddy, the chairman of the committee, nothing to state, when this mass of evidence was laid before him, that had it been in time the report of the committee would have been very different ; but there was no excuse for his omission of the simple act of justice to move for the payment of the* expenses incurred by the petitioners in the investigation, as recommended by the report which he had signed.

Public opinion never acquiesced in the decision of the Committee of the House of Commons upon Cort's claims. The followin<! answer to the application to the Treasury win an evasion of the question, dictated probably by the political considerations already referred to:—

"Treasury Chambers, 14th Aug., lfi~"

"Sir, — My Lords Commissioners of Hu Majesty's Treasury having had under consideration your memorial, dated 31st ultimo, prayinf that some allowance may be granted to you towards reimbursing the expenses incurred by you in making application to Parliament for » reward on account of the discoveries made by your father in the mode of converting cast iron into malleable iron, and of the rolling it into bars, but which was not granted; I have it in command from their Lordships to acquaint you that your application having undergone the decision of the House of Commons, my Lords cannot exercise a discretion in opposition to the sense declared by the vote of that House. "I am, Sir, your obedient servant,

"H. Whabtos."^

"Mr. Coningsbj Cort, King-street, Bloomsburr."

The expenses had never been brought before, or the subject of any vote of, the House ot Commons, so that the above answer was, on any view, an evasion of the question. The result of the petition to the House of Commons gave no great encouragement to the hopes of adequate compensation or remuneration to the Cort family; the widow, Mrs. Cort, continued to enjoy her pension of £125 until her death in 1810, and after her death a pension of £i~> («•was granted to each of her spinster daughters. Such was the only national acknowledgement of the merits and wrongs of Henry Cort until 1856, when by the bounty of Lord Palmerston a pension of j£50 was conceded to Richard, the youngest and only surviving son of Henry Cort.

By the exertions of Richard Cort, who after nearly fifty years' service in offices of trust in the Penclawdd Copper, and British Iron, and other companies in succession, public opinion has, through the press, been aroused to the injustice of permitting the only three surviving children of Henry Cort to end their days in a penurious subsistence.

In May, 1855, Richard Cort addressed a memorial to the Treasury, but their lordships declined to re-open a question on which they had adjudicated. The chairman of the council of the Society of Arts, Dr. Booth, in his annual address on the 21st of November, 1855, alluding to the fortunes of the hapless inventor, instanced Henry Cort as one of those "who enrich the nation but beggar themselves," neither he nor his audience being then aware that he had been no victim of ordinary misfortune or ill luck, but had been sacrificed to official delinquency.

Since then the subject has been taken up by many of the most eminent men in the country, and sums of money have been subscribed to enable Richard Cort to press the claims of the three survivors on the attention of the nation. Richard Cort, with an energy and perseverance •worthy of his name, has since 1812 endeavoured to rouse a sense of the claims of his family on national gratitude, and not wholly without success, as evidenced by the pension conceded by Lord Palmerston in 1856 already mentioned, upon the report of Sir Roderick Murchison and Dr. Percy, directors of the Metallurgical Department of the School of Mines, on Cort's inventions.

The public press, with singular concurrence and unanimity, has urged the claim of Richard Cort and his two aged spinster sisters on public sympathy and support for their declining years, and greater unanimity of public opinion never existed on any similar question ; and on a review of the parliamentary bounties which have been awarded it may be doubted whether any case can present claims comparable to these of Henry Cort. The present occasion is well timed, the nation having at this moment a very large and annually increasing surplus from the funds levied on inventors under the new system of patents.

The official fees paid by inventors during the first seven years ending the 1st of October, 1859, reached an amount greatly in excess of the expenditure during the same period, on objects for which inventors and inventions can derive any benefit, so that the nation now owes to inventors a very large surplus of cash in hand. Can there be a more appropriate application of a portion of the surplus so absorbed by the Consolidation Fund than a bounty to meritorious inventors or their families, who from whatever cause have not derived any adequate reward or remuneration for the benefit* conferred on the nation.

This, though pre-eminently an inventor's question, is not without deep interest to all men of science and literature—in fact, to all who live by intellectual labour, in whatever form it may be embodied.

Mr. Fairbairn has recently come forward in the most liberal manner to head a subscription, and a committee of influential persons, for the purpose of securing to Richard Cort and his two surviving sisters, all now between 70 and SO years of age, some recognition of their claims on the national wealth created by the inventions of their father. The disinterested

spirit of generosity and sympathy with which

;his movement has been undertaken can hardly ail to meet with a response, and to secure at .east some acknowledgement of what the nation owes to the father by a suitable provision for the only three survivors of the name of Cort*

TELEGRAPHS FOR TARGETS. The following will, we believe, prove a very useful suggestion:—

Gentlemen,—Rifle targets and "butU" are being constructed in great numbers in all parts of the country. It occurs to me that the employment of an electric telegraph to notify the position of each shot would save much time, trouble, and expense, as a substitute for the plan of bugle signals or other modes.

A double wire telegraph laid from the shooting bouse tothetarget-man's pit (infront of the targets) wonld be a small proportionate addition to the expense of a practise ground, and would add much to its completeness and safety.

The ground prepared for the corps to which I belong, "The London Scottish Volunteers," at the Crystal Palace will cost about £500. The plan I suggest is as follows:—A dial and pointer and a bell are to be fixed at each end of the v.-i iv.-. that is, at the shooting house, and in the targetman's pit. When a ball strikes he will with his left hand move a handle that turns the pointer on each dial to the exact direction of the hit on the target, that is above, below, right or left, or in the intermediate positions.

With his right hand he will then sound the bell (at the shooting house) by the electric current one, two, three, or four times, as the shot is in the outer, the inner, the thifd ring, or bull's eye, so as to tell the value of the shot. Yours, &c.

Rob Roy, the Bugler.

for Jfnfontions.


2478. I. Brown. Improvements in the treatment of growing crops.

2482. A. Chevrier. Neutralizing the smell and savour of all vegetable and animal substances without their being adulterated by the use of essence of spirits and aromatical products.

Dated Nov. 8, 1869.

2538. A. Learcb. An improved process of manufacturing embossed sheet* or stuffs, called embossed fictitious leather for hangings and household furnitures. (A communication.)

Dated Nov. 14, 1859.

2583. H. J. Daniell. Improvements in the construction of breech-loading tire-arms.

Dated Nov. 19, 1859.

2622. C. Bosc. The manufacture of artificial marbles. •

2626. J. Hollingsworth. Improv«nenU in the mode of and machinery for cutting irregular and other forms. (Partly a communication.)

Dated Nov. 23, 1859.

2648. W. H. Ward. Improved signal lanterns. Dated Nov. 25, 1859.

2668. W. Smith. Improvements in applying and working propellers in boats and vessels. (A com municatiou.)

Dated Nov. 30, 1859.

2706. B. Samuelson and W. Manwaring. Improvements in reaping and mowing machines.

2708. E. Dorsett. A new manufacture of heavy oil.

2710. H. de Matthys. Improvements in electric telegraph cables.

2712. W. E. Newton. Improvements in the construction ofpianofortes. (A communication.) ^2714. J. Lawson and S. Cotton. Improvements in machinery for cutting and forming the teeth or cogs of wheels.

• The Committee, of which "William Fairbairn is the Chairman, consists of the Mayor of Manchester (Ivie Mackie), Thomas Bailey, M.P., James A. Turner, M.F., Kichard Cobden, M.P., Messrs. Whitworth, Hick, Pcnn, Boyd, and Webster, are soliciting subscriptions with the view of purbha&ing annuities for, or otherwise securing the comfort of, the declining years of the survivors of the "Cort Family." Mr. David Mums, 1 Market-street, Manchester, acts 08 Secretary.

Dated Dec. I, 1859.

2716. G. K. Geyelin. Making close folding metallic spring laths, mattresses, ana bedsteads.

2718. A. MoBselman. An aromal electrical girdle.

2720. J. Cocks. Improvements in the mode of manufacturing cloths or materials for trowscrings.

2722. W. E. Newton. Improved apparatus ap

Elicable for beating eggs, or mixing substances or quids. (A communication.)

2724. G. Davidson. Improvements in tho manufacture of paper bags, and in the machinery or apparatus used therein.

2726. N. S. Dodge. Improvements in the construction of lamps. (A communication.) Dated Dec. 2,1859.

2728. J. Moore. An improved damper of chimneys and flues.

2730. D. Makinson and J. Hope. Certain improvements in carding engines.

2732. W. H. Aldridge. Certain improvements in paddle wheels or propellers of steam ships.

2734. A. V. Newton. An improved mode of treating india-rubber, gutta percha, and analogous gums. (A communication.)

Dated Dec. 3, 1859.

2736. T. Hall. Certain improvements in the construction of cartridges.

2738. F. Palling. Improvements in the construction of lamps i» burning oils and tallow.

2742. P. M. Parsons. Improvements in fire-arms and projectiles.

2744. J. Budkin. Improvements in stoppers for bottles.

Dated Dec. 5,1869. .

2748. J. Hawkins and C. Hawkins. Certain inv provements in the construction of furnaces for consuming smoke, applicable to stationary and marine boilers, and other closed fire-places.

2752. G. Feldwick. An improvement in roller blinds.

2754. W. 11 nlion. Improvements in preventing the destruction of the timbers of piers, docks, and other structures by the action of sea-worms, or other marine animals.

Dated Dec. 6, 1859.

2768. C. Sells. Improvements in marine steamengines for driving screw and other propellers.

2760. J. Jones and J. Hilton. Improvements in apparatus to be used in dyeing, dunging, soaping, and clearing fabrics.

2764. F. Potts. Improvements in the mode of manufacturing or finishing tubes for certain purposes.

Dated Dec. 7, 1859.

2765. F. Levick. A new or improved coke oven.

2767. J. Anderson. Improvement* in obtaining motive power.

2768. T. Bradford. Certain improvements in machinery or apparatus for wringing and mangling textile fabrics.

2769. K'. A. Broomon. Improvements in marine steam-engines for driving screw and other propellers, and in screw propellers. (A communication.)

2770. F. W. Schafer. Improvements in cash, deed, jewel, and other boxes.

2771. E. H. Collyer. A chemical ink-pencil or composition applicable as an instrument or means for writing, drawing, and marking.

2772. M. Jacoby. Improvements in the manufacture of twist lace.

2773. T. R. Harding. Improvements in combs or hackles for combing, carding, or hackling flax, cotton, silk, or other fibrous materials (which are also applicable to raising the nap or pile of woollen or other cloths), and in the making of pins or teeth for such combs or hackles.

2775. C. C. S. de Chongy. Improvements in the1 manufacture of bread, which improvements are alsoapplicable in the preparation of dough or paste for other purposes.

2776. J. Mabbott. Improvements in wind-guard* for chimneys.

2777. R. T. Pattison. Improvements in printing and dyeing certain woven fabrics and yarns.

Dated Dec. 8,1869.

2778. W. Spence. Improvements in rotating harrows. (A communication.)

2779. J. G. N. Alleyne. Improvements in the manufacture of boilers, ships, tanks, and other hollow vessels of iron and steel.

^780. J. Arrowsroith. A new or improved method of constructing land batteries and gun boats.

2781. J. Arrowsmith. Improvements in the manufacture of beams or girders, and in machinery and furnaces used in the said manufacture.

2783. E. Gray and T. H. Scholfield. Improvements in flattening and tempering steel wire and sheet steel, and also in tho tubes employed in the furnaces.

2731. T. Crook. Improvements in machinery or apparatus for making paper ba<js.

2785. W. Prosser and J. Hog<r. An improved cooking apparatus particularly suitable for military purposes.

2788. J. Norris, jun., and T. Till. Improvements in machinery to be used in manufacturing horse-nails and other wrought nails.

2787. F. IT. Elliott and C. A. Elliott. An improved method of preventing drawing boards and other flat wooden surfaces from warping or twisting, and of adding to the strength thereof.

2783. A. liumpfF. An improved fastening for portemonnaics, portfolios, bags, and other like articles. (A communication )

2789. J. Macintosh. Improvements in the manufacture of waterproof and other fabrics, and of moulded or formed articles.

2700. J. Macintosh. Improvements in setting artificial teeth.

27i)l. J. Macintosh. Improvements in cartridges and projectiles.

Dated Dec. 9, 1859.

2792. W. Boaler. An improved compound for washing purposes.

2703. J. Lawsou and W. Hago. Improvements in apparatus to be used in spinning or twisting.

2791. J. Spiller. Improvements in drying articles or bodies formed of plastic clay.

27'.)-). J. Tenwick. Improvements^ tho construction of steering apparatus adapted for ships and such like navigable vessels.

2790. H. Hughes and J. Moore. Improvements in machinery for transferring and for transferring and engraving designs and figures on to cylindrical aud Hat surfaces.

2797. J. D. DunnielifF. An improvement in tho manufacture of bonnet fronts and ruches.

2703. W. Betts. An improved manufacture of capsulos.

2700. J. Thomson, E. Thomson, and H. Thomson. An improved agricultural implement. Dated Dec. 10, 1859.

23)3. E. Ileilman. The preparation of a new colour, called Azaleine, and its application to dyeing and printing. (A communication.)

2301. F. C. Calvert and C. Lowe. Improvements in dyeing and printing certain yarns and fabrics.

2802. G. Davies. An improvement in tobaceo pipes, mouthpieces, and cigar or cigarette holders. (A communication.)

2303. W. Horton. An improvement or improvements in steam-boilers.

2801. C. Gammon. An improved fastener for gloves and other articles.

2805. J. Farquhar. Improvements in gas-meters.

2800. W. Wniteley. Improvements in looms for weaving.

2307. J. Chatterton. Improvements in tho manufacture of projectiles.

2308. I. L. Bell. Improvements in the manufacture of the sulphate of magnesia.

2809. J. Chatterton and W. Smith. Improvements in insulating telegraphic conductors, and in the treatment of gutta percha.

2810. S. W. Campain. Improved machinery for removing or elevating straw and other agricultural produce.

23?1. W. W. Bonnin and F. Pons. A new system and improvements in locomotive engines.

2312. D.Strickland. An apparatus for separating, sifting, sorting, and cleansing mineral ores.

Dated Dec. 12? 1859.

2313. E. Emery. Improvements in carriages for common roads.

2311. J. K. Breckon and E. Dixon. Improvements in the, construction of coke ovens.

2315. P. G. Gennerich. A new system of motive power, applicable for working cranes and wheels.

2316. T. Slather. Improvements in tho ventilation of buildings, ships, and enclosed places.

2817. P.Stirling. Improvements in traction engines.

2818. G. C. Watson. Novel and artistic bricks or "lumps" for the reception, growth, and propagation of ferns, mosses, and other plants.

2819. G. Lough. An improved compound motive power engine.

2820. G. H. Eollet. An improved machine for the manufacture of pressed bullets.

2821. W. Clay. An improved mode of manufacturius; cannon and other ordnance.

2822. J. E. Isaac. Improvements in the construction of hand boxes for travellers.

2823. J. Bsiley. Improvements in the manufacture of corsets and stays.

282-1. W. Teall. Improvements in treating fatty and oily matters obtained from wash waters. (A communication.)

Dated Dec. 13, 1859.

2325. C. Yinall. Improvements in, and mechanism for, retaining the rollers of window blinds, maps, charts, and other articles requiring to be wound on rollers.

2820. T. Eedwood. Improvements in tho manufacture of paper and of substances used in paper making, and for other purposes.

2827. G. Withers. Certain improvements in blocks for moulding and shaping glass during the process of blowing or forming glass, for blowing sheet glass, glass shades, and such like articles.

2828. J. B. Johnson and J. S. Atkinson. Improvements in machinery for manufacturing printing types.

2829. W. Harding. Improvements in breechloading fire-arms and in cartridge carriers.

2830. J. Barling. Improvements in propelling vessels.

2831. W. Eobinson. Improvements in cask washing machines.

2333. J. H. Dickson. Improvements in the manufacture of yarns, and in the machinery to be employed in the preparation of certain fibres to be thus manufactured into yarns.

Dated Dec 14, 1859.

2835. W.Clark. A heating apparatus for boots and shoes and other coverings for the feet. (A communication.)

2837. J. Champion. Certain improved arrangements of spindles, flyers, and bobbins, applicable to machinery or apparatus for preparing, spinning, and doubling fibrous materials.

2839. G. Leach. An improved mode of, and apparatus for, oiling, preparing, and mixing wool.

2811. E. Lnwson. Certain improvements in machinery or apparatus for punching patterns or devices upon metallic printing rollers or cylinders.

2813. J. Khodes. Improvements in steam hammers.

2815. W. Mratson. An improvement in preparing indigo for dyeing and other purposes.

2817. W. R. Crocker. Improvements in cutting corks and bungs, and in apparatus employed therein.

Dated Dec. 15, 1859.

2851. B. Predavalle. Improvements in producing or obtaining motive power.

2853. W. Mrestwood. Improvements in the manufacture and burning of Portland cement.

2855. J. K. Hardy. Improvements in the manufacture of bottle stands.

2857. C. Hancock. Improvements in insulating telegraphic conductors, and manufacturing cables for telegraphic purposes.

2859. D. J. Fleetwood. Improvements in machinery for raising and stamping metal.


2873. T. Fairbanks. An improved scale for weighing letters. Dated Dec. 17, 1850.

2875. M. Mrright. Fastening packing cases by which they cannot be opened without such opening being detected, and termed by him" detective fastening for packing cases." Dated Dec. 17, 1850.

2806. J. Wiucock. A new and improved machine for cutting or mincing meat, vegetables, &c. (A communication.) Dated Dec. 20, 1859.

NOTICES OF INTENTION TO PEOCEED . WITH PATENTS. {from the London Oiaettt, Dec. 27, 1859.) 1807. D. Campbell. Oils. 1873. K. Btthring. Obtaining spring power. 1879. S. Harrison. Broiling meat. 18S5. J. Poupard. Blackleading stoves. 1803. H. Medlock. Kiln? or furnaces.

1897. A. Yoekney. Ectining oils.

1898. W. Grimshaw and S. Mason, jun. Machinery for washing, &c.

1900. A. J. Can u. Crushing stones.

1901. P. Salmon. -Locomotives.

1911. E. Hardon. Looms.

1912. W. Finegon. Lubricating machinery. 1911. G. W. Petter and T. D. Galpin. Printing


1917. J. 3. O. Taylor. Separating silos from iron.

1920. H. Parkes. Cylinders.

1922. O. Maggs. Taps and cocks.

1931. G.Pearson. Boots and shoes.

1933. J. Henry and J. E. H. Andrew. Looms.

193-1. J. Blake. Gauges.

1911. A. P. Chamberlain. Cutting cork?.

1959. J. Whitworth. Firoarms and ammunition.

1980. T. Meriton. Governors.

1903. W. Clark. Sewing machinery. (A communication.)

1971. J. Hare. Pianofortes.

1995. T. Aveling. Locomotive engines. 1997. E. H. Collyer. Paper. 2008. i. F. F. Leroux. Apparatus for taking money.

2028. A. T. New ton. Sewing machines, (A communication.)

2029. A. V. Newton. Weighing machines. (A communication.)

2058. M. M. Jackson. Generating steam.

2135. L. Engler and E. F. Krauss. Insulatow.

2179. J. V. Culliguon and L. George. Typography.

2187. T. Beards. Ploughing by steam.

2200. E. H. Bentall. Screw presses.

2211. S. E. English. Taking copies of writing.

2117. E. A. Brooman. Oils and fats. (A com. munication.)

25136. A. Jacquolain. Carbon.

2032. J. Cowan. Furniture.

2338. E. T. Hughes. Weaving. (A communistion.)

2013. T. B. Daft. Coating sheathing metal.

2675. F. Scheithauer. Printing fabrics.

2692. C. Sells. Steam-engines.

2720. J. Cocks. Trowserings.

2721. G. Davidson. Paper bags. 2727. W. Betts. Capsules.

2754. W. Hutton. Preventing the destruction of timber.

2755. C. Sells. Marine steam-engines. 2767. J. Anderson. Motive power.

2778. W. Spence. Harrows. (A communication.) 2791. J. Spiller. Drying articles. 2798. W. Betts. Capsules.

2305. J. Farquhar. Gas meters.

2306. W Whiteley. Looms.
2817. P. Stirling. Traction engines.
2330. J. Barling. Propelling vessels.
2373. T. Fairbanks. Scale.

The full title? of the patents in the above list can be &lceitained by referring bock to their numbers in the list ol provisional protections previously published.

Opposition can be entered to the granting of a patent to any of the parties in the above list who have given notie? uf their indention to proceed, within twenty-one days from tlw date of the Gazette iu which the notice appears, by leavinr at the Commissioners' office particulars ia writing of the objection to the application.


Sealed Dec. 2.1, 1S53.

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Our Copper Coinage 1

New Submarine Telegraph Cables 1

Mr. Bessemer and the Iron Manufacture 1

Explosions at Gunpowder Works 2

The Royal Polytcchnio 3

The Case of Henry Cort and his Inventions in the

Manufacture of British Iron 3

Money-Making at the Royal Mint.—No. IV 4

Theory of Naval Architecture.—No. VIII *

The Sewing Machine 7

Fish-tail Propellers 7

The Experimental Screw Propellers J

Burnett's Patent Self-supporting Fire-proof Floors,

Roofs, and Arches *.:... *

Scotfs Compensating Self-registering Thermometer... 9

Literature W

The New Iron 8team Ram to

Clifford's SyBtem of Lowering Boats 11

Proceedings of Societies 12

I*aw Cases 1

Our Weekly Gossip 13

Abridged Specifications of Patents 13

Provisional Protections 15-"

Patents Applied for with Complete Specifications Ifi

Notices of Intention to Proceed with Patents 16

List of Scaled Patents 16

Patents on which the Third Tear's Stamp Duty has

been paid 1C

1,1st of Specifications, 4c 16

List of Miscellaneous Tenders invited, and Engagements open 16

Prices Current of Metals 16




J_ CIIURKA.—All persons intending to submit gins for competition at the above trial, must forward them to the offices of this Association on or before the 19th day of July next, after which day no gin will be received.

The tiial will take place on Tuesday, the 26th day_ of July.

Further particular* may be obtained by application at the offices of the Cotton Supplr Association.

6. R. HAYWOOD, Secretary.

1 Newall's Buildings, Manchester. (300)


THE temperature of trie products of burnt fuel escaping into the Smolte-boxes of Locomotive and Portable Engine* is upwards of 800°. DUNCAN, GWYNNE. andC. WYE WILLIAM'S PATENT HEAT DIFFU8ERS, placed in the Tubes, will utilize about 400° of the heat, convert it into an equivalent of working steam, and reduce the temperature to about 350° or 400°.

The Patentees arc prepared to accept for Royalty a part of< the4 value Of the fuel saved by the use of their simple appliances.

Every information may be had.on application to the Manufacturers,.GWYXKE'& CO., Engineers, Essex-street Wharves, Strand, W.C., London. (251)

IENGINEERS' TOOLS FOR SALE.—A Li Superior SELF-ACTING SLIDE and SCREW-CUTTING LATHE, 7 in. centre and 7 ft. bed. A Ditto, 7 in. centre and 9 ft. bed. A PUNCHING and SHEARING MACHINE, for fin. plates. Two Ditto for £in. plates, and Two Ditto for J in. plates. VERTICAL DRILLING MACHINE; PILLAR and BENCH DRILLS; HALEY'S and other LIFTING JACKS; RACHET BRACES, &c.

Apply to PAGE and CAMERON, 64 Old Broad-st., E.C., London". (285)

PATENT LEVER BREAKS for RAILWAY WAGGONS, doing away with the objectionable Break Rack. Can be applied to existing stock at a trifling expense. Royalty moderate.

Models can be seen at 34 Great George-street, Westminster, and the Breaks in action at the Works of the Railway Carriage Company at the Peterborough Station, on the Eastern Counties Railway; the Rugby Station, London and North-Western Railway; the Cardiff Docks Station, Toff Vale 'Railway; and at the Works, Oldbury, near Birmingham, where all communications are requested to be sent. (275)


X To be DISPOSED OF, on very reasonable terms, a complete FACTORY, freehold, or can be rented. It is fitted with the best machinery, and has cverv convenience carrying on a large business. The connexion is small, tut (with the interest of the proprietor) could be Increased. Part of the money may remain on security. This will be found an excellent opportunity for a small capitalist. There is a good dwelling attached. Apply by letter to Mr. £. Ledger Lcwisham-road, Greenwich. (301)


THE ANCHOR COMMITTEE AFFIRM "TROTMAN'S PATENT ANCHOR" to be superior to all others, possessing Thirty-Five Per Cent, more Holding Power than either Porter's or Roger's, and equivalent in all respects to ordinary Anchors of 28 per cent, greater weight.

"This appeared to the Committee of vast importance to the Shipping Interests, &c*-"

(Vide their Official Report, 1853,««On the relative merits of different descriptions of Anchors," sanctioned and ap> proved by the Admiralty.)

THE ANCHOR COMMITTEE , Nominated by the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty "to investigate and determine the relative > merits of Anchors," in compliance with a requisition from the principal Shipowners, Underwriters, &c... of ..the. United Kingdom.

Rear-Admiral the Hon. Sir M. Stopford, K.C.B., Chairman. ■

Capt. Superintendent Charles Hope, IUN., Her Majesty's Dockyard, Sheernera.

Captain George Rodney Munday, R.N., Her Majesty's Ship " Nile."

Jonathan Aylen, Esq., R.N., Master Attendant, Her Majesty's Dockyard, Sheerness.

James Tonkin, Esq., Master, R.N., Her Majesty's Ship "Waterloo," 120 guns.

William Schaw Lindsay, Esq., M.P., &c, &c.

Duncan Dunbar, Esq., Chairman of General Shipowners' Society; Do. Mercantile Marine Board, London. Member of the Committee of " Lloyd's Register " of Shipping, &c.

Anthony Ridley, Esq., Vice-Chairman of Mercantile Marine Board; Member of the Committee of "Lloyd's Register " of Shipping, &c.

William Drew, Esq., Member of the Mercantile Marine Board; Member of the Committee of "Lloyd's Register" of Shipping, Arc.

William Phillips, Esq., Member of the Committee of "Lloyd's Register" of Shipping; General Shipowners' Society, &c.

George Marshall, Esq., Member of the Committee of "Lloyd's Register" of Shipping; General Shipowners' Society, &c.

THE INTERNATIONAL JURY AT PARIS Also awarded this Invention the,First Class Medal, 1855.

Licensed Makers of Trotman's Improved Anchors :— Messrs. Hawks, Crawshay, and Sons, NewcasUe-on-Tyne, „ John Abbott and Co., Park Works, Gateshead,

Durham, .

,, J. and E. Lumsden, Strand Iron Works, Sunder-
,, N. Hingley and Sons, Cradlcy and Nethcrton Iron

,, Proctor and Taylor, MUbank Forge, Hartlepool,
„ Henry Wood and Co., Goree Piazzas, Liverpool,
„ Wood Brothers, Chester, Wolverhampton, and

Stourbridge, „ R. Wight and Sons, Iron Works, Sunderland and

Seaham, „ Pow and Fawcus, 49 Lr. ShadwclL London, and

North Shields, ,, John Gilbert, Cradley Heath, Staffordshire. Depots, GEORGE WOOD & CO., 14 Fore-st., Limehouse. London, and at 4 Goree Piazza, Liverpool.


: (M?)


THE ADVERTISER, who has had considerable experience In Mnrine Engineering and Iron Shipbuilding, and who is an export Draughtsman, is desirous of meeting with a permanent Engagement as London Agent, Mannger of a Shipbuilding Yard, or to act in any capacity in which ample knowledge of Mechanical Details and a large connexion among Engineers, Ship Owners, and others, might be rendered available. The Advertiser having also been much engaged in working out some important patented inventions, would undertake to further the objects of those having property of this kind, cither to dispose of or to bring into operation. Apply by letter, to M. E., Mechanics' Maoaisisk Office, 166 Fleet-street (250)


PHOTOGRAPHS OP THE HIGHEST CLASS and of any size, taken and reproduced at a most moderate rate of charge. Reproductions of faultless accnracy. of Machinery, Models, Drawings, fte. Orders attended to in town and country. Estimates forwarded. SPENCER, READ, & Co., 4 Agar-street, Strand. W.C. (90)

HART & SON, MALLEABLE IronFounderb, 4 Vine-street, York-road, Lambeth. Orders for Malleable Iron Castings executed within a week. (77)

TO MANUFACTURERS, THE ENGINEERING, MECHANICAL, & BUILDING TRADES GENERALLY. "IVfESSRS. BOOTH 4; CO., AUCTIONEERS 1VX and BUILDERS' SALESMEN, having opened Registers for Public and Private Sales of all kinds of JOB LOTS, Surplus Stock, Stores, Tools, Implements, fee, &a., (either Old or New,) beg to call the attention of all parties to the only medium established of the kind, and to state that they ore prepared to receive consignments of any weight, bulk, or value, and of any class of Goods for immediate Sale. Full particulars may be had for two stamps, at the BUILDING TRADES REGISTRY OFFICES, (established 1847,) W EA8TCHEAP, LONDON, E.C. The Public Sales by Auction are held Weekly, on Evkbt Tuesday,, at **kk O'clock, and for the present at the BUIUiKRsNfca.K GROUNDS, (established 1858,) 25and 24 MARYLEBONE HOAD, REGENT'8 PARK, W. Catalogues by Post for One Stomp. Advances on New Goods. All communications are held private and con fldential, (204)


Particularly invite attention to their PATENT ARGAND
LAMP OIL, for Railway Roof and Signal Lamps; alsoto
their EXTRA-REFINED ENGINE OIL, for Locomotive
and Machine purposes. Prices forwarded on application.

127 HIGH HOLBORN, LONDON, W.C. Agent at MANCHESTER—E. 8. ROGERS, 83 Cannon Street (281)


PON SHIPS may be rendered FIREPROOF if internally fitted with Fibrous Slab in lieu of Deal.

Extract from a letter of the Captain of the Royal Bride

Steamer, trading between Bristol and Melbourne:—" 23th

May, 1859.—From my experience of the last nine months

in all climates, I have no hesitation in saying there is no

kind of lining I know of equal to your Fibrous Slab for

Iron Ships.—Yours, &c.'(Signed), Alex. Newlahd."



15 Wellington-street North, Strand, London, W.C.



One of 8-horse power, 8in. cylinder, and 18in. stroke.

One of 10-horse power, loin, cylinder, and 24in. stroke.

Two of 12-horse power, 12in. cylinder, and 24in. stroke.

One of 14-horse power, 12in. cylinder, and 36in. stroke.

Two of 14-horse power, 14in. cylinder, and 24in. stroke.

One of 16-horse power, 14in. cylinder, and 36in. stroke.

Twoof 30-horse power, 20in. cylinder, and S6in. stroke.

The above Engines are quite new, of superior manufacture and finish, and are to be sold at very low prices.

Apply to PAGE and CAMERON, 64 Old Broad-street, London, E.C. (284)



J- consequence of numerous complaints, the Patcnteo begs to inform the above, that all genuine SMITH'S PATENT DOOR SPRINGS, for Swing Doors, are stamped with Nome and Address, thus—Smith, Patentee, 69 Princesstreet, Leicester-square, London; and that Springs thus marked are warranted. SMITH'S PATENT WEATIIEKTIGIIT CASEMENT FASTENING AND SILL-BARS are admitted by all to be the most perfect invention for the purpose. Diagrams and List of Prices on application. __^ (M3)

THOULEY'S FOOD FOK CATTLE.—Every person having an interest in domestic or farm animals should obtain a supply of this celebrated and economical food, which will prove invaluable during the approaching season. For keeping horses in good condition, it is unequalled. Pigs fatten with surprising rapidity upon it, and their flesh increases in flavour and value. Cowkeepcrw will And great advantage in the increased quantity and improved quality of the milk during its use. All animals are benefited by it. A pamphlet on this interesting eub

t'oct, accompanied by Testimonials from tne principal Nolility, Gentry, and Agriculturists, forwarded on application. In Casks containing 448 Feeds (Measures enclosed). Price 50s., carriage paid to any Railway Station in the United Kingdom. Post Office Orders payable to Joseph Thorley. 77 Newgate Street, London.

N.B.—The public are cautioned against being imposed upon by worthless imitations. (132)

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I ESTABLISHED A.I). 1J78), , ..'

EARNESTLY solicit the continued support of Ih'cirtiitmerbus Ffldrids, AjyKculturists, Shippers,

and others; the additions made to their Works during the prcseKH year, in the erection of new Beta of Workshops, fitted with the best mechanical appliances for producing Machinery of the most improved construction, expeditiously and economically, justifies their soliciting increased support, while their leading reputation as Inventors and Manufacturers of First Class Agricultural Machinery, is a sufficient guarantee that every Machine supplied from Lyiston Works will prove to the entire satisfaction of the purchaser.

R. G. & S. are now manufacturing the following Machines and Implements, which they guarantee to bo thoroughly efficient in every respect:—

PORTABLE AM) FIXED STEAM ENGINES. ) From 4 to 40 Horse Tower, suited for cverv kind of work

6KLF-PKOPELLING AND TRACTION ENGINES. I to which Steam Power is applied.



MILLWRIGHTS' WORK of all kinds.

BAWINO MACHINERY, from 4 fo 30 Horse Tower.


IMPROVED 8F.TS OF FARM MACHINERY, for Large Occupations.
PORTABLE AND FIXED MACHINERY, for Thrashing and Dressing Com.
CORN DRESSING MACHINES, for Hand, Horse, Water, and Steam Power.

CHAFF CUTTERS, for Hand, Horse, Water, and Steam Power.









be. &o. &c. Of which full detailed particulars will be found in R. G. & SONS' Illustrated Catalogue, sent postage free to any address, in English,French, or German; and any of the above Machines will be shown in operation at R. G. & Sons' Farm, near the Wants, on their receiving a few days' notice.

A Copy of R. G. & SONS' new Colonial List will be forwarded free to any of the Colonies, and Shippers will be supplied with these lists, with their names and addresses printed on, free of charge, by making application for the same.

Address—R. GARRETT & SONS, Leiston Works, Saxmundham, Suffolk. (161








Tanks, Casks, and Barrels.

Iron Wheelbarrows, Cart Bodies, &c.

nay Racks. Mangers, Sheep Cribs, and Cattle Troughs.

Rick Stands, and Sliding Roofs of Wrought Iron.

Roofs and Bodies of Luggage Vans, Trucks, and Coal

Cast and Wrought Iron Columns, Stanchions, and Girders.
Ties, Straps King-heads, Shoes, &c.
Von Punts for Sugar Estates, to,, &c.


Tbo application of Corrugated Iron Roofing Plates to Roofs of Timber Framing, particularlv suitable for the Colonies, Railway Carriage Sheds, and Station Roofs; Iron Sheds for Sugar and Coffee Estates, for Manufactories, Weaving Sheds, &c.; Iron Roofs for Churches, Farm Buildings, Gasworks, &c.

Iron Buildings, viz.—Warehouses, Sugar Refineries, Market Houses, Railway Stations, Stores, Dwellings, to., erected in this oountry, In the East and West Indies, Egypt, China, the Capo of Good Hope, South America, and Australia.

Plans and Estimates will be furnished on Application,

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And Manufacturers of Portable and Fixed Steam Engines.

Combined Threshing Machines, which dress the com ready for market at
,"«nc operation. Grinding Mills, Saw Benches, Pumps for Irrigation and
Mining purposes, with all necessary gearing for being driven by steam power.
Full particulars and estimates given on application to the above address.

C. 8. and Co.'s PORTABLE STEAM ENGINES are adapted for every purpose to which steam-power can be i pplicd. When intended for winding, *iey are fitted with reversible link action and winding gear. They are e*sy of removal, as maybe seen by the engraving, and can be set to'work Immediately on arrival.

C. S. and Co. are now doing an extensive foreign and colonial business, and are prepared to send off engines and machinery of the before-mentioned kinds in a few days from the date of order. They would also call attention to the important reduction in pricex made for the new year.

For E.vportation.~-Thc above can be obtained through British Merchants, 8hippcrs, and Colonial Agents. (23)








Undertakes the preparation of Illustrated Patalopie. and
Circulars, for Enginocra, Agricultural laiplcoirat linkers,
Ironmongers, Birmingham and Sheffield WareMutsn,
and others; and from considerable experience in illustrat-
ing mechanical journals, can ensure accuracy of detail bath
in the Drawing and Engraving. This is secured by em-
ploying professed Mechanical Draughtsmen ia the prepara-
tion of the Drawings on the Wood Blocks.
Estistatks FtUUfUHKD.




TO BRASS FOUNDERS. rilO HE SOLO, the Patent-right of a New ami J_ Highly-approved EQUILIBRIUM WATER CUCK or VALVE, suitable for Steam Boiler Feed Pipti, or an) eases where the valve is required to be opened araiml pressure.

Address H., Mkchakics' Maoazise Office, lM Fleet-st., where a Drawing may be seen. (151)

Apply to the Secretary, 3 Newhall-strcet, Birmingham.




Not only Deodcriy.es but Disinfects i»rfectly, ud
DEsvnovs roa Evee the cause of Infection.

Is not poisonous, as it may be used to purify wster. Evolves no noxious or unpleasant gas. Cannot be misaken for any other fluid, thereby preventing death and iisease; and is therefore the best, safest, cheapest, and mo<t pleasant disinfectant ever introduced.

This fluid has been examined and reported upon byth* Board of Health, all the most eminent Men and Chemist* of the day, in all cases in the most satisfactory mannt possible.

The Public are recommended to use this Fluid, proper! diluted with water, frequently and habitually in lorclrri, sculleries, dairies, musty cakes, sick rooms, close places, &c, as it has numerous 'advantages, and can be used with certain immediate success and perfect safety.

Sold in 0_uart Bottles, Is.; Pints, 2s.; ilalf-pints, Is.; and in bulk, 10s. per Gallon.

Free to Railway on receipt of Order or Stamps. (23S)

WATER GAUGES—WATER GAUGEM.Sir,—We find your German Gauge Tube superior to anv other, nnd strongly recommend it. We were compelled to abandon the use of our water gauge until appl; inf your glass tube.

Wilcox and Co., Millwall Pottery Company. These Tubes are superior to all others; being i dear white, no mistake can arise in working. Guarantee!) f stand a pressure of 500 lb. Extensivelv used on all the principal lines. To be had only of E. MOORE, 5i Upper MaryleboKstrect, VV.; and 72 Great Titchfield-strcct, W. •»• Price List of Gangc Fittings, &c, on applicant,



Manufacturers of all descriptions of



Sole Manufacturers of


MATS, For Doorways, Stairs, Baths, Carringes, Ships &c-< '^iei never clop, require no beating, and, unlike all other Mats arc readily cleansed by waitc. Indestructible by damp, these Mats are especially suitable for uncovered l'swapc*, and out of door purposes. Seat Mats, UouseniaiuV Mat*, and Brushes for wooden and *tone floors. Sole Manufacturers of

WARNE'S PATENT MINERALISED IMPROVED KAMPTULICOX, Possessing advantages over all the ordinary makes, ia exceeding toughness, and flexibility, and consequent dunbilitr, while neither heat nor cold has effect upoa % Widths, 3/4s., 4/4sM 6/4s„ and 7/4s; Substances, J, ft and thicker if required. Length, 20 to 25 yards.

Patentees of the Red Mineralised India Rubbtr— tlrt only Rubber not affected by Oil.

Warehouse, 9 Gresham-street West, EX. Mflls, TUtenhara, N. (J44J

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