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the core or interior die in a bent or zig-zag form, and so that the clav or plastic brick earth in place of being cut radialfv is divided in nn incHned direction, by wb.ich a lap joint is formed in the clav. Patent

1098. 3. Chtlds. * Improvements in tie manufacture of night-light cases." Dated May 2, 1859.

This consists in wrapping or forming the cylinders of paper or wood on to the bottoms'of plaster, cement, or other material, thus forming the upper parts on the bottoms. Patent completed.

1099. W. GoastoB. "Improvements in the manufacture and useful application of certain alkaline silicates, and in the production of liquor silicis, or liquid fluid. Dated May 2,1859.

This consists, 1, in using in the manufacture of soluble ijlass carbonate of potash or carbonate of soda, which has been previously deprived of sulphate of potash or sulphate of soda, the liquid flint thus produced being free from alkaline sulphuret. 2. In the application of such solutions to rendering stones, bricks, wood, paper, woven fabrics, and other materials impermeable to water. 3. In the manufacture of ailieate of lime by decomposing solutions of silicate of potash or silicate of soda by caustic lime or carbonate of lime, or by boiling such native silica as is readily dissolved by caustic alkali with a mixture of caustic lime and caustic potash or soda dissolved in water, by whioh means a silicate of lime is obtained in such state a* renders it usefully applicable for promoting the growth of plants. Patent abandoned.

1100. D. Moons. "Improvements in machinery for robbing or dressing types." Dated May 2,1859.

This relates to the manner of feeding the types one by one or in a regular manner to the automatic device which takes the said types and carries them lettertail first through or between cutters that rub or cut and remove the projections which remain on the sides of the types and base of the letters after casting. Tho invention also relates to a device for removing tho type* from the parts that have carried the said types through the cutters, and receiving the types on au apparatus that reverses their movement or position, ami delivers them with their base or lower end first on to an apparatus for setting the types up into lino ready for the u<ual finishing operations. Patent e&mplet&i.

1101. \V. Gomaoe. "Improvements in the manufacture of caustic soda and carbonate of soda, from certain alkaline liquids." Dated May 2, 1859.

The patentee claims, 1, the manufacture of carbonate of soda from caustic soda contained in salts obtained by the concentration of black ash liquors, by exposing such salts mixed with caustic soda to carbonic acid gas. 2. The manufacture of caustic soda (obtained as before staled) by boiling such salts with water arid caustic lime. 3. The manufacture of cra*tic ftoda by boiling a solution of soluble glass with eainrie lime, eo as to produce silicate of lime and caustic (rodi. Patent completed.

11U2. C. Ncttall. "Iir provements in machinery or apparatus for grinding wire cards." Dated May

Thi« consists in a method of traversing the strickets or other apparatus used for grinding wire cards. The inventor employs a shaft upon which are cut two &reada of screws in opposite directions so as to crow each other, whereby the strickle is caused to travel first in one direction and then in the other. Pa

UO3. F. W. Exbksox. "Improvements in treatise ores to obtain a new metallic substance and its * »U«. and in the application of such matters, and also certain products of tungsten in dyeing, printing, and {feinting." Dated May 2, 1859.

This consists, 1, in the separation of a metallic sub•tine*, wiiich the inventor designates "chrolithineum," from wolfram tungstote of lime, tungstic oxide, and other ores) of tungsten, and in tho manufacture and application of its various salts to dyeing textile fabrics, painting on porcelain, and the production of paint' andpfzments. 2. In the manufacture and ap plication of the blue oxide of tungsten as a dyeing substance for textile fabrics, and as a paint or pigment. 3. In the production of paratungstate of alkali, metatungstate of alkali, isotungstate of alkali, and polytungstate of alkali, which may be used in the preparation of paints and pigments, and for dyeing trxtild fabrics, and for other purposes, and in the >~O[fibination of paratungstic, metatungstic. isotungetie, and polytungstic acids with any suitable metallic ante or mixtures of metallic oxides as a base, such as the oxides of lend, zinc, barytrs, lime and others, to form points and pigments. Patent completed.

llOt, A. GK Fra>k '.* •,. "Improvements in the

Mnufacture of erayoni." (A communication.) Dated

t»y 3, !.«». Toe Mqnirad primary colour is mixed with clay,

(bolus) well ground together in water, aa 1 dried. When the colour is dry, a solution of tragacanth guin is added to it, and the whole kneaded to a paste, of which the pencils are formed by means of a cylinder or press. The pencils arc then again well dried or hardened, and dipped in a hot solution of stenrine spermaceti and cocoa-nu* oil; after about an hour the pencils are taken out, and washed in oil of turpentine. Patent abandoned.

1105. W. Jonssos. "Improvements in the manufacture or production of mineral oil and grease." (A communication.) Dated May 3, 1859.

This relates to the production of ail, oleaginous matters, and grease from mineral shales of various [•inds, and from all or any bituminous materials not being commercially and generally known as coal. The raw shale, <Jtc., is primarily distilled in an ordinary retort, and the product is afterwards re-distilled as often as may be necessary. Patent, abanfltned.

1106. T. W. Miilek. "Improvements in apparatus for, and mode of, generating steam and economising fuel." Dated May 3,1850.

The patentee claim's, 1, the construction and arrangement as described of tubes, flues, or sheet spaces for the passage of the hoat and products of combustion in a marine or other boiler having several furnaces, laterally and transversely to the lengths of tho furnaces, and above or over the bars of each furnace, so that tho products of combustion from tbe first furnace shall pass over the several furnaces between it and the uptake or chimney or outlet, and in like manner the products of combustion from the intermediate furnaces between the first furnace and the uptake or chimney or outlet shall pass over the s'e\v era! furnaces and the fuel therein contained. 2. Tho arrangement of tubes, flues, or sheet spaces for tho passage of the hjat or products of combustion in a marine or other boiler having more than one furnace, whether the same be arranged laterally and transversely to the length of the furnaces, or longitudinally, or lengthwise with the length of the furnaces, hut above or over the bars of the furnaces, so that instead of passing the products of combustion the first, over the second, and second over the third, and so on, they may be alternated and the total length of tho furnace be divided into two or more parts, so that the products of combustion from one furnnce to another may be led or divided laterally from tho front, from tho back, and from the centre part of such furnace to the next or to the next but one, or to any other furnace in the series further therefrom. 3. The use and employment of a series of tubes, pipes, or sheet spaces with a suitable entrance pipe and conducting chamber, for the passage through them of the moist steam generated in a boiler, by which tho steam in its progress to the main steam pipe of a steam engine becomes dried, or the water held in suspension becomes vapourised, whether tubes, pipes, or sheet spaces be arranged longitudinally or transversely, or in other direction in the upper or in any other part abore the level of the water line of a marine or other description of boiler, or in a steaoi chest open to or separate from a boiler, by which the scries of pipes, tubes, or sheet spaces may be surrounded by steam from the boiler and be kept or maintained at the highest temperature due to their position, -t. The novel construction and arrangement of the interior structural parts, as well as the mode of applying surface condensers or refrigerators as described, when such condensers or refrigerators are attached to steam engines or boilers for the purpose of obtaining fresh water from the exhausted steam, or steam otherwise discharged from boilers containing salt or sea water, or, water impregnated with impurities, rendering its use destructive to boilers, or from boilers fed with pure and fresh water.'' Patent completed.

1107. W. Claek. "Improvements in obtaining or extracting quinine and the principal organic alkalies." (A communication.) Dated May 3, 1859.

Here a decoction is obtained from the bark by hydrochloric or sulphuric acids; an alkali or alkaline' carburet is then added until precipitation ceases. The liquor holding the precipitate in suspension is then boiled, and a certain quantity of solid fatty acids added; these acids then melt and form a layer on the surface with which all parts of the liquid under tho influence of ebullition come in contact successively, and the quinine being dissolved in the water combines with the fatty acids and forms with it a perfectly insoluble soap. After a certain time the precipitate becomes of a blackish colour, and the alkaline liquor is transformed into quinine acid. The liquor is then allowed to cool, when the fatty acids become solidified on the surface, and are removed in the form of a cake and then boiled with distilled water for removing any impurities with which it may be mechanically combined. This is continued until the fatty matter yields nothing more to the pnre water; it is then boiled in

crater acidulated with sulphuric acid, and the excess of acids subsequently saturated by an alkali. Some dark matters will be precipitated, and after filtration a crystallized block of sulphate of quinine will be obtained bv cooling, which block may be purified as usual. Patent completed.

1108. TV. Selleus. "Improvements in couplings for shafting." (Partly a communication.) Dated May 3, 1859.

This coupling consists of an external sleeve into tlio opposite ends of which are fitted two other sleeves in the forms of frustrums of cones, the apex of the cones being towards en?h other. These conical sleeves are bored to fit the shafts intended to be coupled, and are divided by one or two longitudinal cuts to enable them to be closed on the shafts. The sleeves are prevented from turning on tho shafts by keys which lock them to the outer sleeve, and they are drawn together by square bolts which pass through part of the external sleeve, and when the nuts on the bolts are screwed up, the bolts will prevent tlie two internal conical sleeves from turning in the external sleeve. Patent completed.

1109. W. Sellbes. "Improved machinery for making screw bolts and nuts." Dated May 3, 1859.

The object here is to prevent the necessity of reversing the motion of the cutting dies, or of stopping the machines to change the bolts, and to 60 arrange the die and top holder as to admit of greater facility in changing from one size thread to another. Patent completed.

1110. J. Moese. "An improved power-printing press." Dated May 3, 1859.

This invention comprises various features which are not fully described apart from the drawings. Patent completed.

1111. L. R. Br.AKE. "A new and useful or im

S'oved machine for sewing a sole on a boot or shoe." atcd May 3. 1859.

This consists, 1, in arranging the shoe rest on the end of an arm extending from the supporting frame of the machino, and capable of entering the shoe, the said rest entering tho interior of the shoe that an outer sole may be stitched upon the innner sole and upper of the shoe or boot. 2. In arranging the thread passage, or looper, or both, within, or so as to operate with, the«hoe-supportingurm. 3. In the application of the feeding mechanism to the needle or its carrier, so as to enable the feeding mechanism to be revolved around, or with the said needles and its carrier, in order to change the direction in which the shoe is to bo fed along. Patent completed.

1112. H. Ciiapmax. "An improved military campcooking apparatus." Dated May 3,1859.

The object here is tho obtaining of a large amount of heating surfacewitha snmll^quantity of fuel. Tho apparatus is composed of three principal parts, which are intended to contain water at the lower part thereof, except the bottom of the third or middle compartment, whicu may be used for roasting coffee. At or near the division of each of the aforesaid compartments a dome or other shaped opening is to be formed, from whence proceed tiles or pipes passing respectively through tho several compartments in a horizontal direction. Tho ends of those tubes which come through the outer casing have valves or dampers for opening and closing the ends of the tubes for regulating the intensity of the heat in the apparatus. The oefore-raentioned compartments are intended to be fitted with shelves, trays, hocks, strainers, and suck-like apparatus for performing the operations of boiling or steaming meat, vegetables, and other articles of food. To use this apparatus it is only necessary to place it over two braziers containing tire, the heat from which traversing the several tubes of the apparatus, will be given off, and speedily raise tho temperature of tha water therein. Patent abandoned.

1113. H. Ohapmas. "Improvements in the construction of kettles." Dated May 3,1859.

This consists in forming the bottom of the kettle partly flat and partly of a dome shape; from the top of such said dome a tube or pipe extends in a horizontal direction through the body of the kettle and bock part thereof, the outer end of the said tube being furnished with a damper or valve for regulating the intensity of the heat. The inside of the kettle at tho bottom of the spout thereof may also be fitted with a valve. By thus constructing kettles the fire is not deadened or prevented from ourning, but by opening the outer valve aforesaid a draught will be established through the kettle, and thereby cause the fire to burn brightly so that if a fire should be nearly out, it will draw it up, at the same time the heat from the fire, being directed to and through the kettle, will speedily boU the water contained in the kettle. Faff at abandoned.

1114. E. \V. Scale. "Improvements in railway signals." Dated May 3,1869.

Here the flanges of the wheels of the engines come in contact with and thereby depress the end of a vibrating lever, at the same time raising the opposite end of the lever and pushing A fan signal out of it* box; the fan expanding to a semicircular shape simultanpnuslv with this raising of the signal a pneumatic collapsible bag or bellows will be distended and adroit air thereinto, and after tho flanges of the several wheels in the train of carriages have ceased to act upon the end of the lever, the weight of the rod to which the fan is affixed will cause the pneumatic bag or bellows to collapse and force out gradually the air contained therein, the stop-cocks or valves being so arranged as to cause the signal to be a certain time in descending, thus indicating to a following train the fact of a forward train having recently passed. Patent completed.

1115. H. Musket. "An improvement in the manufacture of cast steel." Dated May 3, 1859.

This consists in producing a superior quality of cast steel by melting malleable iron together with carbonaceous matter and ores, or oxides of titanium, 'or titaniferous iron ores, or titanic acid, or deoxidized titnniforous iron ores. Patent completed.

1116. W. H. Kinostok. "Improved means of communication between the passengers and guards, and guards and engine drivers of railway trains." Dated May 4, 1869.

This invention is not described apart from tho drawings. Patent completed.

1117. C. F. Vasbbbot. "An improved form of tuyere for blast furnaces." (A communication.) Dated May 4, 1859.

This consists in a box or air reservoir of cast iron having two elbow pipes, and an opening to receive a cap 01 cast iron in which, is formed the aperture which communicates with the furnace. One of the elbow pipes is fixed to the bellows or the fan; the other passes vertically through the arched masonry into tho interior of the furnace. Patent abandoned.

1118. J. Adolpucs. "An improvement in locks, bolts, and latches." Dated May 4,1859.

This improvement as applied to locks and bolts consists of a ]iin, peg, or screw (which when it is desired to secure the lock or bolt) is passed through the fixed part of the lock or bolt, and into, through, or behind the sliding bolt in suen a manner that the said bolt cannot possibly be shot bock until such pin, peg, or screw baa been withdrawn by somo person on tho inner side of the door, gate, or shutter. Also, as applied to latches in tho use of a similar pin, peg, or •crew, which when it is desired to secure the latch is passed into, through, or above the latch and into the hack plate or the fixed of the latch for the purpose described. Patent abandoned.

1119. W. E. Newton. "Improvements in steamboilers." (A communication ) Dated May 4,1859.

This consists in the employment of perforated airtubes in the fire-chamber, and above the fuel, which tubes receive atmospheric air from outside the firechamber, and discharge its numerous small jets among the gaseous products of combustion. The perforated air tubes are each endorsed within, or are surrounded by, a water-tube connected with the water legs or other spaces of the boiler. The air-tubes are also provided with hollow stay bolts, which form passages for the discharge of the numerous jets of atmospheric air among the gaseous products of combustion. Patent abandoned.

1120. J. G. Willaks. "Improvements in utilizing bog stuff or peat, when applied for treating metals and certain mineral and alkaline substances." Dated May 4, 1859.

The patentee claims, 1, the mixing bog stuff or peat, in the state above defined as undried, with pig or cast iron in a divided state, also the moulding of the same preparatory to its being exposed to heat in contact with the said bog stuff or peat intermixed therewith. 2. The collecting of tar, and other condensable products given off from bjog stuff or peat whilst being used as fuel in lime-kilns. 3. The adding to, and intermixing with, ores of iron previously broken or pulverized bog stuff or peat in the state above defined as undried; also the moulding of the said mixture preparatory to its being exposed to heat. 4. The use of bog staff or peat in the state above denned as undried for mixing with sulphate of baryta or sulphate of soda, preparatory to such sulphates being reduced to sulphurets by the application of heat, all as described. Patent abandoned.

1121. J. C. Wilsos. "Improvements in machinerv for cleaning cotton." Dated May 4,1859.

Here two rollers are employed in combination with •a blade or bar which constantly vibrates or oscillates •o as to keep or push back the seeds until they are freed from tho cotton and fall down below the rollers. Patent abandoned. •'

1122. H. Tcbweb. "Improvements in steamengines and apparatus connected therewith." Dated May 5,1869.

Here the objects are the economic employment of high pressure steam which has been generated by any suitable means, by using it in the highest degree expansively in low pressure engines, and also in the economical treatment of tho steam after it has performed its work in the cylinder or cylinders of a steam engine by the employment of surface condensation, effected by a novel arrangement of surface condenser and centrifugal water-circulating apparatus; also economizing fuel, and securing the continuous supply exclusively of fresh feed water to the boilers of marine and other engines bv making up the waste arising from, leakages and other causes. It relates more particularly but not exclusively to marine steam engines, and consists in constructing and fitting stqim cylinders of larger diameter than ordinarily employed on board ships, and bv certain apparatus admitting and employing and using the steam within the cylinder or cylinders from the steam pipe or expansion box at any suitable pressure for only a very small part or portion of the travel of the piston within such cylinder, after which it is allowed again to expand, and being aided by the vacuum on its opposite • side the piston moves or travels to the end of the cylinder and thus performs its full stroke; but instead of employing the ordinary air pump and injection condenser ho substitutes an apparatus by the introduction of which he is enabled to effect considerable economy in boiler room and the consumption of fuel necessary for generating or producing a given amount of power in engines constructed and worked as heretofore. The details are voluminous. Patent completed.

1123. J. F. Allexdeb and D. Bowlby. "Improvements in shears for cutting boiler plates and

•sheets, and for other like purposes." Dated May 5, 1859.

This invention is not described apart from the drawings. Patent completed.

1124. J. Scholpield, and W. Cudwobth. "Certain improvements in machinery or apparatus for spinning cotton and other fibrous materials." Dated May 6,1859.

This relates to that class of spinning machines known as "mules," "tiviners," &c., and consists in making that part of the mule which regulates the speed of the spindles when winding on self-acting. Patent completed^

1125. H. Chapman. "Improved means or appliances for protecting ships against injury from shots, shells, or other warlike projectiles." Dated May 5, 1859.

This consists in adapting a contrivance which the inventor terms a " naval shield" to the sides of the ships, the said shield being capable of being raised or lowered either into or out of the water by a ship's tackle so as to cover any particular part of a ship. Patent completed.

1126. H. Chapman. "Improvements in the. construction of fortifications." Dated Mav 5, 1869.

This consists in adapting to fortifications a contrivance for protecting the same against injury from shots, shells, Ik., the object being to present a yielding surface to the action of the projectiles for destroying the effect thereof. Patent abandoned.

1127. W. F. Batho and E. M. Baukr. "Improvements in drills for recessing, cutting slots, keywavs, and cotter holes." Dated May 6, 1869.

The inventors employ an improved drill or cutting tool having three or more cutting edges, and they form the cutting edges by making spiral grooves on the exterior of the drill in connection with a closed taper recess in the centre. Patent abandoned.

1128. E. J. Huohbs. "Improvements in the manufacture of sheet-iron. (A communication.) Dated May 5,1859.

This consists, 1, in procuring well carburetted charcoal pig iron cold black, and in purifying it cither in the refining or puddling furnace by a flux or compound of reagents. 2. In working the iron thus produced in the puddling oven, and with hammers, and afterwards reducing the same into sheets. 3. In passing the sheets through etched or mottled rollers. 4. In enclosing the said sheets in an airtight iron case and heating them up to a bright cherry red, and then subjecting them to the action of a •.;» 111' of heavy hammers until they are no longer red; charcoal is used in this process to maintain the heat as long as possible. 5. In submitting the said sheets a second time to tho same operation, the amount of heat communicated to them previously being somewhat less,and the hammers of more powerful operation. 6. In enclosing them a third time in an air-tight case for being annealed in a properly constructed furnace. Patent abandoned

1129. W. Clabk. "Improvements in seed depositors or drills." (A communication.) Dated Mar 6, 1859.

The particular feature in thia invention consists in

the tractive force not being made use of in distribut. ing the seed. For this purpose a special apparatus having a separate motion is adapted to the implements consisting of a spring and train which impart* a rotary movement to a distributor depositing a. wniin quantity of seed in the ground supplied from a hopper. Patent completed,

1130. A. K Mi •.. "Improvements in gu reeula. tors." Dated May 5,1859.

This relates to such gas regulator! as htv; i weighted flexible diaphragm upon which the gu idmitted to a small chamber acts, and by such action increases or lessens the passage of gss to thebunvn. The improvements consist, 1, in the arrangement of two or more valves in combination with each olbr for the admission of the gas to the diaphragn chamber, so I li.it their weight ana the pressure of the n* on them counterbalances each ouier, by reason of which theregulator will work with great uniformity even it the lowest pressures. To effect this the inventor connects the valves by alight lever mounted on s tuiukk fulcrum, faces the valves with leather and constructs the central spindle supported by tk diaphragm of tho low pressure chamber hollow, f itent abandoned.

1131. H. Reynolds. "Improvement! in refimn; sugar and other saccharine substances." Dated May 5, 1859.

The patentee claims, 1, the dissolution of ragvui! other saccharine substances bv means of anucradm;' and descending current of fluid propelled by mechanical means. 2. The employment of the ulu <4 tungsten, either as the oxide or in combination with a base, for example, lime or soda, in the refiniaj of sugar and other saccharine substances, fttnt ««• fleted.

1132. R. A. Bboohait. "Improvements in annoa and other fire-arms, and in projectiles, wade, and cartridges to be used therewith. (A commimiratka.) Dated May 5,1859.

The patentee claims, 1, the covering of project!* with an elastic material or soft wire cloth, i It* employment of an elastic wad or ring attached to tic rear end of the projectile. 3. The forming of n:tridges of wire cloth or perforated metal plate. ?'• tent completed.

1133. p. FtETCBEB. "A machine for_scutchia; and carding tow, oakum, or waste cordage." (i communication.) Dated May 5,1859.

The inventor constructs a machine with a £ra»Work of cast-iron, and at one end he hat a platform furnished with spikes, amongst which the tow, tc.. is drawn and passed by a feed-roller covered «itt card to a series of four-grooved rollers, which m weighted at the bearings so as to grip the mawniJ firmly; it is then subjected to the action of a b»M or scutcher which has six bars, three plain and thrrjagged, so as to beat and spread the material, whui is then passed to two carding cylinders, and then* to a doffing cylinder, from which it is combed and ptfcal to a large" drum, upon which it is tightly lipped bj weighted roller. The various speed* of the rollen, beater, and cylinders are obtained by wheels iad pulleys, and ho makes the beater shift the priiw mover, and provides the same with ji fly-wheel to fire the machine a uniform motion. Patent abatJovd

1134. W. E. Nbwtoh. "An improved item gauge." (A communication.) Dated Msy », W&

This consists in arranging or connecting aasdju* able weighted index or lever (which travels ova • curved scale) to a piston placed in a tube which extends from the outside of the boiler down into the water-space thereof. The pressure exerted hi Itr water in the boiler on the piston will force the Ull^ up in the tube, and this pressure will be indicated on the scale. To the tube is connected a branch pipecr tube provided with a whistle and an pjcape Pf^f that when the piston in the tube is forced up bewl a certain point, and if the water begins to get low i» the boiler, the whistle is blown and the (urplus stria finds an escape. The piston rod is adjustable bj i screw, so that the point when this blowing-oil or alarm will take place can be adjusted in urorHun with the strength of the boiler. Patent ctmpltU.

1135. W. E. Nbwtoh. "Certain improrem"" in fish-hooks." (A communication.) Dated M*J '». 1859.

This consists in arranging between the main bo*"' and connected to the same by two arms, • bait hc"^ so that by forcing the two arms up to a horno"'" position the main hooks are spread open or set, t arms being so arranged that they cannot be fc«« open up beyond a horizontal position. Tn* top P*" tion of the main hooks is made elastic, so thai M the action of this portion the main hooks when *[ will spring together directly a strain on the bail «** disturbs the horizontal position of the two arm*, ° thus hold the fish firmly. Patent

1136. J. H. Johbsos. "Improvements in pianofortes." (A communication.) Dated May 6, 1859.

This relates to a peculiar construction and arrangement of the "rest" and "bridge" of pianofortes, whereby the impediments to the direct Vibration of the strings are obviated. Patent completed.

1137 W. Keli.imh.et. "Improvements in the mode of lubricating the journals of the axles of locomotive engines, of carriages, and machinery." Bated May 6,1859.

The patentee uses what he calls a lubricating shield fixed by preference on the axle at the inner end of the journal This shield is so formed that while it prevents the escape of the lubricating matter at the axle, it throws up such lubricating matter into a receptacle, from which it is conducted to any part of the bearing intended to receive the lubricating matter. The shield is formed of brass, gutta-percha, or hard india-rubber. We cannot quote the details. Patent completed.

1138. F. Ant.ersteix, R. Cleqq, and'G. ThobK i Nutox. "Improvements in apparatus for obtaining motive power." Bated May 6,1859.

One object here is great speed. This is obtained by the use of diagonal arms working on centres, which, by their reciprocal action, produce an increase of speed in proportion to the number employed, the same diagonal motion being converted into a revolving by one or more cog-wheels upon a shaft revolving motion loose with a run or rims at the side; on the side of the rim or rims a ratchet star or pawl is affixed to a shaft on a square box to fit frwo or more pawls, which are affixed or allowed to slide on the shaft to catch tho top or inner rim of- the cog which runs loose each way ox its axis; these pawls or ratchets arc so fixed as to reverse the motion by any suitable contrivance for throwing the pawls ultimately out of gear. Patent completed.

1139. F. W. Haht. "Improvements in photographic apparatus." Bated May 6,1859.

This consists, 1, in constructing a photographic printing frame so as to admit of adjusting thereby the negative stencil or mask on the prepared paper or surface, and securing the same thereon. as required. 2. In constructing the said framo so as to adapt it for holding tablets or surfaces to be printed from of varying sixes. 3. In applying vulcanized india-rubber to the bed or bock board for the prepared surface to rest upon, to facilitate the bringing of the printing and the prepared surfaces into tho required close contact. Patent abandoned.

1110. S. Weight. "An improved gas governor or regulator.'* Bated May 6,1859.

>The patentee governs or regulates tho pressure by passing and diffusing the gas through a woven texture of lines, cotton, silk, hair, or it may bo a metal fabric into a chamber or chambers to which the burner is attached; the pressure of the gas at tho jet of the burner thereby governed and regulated as required. Patent completed.

PROVISIONAL PROTECTIONS.

Dated Oct. 18, 1359. 2376. J. Darlington. Improvements in glass furnaces.

Bated Oct. 31, 1859. 2486. J. T. Pitman. Improvements in tho construction of forges. (A communication.)

Dated Nov. 7, 1859. 2534. H. Grafton. Improvements in bell and other signal apparatus to dwelling houses and other places, which improvements are also applicable to knobs or handles and fastenings of doors, and the like.

. Dated Nov. 12, 1859. 2672. R. Howson. Improvements in bells and gongs, and in their manufacture.

Dated Nov. 21, 1859.

2629. J. Webster. An improvement or improvements in pressure and vacuum gauges.

2031. W. Whittle. Improvements in the manufacture of nails, and in machinery to be used in the said manufacture.

2633. W. E. Newton. An improved machine for moulding and pressing bricks. (A communication.)

2635. G. W. Lenox. Improvements in the manufacture of ships' blocks.

Dated Nov. 22, 1859.

2830. B. Amsden. Improvements in the manufacture of straw and other descriptions of hats and bonnete.

2641. G. White. Improvements in gloves. (A communication.)

26-43. T. B. Daft. An improvement in coating sheathing metal.

2645. C. G. Hill. An improved goffering machine, together with tho apparatus connected therewith.

Dated Nov. 23, 1859.

2647. W. H. Ward. A system of signal flags.

2649. E. T. Hughes. Improvements in the manufacture of a certain substance to supersede blasting powder. (A communication.)

2651. E. T. Hughes. An improved chemical combination to supersede blasting powder. (A communicatio|i.)

2652. J. T. Smith. An improvement or improvements in heating, puddling, and other reverberatory furnaces used in the manufacture of iron.

2653. B. Bagster. Improvements in means or apparatus for giving surface finish to paper, which improvements are applicable to copper-plate and other printing, as also to embossing.

2654. T. Eastman. Improved means of raising the blades of screws employed to propel ships, and apparatus for getting at such screws, and for performing other operations under water.

2655. T, Lister. Improvements in the construction of sanatory privies and water-closets, part of which improvements is applicable as a tap for drawing off liquids.

2656. J. Knowles, jun. An improved apparatus for the prevention of accidents in winding from mines, which apparatus is also applicable for other similar purposes.

Dated Nov. 24, 1859.

2657. P. Preston and H. W. Garrett. Improvements in the construction of cartridges.

2658. J. Langford. Improvements in inkstands, and in combining with instands instruments for holding and damping stamps, labels, and other articles.

2659. W. C. Manicce. Improvements in cop tubes used in machinery for spinning fibrous substances.

2660. F. Prince. Improved apparatus for reducing the resistance of the atmosphere to tho progress of railway trains.

2661. J. Fyfe. Improvements in apparatus for regulating and adjusting the flow and pressure of liquids.

2662. W. Eassie. An improved joint for boarding and planking of all kinds.

2663. A. Hubart and V. Cantillon. Improvements in the manufacture of casks, barrels, and other like vessels of glass, and in machinery or apparatus employed therein.

2664. W. S. Losh. Improvements in the manufacture of paper, and in the preparation of a substance to bo employed therein.

2665. W. S. Collins, jun., and F. J. Chard. Improvements in apparatus for propelling vessels.

Dated Nov. 25, 1859.

2667. C, I., and J. Smith. Certain improvements in looms for weaving, and in apparatus for cutting the loops to form pile fabrics.

2668. T. Carr. Improvements in arrangements and mechanism for drying glue, moulded clay, sugar, white lead, and various other substances and articles of manufacture.

2669. J. Sim. Improvements in measuring and registering the flow Or discharge of liquids.

2670. I. A. Bead and W. Ronnie. An improvement or improvements in connecting brooms with their sticks or handles.

2671. H. Lindon. Machinery or apparatus for raising and forcing fluids, which is also applicable for other useful purposes.

2672. M. Tildesley. Improvements in locks and latches. (Partly a communication.)

2673. G. E. Donisthorpe. Improvements in apparatus for hackling, dressing, and combing silk waste, and other fibres.

Dated Nov. 26, 1859.

2674. A S. Lukin. Improvements in apparatus for drawing window blinds.

2675. F. Scheithauer. An improved machine for printing woollen and other fabrics.

2677. C. Bedells. Improvements in the manufacture of shoes and boots, and in fabrics suitable for use in this manufacture.

2678. W. Moseley. Improvements in fountain pens.

2679. M. Auerbach. Improved apparatus to be applied to omnibuses, stago-coaches, and other similar vehicles, to indicate the distance each passenger travels and the amount of his fare. (A communication.)

2680. T. Watson and G.Healey. Certain improvements in the manufacture of silk velvets.

2681. M. Auerbach. Improved apparatus to be applied to cabs, hackney-carriages, and other similar vehicles, to indicate the number of persons carried,

the distance travelled, and the amount of fares. (A communication.)

2682. W. Mac Naught and J. L. Taylor. An improved method of increasing the temperature of water for feeding steam boilers or vessels for generating steam, and in apparatus connected therewith.

Dated Nov. 28, 1859.

2683. J. Eastwood. Improvements in steam hammers, and in valves to be used therewith.

2684. J. Eastwood. Improvements in lathes.

2685. E. Tomey. Improvements in apparatus for insulating telegraphic wires or conductors.

2686. A. W. Williamson and L. Perkins. Improvements in machinery for propelling vessels.

2687. T. Luck. Improvements in apparatus for removing straw from thrashing machines.

2688. P. K. Hodge. The treatment and use of a new material in making of paper or other compounds of vegetablopulp.

2639. E. H. Bentall. Improvements in machinory for cutting vegetable substances.

2690. E. H. Bentall. Improvements in apparatus for crushing or grinding grain, or seeds.

2691. J. Bower. An improved method of preparing clay for the manufacture of crucibles, pots, and earthenware.

2692. C. Sells. Improvements in steam-engines.

2693. It. A. Brooman. An improved poultry wagon. (A communication.)

2694. li. A. Brooman. Improvements in the preparation of red colouring matters or dyes. (A communication.)

, Dated Nov. 29, 1859.

2695. F. H. Wenham. Certain improvements in steam-engines.

2696. II. Sharpe. Improvements in tho mode of preparing wool for the purpose of carding or combing it with a view to its being afterwards wove into thread. (A communication).

2697. J. King and J. Sutcliffe. Certain improvements in and applicable to mules for spinning.

2698. H. 0. Robinson. Improvements in machinery and apparatus for the manufacture of sugar.

2699. J. B. Berger. An improved mode of and apparatus for facilitating the calculations required for navigating ships or vessels.

2700. L. N. Bejean. Improvements in hydraulic motive power.

2701. C. Colwell. An improved means of propelling sea-going vessels without the use of either paddlewheel or screw propeller now adopted.

2702. T. Richardson. Improvements in the manufacture of certain compounds of soda and potash.

2703. M. L. J. Lavater. Improvements in vulcanized india rubber bands. *

Dated Nov. 30,1859.

2705. T. Fitton. Improvements in the slide valves of steam-engines.

2707. S. Mortimer and G. Swaine. Improvements in machinery or apparatus for spinning and doubling wool or other fibrous substances.

2709. J. M. Wilson. Improvements in finishing woven fabrics called Arabian stripes or scarfs.

2711. J. B. Teil. Improvements in tho construction of umbrellas and parasols.

2713. G. J. Firmin. Improvements in the manufacture of tartaric and citric acids, and certain salts jn connection therewith.

Dated Dec. 1,1859.

2717. C. A. Fournier. A process and apparatuses intended to find out the escapes of lighting gas from the conveying pipes, and to determine the precise leaking places of the said pipes.

2719. T. Silver. Improvements in apparatus for governing or regulating the speed of steam and other engines.

2721. T. Till. Improvements in machinery for the manufacture of horse-nails and other wrought nails.

2723. J. Paton. Improvements in valves.,

2725. J. H. Johnson. Improvements in apparatus for preserving and cooking food. (A. communication.)

PATEKTS APPLIED FOR WITH COMPLETE SPECIFICATIONS.

2731. G. F. Smith. Improvements in smelting and purifying iron and other ores. (A communication.) Dated Dec. 2, 1859.

2740. J. Anderson and J. Bradshaw. Improvements in the construction of the furnaces of bakers' ovens for the purpose of consuming smoke, which improvements are also applicable to the consumption of smoke in other furnaces. Dated Dec. 3, 1859.

NOTICES. OF INTENTION TO PROCEED

WITH PATENTS.

(From the London Oatettc, Dec. IS, 1859.)

1719. J. G. Isham and S. D. Albertson. Corks. (A communication.)

1779. J. Rowland. Mashing aud mixing.

1783. J. C. AshwelL Wheels.

1789. W. K. Peace. Canisters. (A communication.)

1791. W. II. Tooth. Iron and steel.

1793. J. Petrie, jun. Washing wooL

1801. F. Walton. Ornamental fabrics.

1805. N. D. Maillard. Composes.

1808. M. A. F. Mennons. Sentry boxes, &c. (A communication.)

1810. F. W. Beaumont. Hydraulic apparatus.

1811. W. Thompson. Printing telegraph.

1S15. A. B. Childs and L. D. Owen. Cleaning grain.

1818. A. T. De Lisle. Clarifying sugar.

1827. B. Baugh. Forming the edges of certnin vessels.

1837. P. F. Holland. Electric telegraph.

1838. C. L. J. Dierickx. Scales.
1841. W. Williamson. Drilling holes.

1819. W. Muir. Foot lathes.

1855. 11. Heaton, jun. Coining machinery.

1861. L. A. Possoz. Sugar.

1871. H. I. Watts, J. Offord, and J. R. Thomas. Consuming smoke.

1875. II. T. Lambert. Disengaging ships' boats. (A communication.)

1991. J. Chatterton. Tubes of gutta pcrcha.

2149. J. Blair. Spinning, &c.

2174. J. Fernihough. Pistons and buckets.

2268. J. Turpie. Sails of Bhips.

2302. G. Davies. Paper. (A communication.)

3319. A. A.D. Hely. Tobacco.

2460. H. Phillips and J. Banuohr. Manure.

2532. H. Barker. Pipes.

20O4. J. A. Drieu and A. Legeav. Tissue.

2610. J. McKenae and S. T. Went worth. Firearms.

2617. W. Blinkhorn. Bricks, &c.

2645. C. G. Hill. Goffering machine.

2669. J. Sim. Measuring liquids.

2073. G. E. Donisthorpe. Hackling, &c.

2685. E. Tomey. Insulating wires.

2713. G. J. Firmin. Tartaric and citric acids.

272.3. J. Paton. Valves. .

2740. J. Anderson' and J. Bradshaw. Furnaces.

The full titles of the patents in the above Ust can be a«eeitaincd by referring back to their numbers in the list of provisional protections previously published.

Opposition can be entered to the granting of a patent to any of the parties in the above list who have (riv^n notice of their intention to proceed, within twenty-one days from the date of the Gazette in tf hich the notice appears, by leaving at the Commissioners' office particulars in writing of the objection to the application.

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LIST OF MISCELLANEOUS TENDERS IN VITED, AND ENGAGEMENTS OPEN.

The tenders and vacancies which appear in this weekly lit arc not repeated in succeeding numbers.

Swonns And Scabbauim, India OJRxe.—ToT swords and grab bards. Conditions of contract at the Secretariat Office. Tenders before 11 o"clock a.m., Deo. 03.

Chcrcii, Xorton Malirard.—For the rebuilding' of Norton Mnlward church near Bristol. Drawings, &c, offices, Mr. James Wilson, architect, No. 1 Belmont, Hath. Tenders Dec. 21.

Towkii *k» Spiuk, 31*oret*>n-in-th*-Virsh.—Tor a new tower and spire to the parish church. Plans, &c, after Dec. 19, to T. Comiu.'line, Esq., Morcton-in-the-Marsh. Tenders to 3 p.m., Jan. 2.

Wohkiiousk, Bristol —For enlarging the City of Bristol Workhouse nt Stapleton. Printed forms of tender, Mr. W. B. Wilmot, clerk to the guardians. Plans, &c, at St. Peter's Hospital, Itristol. Tenders, Jan. 11.

Esqixekr's Work. Bristol.—For the engineer's work to be done in eiilarjins the City of Bristol Workhouse at Stapleton. Form of tender, Mr. W. B. Wilinott, clerk to the guardians. Plans, &c, St. Peter's Workhouse, Bristol. Tenders, Jan. 11.

Plan Of Dhainino, &c, Eastbourne.—Vot the best plan of draining the parish of Kasthourne. Map of parish, plan of additional buildings, levels, &c., Mr. M. G. H. CrampIon Coles, clerk to the board, Eastbourne. Plans to be accompanied with a specification of the work to be donp, and estimate of the cost, and sent to the office of the clerk, Jan. 17.

Rails, Dub fin and Wiektotr Company.—Tor 4,400 tons of bridge rails SO lbs. to the yard, for the Oorey Extension linn, with a proportionate quantity of chairs according to particulars with the company's engineer, W. R. Le Funn, Es'j,, 59 Fitzwillum-square, nublin,to be delivered free on shore at Wlcklow or Arklow, in three equal quantities of 0, 12, and US months, from date of acceptance of tender. Tenders to Mr. A. Moore, secretary, 48 Westland-row, Dublin, Dec. 29.

Cii.uhs, North British Railway Company.—Tot 2,300 tons of chairs. Specifications at the head office of tha com* pany, Edinburgh. Tenders for whole or any part before noon, 23rd inst.

Railway Materials, Borier Counties Extension liailjrai/.—Tor the following material! for permanent way, viz ■ — 23,000 sleepers, 50,000 chairs, 5G.000 kovs, 112,000 twisted spikes 16,000 Ashing plates. 32,U00 fishing bolt*. Forms of tenders, offices, Mr. J. F. Tone, 10 Market-street, Newcastle. Tenders, 22nd inst.

Stoiies, HI iff he and Tifrte, Railtear/.—For w^igiroji wood, and other home and foreign timber, for iron, copper, bra*s nails, spades, shovels, bolts, &e., and fur uih?r stores for the ensuing year. Forms of tender, &e„ Mr. Luudie, manager, Percy Main, or at company's offices Newcastle.

Frbhjht To In-tiia, Calcutta awl Swth Eastern Entltr-ny. —Freight for two locomotive engines and tenders, in a flrst-clas« vessel, from Newcastle-upon-Tyne to Calcutta. Thev will be ready for shipment in the beginning of January next. The tenders t> specify a lump sum for the conveyance of each locomotive and tender; the weight and dimensions of which to be ascertained at the offices of the comnany, 211 Gresham-house, Old Broadstreet, or at Messrs K. Stephenson aud Co.'s, NcwcasUcupoa-Tvnc. Tenders at the office of the company till noon, Dec. 24.

Gasiioldcr Tank, Ha wten stall.—tot the excavating, shorinir, puddling, and mason's work required in the construction of a gasholder tank, 80 feet diameter by 20 feet deep, at the company's works, Bncnp. Sealed tenders to be furnished by th" secretary, and sent in to J, Aitkin, E*q., chairman, 28th Dec. inst.

Church, JVeirca.it I e-upon-Tifne.—Tot the erection of a new church in HUh-Une, Newcastle. Drawing* for and copies of quantities, Messrs. Oliver and Lamb, architects, Gga Northumberland-street, Newcastle. Tenders, Dec. 19.

Cnvncu, Dover.—For nuildi.ig a new church for the parish of St. James the Apostle, Dover. Drawings, &c, office of Mr. T. Fox, vestry clerk, 3 Cattle-terrace, Dover, where copies of hilU of quantities and farms of tender

may be obtained on payment of a sum of three guineas for each copy. Further particulars Mr. T. Burr, 50 Welbeck-st., Cavendish-sq., London. Tenders, Dee. 21. Schools, Essex.—For the erection of three large schools and residences at Epping. Plans *c., Offices of Mr. G. K. Pritchett, 12 Bishop spate-street Without, and Bishop's Btortfnrt; also, at Rev. J. B. Tuck's, Epjriag. Tenders, Dec. 23rd. Dksigns And Estimates For 8nop Asd Tiousr, Hull.— Designs for a draper and silt mercer's shop and dwelling house on the site of the shop and retail premise*, in the Market-place, Hull. Premium of ten guineas for mist approved plan, to Messrs. R. Jennison & Son, drapers, Hull, Dec. 19. Engineer, Practical and Educated, to erect and superintend the working of sugar and other machinery. A thorough practical knowledge of the steam engine and millwright's work, and having served the regular time In the shop, is indispensable. A competent person, producing first-class references as to ability, character, &c, will be liberally dealt with. Address, I\ 8. & Co., 163 Strand, statinir all particulars. Gas Enoinekr.—Must be thoroughly acquainted with engineering in general, but ga* engineering on a small scale in particular, in all its detail. Must he a good draughtsman and accountant, and capable of preparing specifications of brick and wood work, as veil as iron work. Salary, £100 a year. References to three last employers required. Address, V. 3G, Examiner office, Manchester. Gas Exgikeer.—The Sowerby Bridge Gas Company require the assistance of a practical gas caginrer to examine their works, and report to them his opinion as to the best mode of enlarging the same. Addrr-s stating terms and reference, to the Chairman of the Company, Sowerby Bridge, Yorkshire, Dec. 19th. Manager Of Gas Works.—To take the management of the Todmorderi Gas Works, and to do the general business of a gas-making establishment. Address, Mr. J. Barker, engineer, Millwood, Todmordec, giving references and salary required. Manager For Engineering Works.—Must be a good mechanic, thoroughly systematic in conducting and. getting out work, and a fair draughtsman. Applicant* to give full particulars of previous engagements and references. Salary, £120 a year. Address, X. O., i£3 Strand, London. Mechanical And Topographical Draughtsman.—Ore thoroughly competent to go out to Rio de Janeiro. A German, Swiss, or Pole, who can speak English, will bw preferred; salary liberal. Address, Messrs. Fairbaim Ar Sons, Canal-street, Manchester. Mkckanical Draughtsman.—One experienced ia making working and finished drawings, capable of desigiune and arranging machinery, and posseting a practical knowledge of mechanical engineering, millwrurhUng, &c. Address, stating salary, L. T. G., 163 Strand, London. Brass Tube Mill Manager.—To superintend a brass tube mill. Must be experienced in making both solid, drawn, and brazed brass and copper tubes, aud thoroughly understand the nature of metals. Address by letter, II., 3 Journal office, Birmingham. Secretary And Gfnkrai. Manager, ]fr,tifax.—¥c*r theHalifax Mechanics' Institution. An active intelligent man, who will be expected to devote his whole tirae to the duties of his office. He will b1? responsible foAbe efficient working of the several department? of the Institution, and arrangements will he made for tie purpose of giving him a pecuniary interest in its prospprtAT. The salary will b? .£100 per annum. Application Vy letter only, not later than 20th inst., to Mr. Oorfce, soerotary.

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OUK NATIONAL DEFENCES. There is a wonderfully simple means of defence accessible to us English people that has been many time* suggested by individuals, but never, we believe, taken into serious jconsideration by the authorities. We allude to the adoption of locomotive batteries, transportable from place to place around our coast on lines of railway. The Professor of Fortification at Addiscombe, Admiral Sartorions, and Mr. Bridges Adams, (in Once a Week,) have all and severally proposed the employment of such a system of defence; and only last week we learned that Mr. John White, the eminent shipbuilder of West Cowes, Isle of Wight, no less than two or three years ago devised elaborate plans of carrying this system—which he seems to have been one of the very first to devise—into effect.

Knowing as we all do, or may easily do, every assailable portion of our coast, and possessing as we possess the power of rapid transit which railways afford, it seems the height of folly to invest large sums of money in fixed defences. What could be easier than the simple process of connecting all or several of our assailable points by trunk lines of railway—placing upon, or in connection with them, a sufficient number of guns to meet every possible emergency—and furnishing ourselves with such an amount of locomotive power as would enable us to concentrate as many of our guns as we please upon any threatened point in a few hours I Taken broadly, it is possible that on close inquiry it wpuld be found that no impediment would prevent us from suddenly concentrating all the strength of our coast artillery upon a single point if desirable; but even if such obstacles a* the mouth of the Thames, the Southampton Water, Plymouth Sound, and other estuaries, wcro found to render this impracticable or undesirable, there could yet be no difficulty in bringing an overwhelming artillery force to >icar upon every point where an enemy could Luid.

The advantages of snch a system of defence mint be very great. In the event of any • attempt at an invasion being contemplated, we could put all our defensive artillery force into a state of preparation, and on the approach of the enemy, the telegraph would at once put every division of the force on the alert. No feints of the enemy could avail him anything, because our locomotive land force could be shifted from 'point to point, as he varied his )i 'Miion, with much greater facility than fleets of transports could be moved. On the actual landing being attempted, we should have the invaluable power of taking up whatever position we foond beat—either directly in the face ol the landing force, or at any convenient distance from it, raking it more or less as opportunity served. .Surely with the fleets of England afloat, and defences of this kind girdling our CM*t, we might lay down our heads at night in any corner of onr happy island fearless even ol Imparial Fianoe!

In times of peace our coast artillery might be maintained at exceedingly little expense— at thr mere cost of the guns and carriage?, in fact, for the locomotives, and even the railways.

might then be used for civil and commercial jurposes. Such artillery could, moreover, be worked with all needful efficiency by volunteer 'orces formed along the coast, and, if necessary, natteries of guns could be transported from place to place to afford opportunities for all the corps to exercise themselves with by turn.

THE GREAT EASTERN. A Free press Is a blessed thing unquestionably, but it often works much mischief'. We do not, we are happy to say, believe that newspaper writers can repeal or set aside the laws of nature—fortunately for us; but they can do marvellous things in the way of casting discredit upon human enterprises even of the highest kind. What wonders have they not worked lately in reference to the Great Eastern? The design of that ship, in all its essential parts, has been before the scientific public for several years, and we never yet knew of any serious criticism adverse to it proceeding from any distinguished men of science. Men of science, moreover, have lately made two or three trips on board of her, and have discovered nothing seriously defective about her, so far as we have heard. But newspaper writers have done what men of science did not do, and their clever disquisitions, aided by some singular proceedings on the part of the directors of the Great Ship Company, have brought the shares down ridiculously low.

How far there is room to doubt whether Mr. Scott Russell's late contract was fully and faithfully completed or not we cannot tell, simply because we never saw the specification of the contract, and have not the slightest knowledge of its extent or limitations. We know, jof course—as everybody else knows— the directors themselves long ago announced that the contract wan. finished entirely to their satisfaction. But since then the question has been raised, and has very properly been submitted to the decision of duly appointed arbitrators. While these arbitrators have been investigating the subject we have seen and heard much on one side of the question, while on the other side Mr. Russell has maintained silence. For our part, while we ktuna that an immense amount of nonsense has been written about the condition of the ship, and while we further know that Mr. Russell spared no expense in performing his contract, we shall not bo surprised to find that he gets mulcted to some extent by the arbitrators, simply because we believe no considerable quantity of contract work can be expected (in the present state of commercial and manufacturing affairs) to stand close scrutiny unblemished. But however this matter ends, it can bear but very slightly upon the actual value of the Great Eastern. Mr. Russell's last contract may have been well done, or it may have been ill done, but that is a mere question of a few hundred pounds at most; tne value of the ship as a commercial instrument or agent cannot be greatly all'ectcd by it. As to the folly which we hear and read, about the paddle-engines being placed too low, and other snch matters, no scientific man will <;ive heed to that for a single moment until something more than gross absurdities are biought forward in support of it We fay this, not with the slightest disposition to check any sensible discussion of the great ship's construction and qualities; on the contrary, we will gladly open our columns to any scientific letters or papers on the subject; but we say it because we have not patience to comment upon the utterly senseless writings which have recently appeared in imposing forma in reference to the Great Eastern.

Holding these views—which wp know must

be shared by all our professional readers—we have observed with satisfaction that Mr. William Hawes, a highly influential member and officer of the Society of Arts, has just been laying before that Society a valuable paper upon the Great Eastern. In this paper the writer opportunely recals public attention from the "petty jealousies of little minds," and from the "misrepresentations of ignorant and interested opponents," and directs it to the ship as "a great mechanical and engineering "work, fraught with great commercial ana "political results, the accomplishment of which "may he retarded by bad management, but "which will certainly be ultimately realized, "however gloomy for a time the prospects may "appear." For the sake of a magnificent ship, which only its owners take pains to undervalue, we are pleased with Mr. Hawes' undertaking, and will glance at her anew in the light which he throws upon hen

There is much truth in what Mr. Hawce says in reference to the present management of the ship. No one, as he observes, appears to have sufficient authority to decide what is to be done, and few of those who are now connected with the administration of the company's affairs appreciate the vastness of the original design, fewer still being able to carry it out in its integrity. Judging from the criticisms we have all read upon the ship of la te, we might fancy, he remarks, that neither of the experienced engineers of the paddle and screw engines knew anything of tneir business; for one critic says the chimneys are too small; another, the boilers arc insufficient; another, tho diameter of the paddles is too great; another, the airpump rods are too weak, and the engines themselves are in the wrong position ; another finds fault with the donkey engines, and so on throughout the ship, "all of which criticisms "seem rather to originate in a desire to spend "the money of the company, or to obtain a "false reputation by appearing to remedy evils "which do not exist, than to complete in tho "shortest time the work that is unfinished, and "to remedy, in the most economical manner, "any defects in her machinery and apparatus "which her trials may have rendered apparent." There is also much truth in his remarks upon the gorgeous and expensive fittings of the principal saloon. He believes the interests of the shareholders, and good taste, too, would both have been better consulted, if the utmost simplicity in ornamentation had been adhered to, and more attention paid to the introduction of the comforts we are accustomed to ashore, and winch the steadiness of, and the space at command in, this ship would have enabled tho directors to realize, to the infinitely greater satisfaction of passengers than any pleasure that sitting in a gaudy saloon can afford them. He also notices a remark which has been made respecting the absence of means to warm the state room and other saloons in a ship going to America. The ship was never intended to go to a cold climate; she was built for the Indian trade; she is not calculated for a voyage to America, and it is to be very much regretted that the concession to other interests than those of the shareholders, and perhaps the desire of exhibiting this great work to our transatlantic friends, should have been allowed for one hour to delay her departure on the voyage for which she was designed, for which she is fitted, and from which alouc commercial results to the company can be realised. "The ship has been "looked upon too much as a sight, and far too "little as a great commercial machine by the "proper use of which alone can profits be "made." It is clear, he adds, that one great element of commercial success is to be found in

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