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aerated fresh water. On the enter case n pumping engine is fixed for the purpose of keeping a constant supply of cold sea. water to the condenser, and for feeding warm salt water from the condenser to the boilers. The pumping engine is worked by steam from the steam-chest first described. A pipe is connected to the outer boiler, rising to the water line to allow of a constant discharge of brine to prevent incrustation. The flues after leaving the boiler tubes pass round or against an oven, in order to utilise the heat which would otherwise be lost.

Fig. 1 of the accompanying engravings is an isometrical perspective view, partly in section, of an apparatus for cooking, roasting, and baking, and for purifying and aerating sea water, constructed according to this invention. This apparatus is a very convenient one for transport to foreign parts as a land apparatus, occasioning no trouble when at its destination, because it is packed for transport without being taken to pieces or interfered with in any way. It may even be mounted on wheels and drawn, if required, from place to place. E is the tireplace, E1 are the furnace bars, F is the furnace door, G is the ashpit. K is an ordinary

tubular boiler, which is surrounded by an air tube or by a thick packing or felt B. as shown; A'1 is another boiler which surrounds or encases the felt and tubular boiler K. M is a dome or steam-chest, which is fitted to the boiler K and receives the steam generated therein through a pipe L. I is a perforated plate placed near the upper part of the dome; J is a steam-pipe for the passage of steam to drive the engine Ar, which is fixed on the upper part of the whole apparatus and is intended to keep up a constant supply of sea water to the boilers A and A ' and to the condenser. M' is another and smaller dome placed in the interior and at the lower part of the larger one. It is perforated at its lower part at a a, through which perforations steam and any salt water that may rise with it enter the smaU dome 31'; b is a globular valve, into the seating of which a pipe c enters which curries off the salt water just mentioned to the boiler AT1. M" is another dome or steam chest similar to that just described, it also contains a perforated plate /', an internal dome P which is perforated as before, and globular valve 4; e is a pipe fitted to the upper part of the dome if, through which steam passes to be condensed. This pipe c leads into a water cistern /

in communication with a refrigerator g, which U surrounded by cold water. The condensed «tctm circulates through the pipes of the refrigerator and finally enters a filter, from which it i» drawn oil' pure water by a pipe furnished with a OpAtmospheric air is drawn into the dome JT for the pui pose of aerating the water through another pipe, but which enters the side of the said dome. A jet of steam is admitted into this pipe in » downward direction through a pipe leading from the dome M, for the purpose of creating a draught of the air. The products of combustion atVr passing through the flues of the tubular boiler pass off to the chimney; i is a brine cock for discharging water from the boiler.

A modification of the apparatus last described is illustrated in the isometrical perspective engraving Fig. 2, in which a single boiler only * used, and the arrangement of the parts is altered; the method of action, however, in order to obtain pure aerated fresh water from sea water, is in both cases the same. Fig. 3 is a longitudinal section of the same, and Fig. 4 is an end view; E it the fireplace; E' E" are the furnaces ; F is the roraicw door; ff is a hot-plate for stewing-, H U in guard-rails fitted round the hot plate. B»rs or

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ra.ls are fitted to the guard which are intended to support saucepans or other cooking utensils, and to prevent them from rolling off or shifting. J J are steamers of the ordinary construction fitted or placed at the top of the apparatus; A' is a boiler the water in which is heated by the products of combustion passing through flues L L. M is a dome at the upper part of which a safety valve is fitted, and which has a tube placed inside the dome andextending to nearly the top thereof. The steam which is generated in the boiler passes up this tube and decends between the tube and the dome M, surrounding the cooking boilers O 0 (as indicated by the arrows). The flues L L are in communication with a smoke box 1', through which the products of combustion pass to the vertical tubes Q (J which Burround tho baking ovens shown in Fig. 4. C is a division plate and damper, and T is a chimney. V ia a hot closet heated by the products of combustion as they pass from the flues UL to the tubes Q Q. 1" is a gauge to indicate the height of the water in the boiler. W is a hand puinp shown in Fig. 2 by which salt water is forced into the boiler; or instead of a hand pnmp a donkey engine may be employed. Steam is led through a pipe from the boiler K to a refrigerator or condenser placed at or near the lower part of the apparatus. A cock is fitted to the upper part of the steam pipe, which regulates the pressure or quantity of steam allowed to circulate round the cooking Iroilers. The condensed steam after entering the, refrigerator traverses the pipes Y Y, enters a compartment Y', und passes from thence to other pipe9 Y" I7", after traversing which it enters a filtee Z which is provided with partitions Z Z', so arranged that the water may pass through an extended surthee of the filtering medium. A pipe is provided by Which pure fresh water is drawn off. The space round tTie refrigerating tubes is filled with cold salt water, and the partition that divides the water in the boiler from that round the refrigerator is composed of felt encased in iron, which prevents any heat passing from one compartment to the other. A pipe is provided for the admission of atmospheric air to the condenser. A small pipe leading from the boiler K enters the air pipe, down which it extends a short distance in order to create a draught for the air down the pipe It", a is a feed cock to the boiler and a waste water cock from the condenser, 6 is a discharge air pipe, c is a tap by which hot distilled water is drawn oft", d d are mnd holes, / is a brine cock by which the brine can be constantly withdrawn, and incrustation of the boiler thereby to a great extent prevented.

We have taken pains to inquire into the working of these apparatuses as designed by Mr. Gravelcy and manufactured by Messrs. Winchester and Co., and we find they have given great satisfaction to owners. They are cheaply made, easy to work, and will run for several voyages without requiring any repairs worth mentioning. While, therefore, costly and uncertain apparatuses are constantly being forced upon the notice of shipowners, we cannot fail to bring the merits of these more economical and efficient ones to their attention.

THE TASMANIAN SUBMARINE CABLE.

The first submarine electric cable of any considerable length in this part of the world has now been successfully laid and opened for public use. The 120 miles of Bass's Straits is thus annihilated, so far as the communication of intelligence is concerned, and the island of Tasmania is for many important purposes as closely united to the mainland of Australia as though no sea rolled between them. This, it will be admitted, is a work of some magnitude for these colonies, and is credit able to the enterprise of Victoria and Tasmania, who have themselves found the whole of the funds for the undertaking. In this case the object to be gained is worth even some annual expenditure in excess of returns, if the line cannot be maintained without it; for their can be no question that to Tasmania the advantage of instant communication with these colonies must be very great. The

annual trade transactions between that island and the mainland are stated by the Launceston papers to be now represented by a sum amounting to more than £1,000,000 sterling, and, as the markets of the one colony are entirely regulated by these of the others, it cannot be otherwise than a matter of deep importance that a close intercommunication should exist between them. One chief source of risk and expense said to be connected with tbis line is, that it has been laid in four separate sections—first from the north side of the King's Island to Cape Otway on the Australian coast, then in the opposite direction from King's Islnnd to Hummock's Island, thence to Circular Head on the north coast of Tasmania, and from that point along the coast to the entrance of the Tainar, where it joins the land line to Launceston and Hobart Town. From this arrangement the shore-ends of the cable 'are numerous, and all of them are said to be considerably exposed to injury from the nature of the places at which the landings have been made. Under those circumstances it is being urged upon the Governments of Victoria and Tasmania that they should at once incur the additional expense of procuring from England sufficient surplus cable to make good any injury which either of the four sections may sustain ; and this, we think, is a very reasonable suggestion, seeing how many chances of accident thoSine is exposed to.—Australian Mail.

HADLOW'S LINEN MARKER,

The marking of linen is an operation which is often performed badly, and often neglected altogether for want of a convenient mode of executing it neatly and easily. Observing this, Mr. F. V. Hadlow, of Prince Albert-street, Brighton, has contrived and obtained a patent for a simple little arrangement of apparatus by aid of which we may henceforth get rid of all difficulty in the matter.

It 1b a Seat combination of a relief engraved box-wood stamp, bearing the name, i&c, to be placed upon the linen with a snpply of Bond's marking ink, the whole being contained in a small case. This case (of birch-wood) is turned in three pieces, screwing together for opening and closing. The central portion contains a very small bottle of fluid marking ink and the engraved marker, just large enough tohold firmly between the thumb and fingers. The top division, in the form of a deep hollow cap, with an ornamental moulding, screws down upon this, whilst the base screws on to the bottom of the central piece, and serves as the receptacle for an india-rubber disc, with a black cloth disc over it. On the base or lower face of the central piece there is attached a code ofdircctionsfor use, soastobeevernthandjandmostconve niently accessible. All that is necessary is to spread a drop of ink upon the cloth disc resting upon its india-rubber base, press the face of the marker upon it, and then apply it to tfhe linen to be marked. When wanned subseauently by an iron the impression comes out clear, blHek, and indelible. The same apparatus answers for paper and other surfaces. If little ink is usedt the markings are very sharp—quite different to the blurred hieroglyphics usually met with. The arrangement is so convenient and effective, that all who have frequent necessity for marking mimes, numbers, or addresses, mnflt find it extremely useful.

The Duncan, 101 guns, has been launched at Portsmouth. A ol-gun frigate, to be mimed the Dryad, is to be immediately laid down under the shed vacated by the Duncan.

Paris papers state that tho French Government has ordered the systematic gathering of seaweedfrom tho- rocks of Normandy and Brittany, to serve as wadding for artillery, for which purpose it serves admirably.

Among new inventions attracting notice is one called the Patent Adnmas, a silieious composition, alleged to be free from liability to corrosion or oxydation or destruction from heat or acids, and which is 6aid to be in a course of trinl by some of the giis companies as a material for burner.", which will save them the expense of conttant renewals.

THE CORT TESTIMONIAL FUND.

TO THE EDITOES OF THE ,; MECHANICS' MAGAZINE."

Manchester, Hth December, 1S59.

Gentlemen,—I have read with surprise an article in your Magazine complaining in titter terms of the conduct of the Cort Testimonial Fund Committee. The aspect of the case as presented by you is calculated seriously to prejudice the interests of the Cort family, inasmuch as it reflects discredit upon a number of gentlemen who met only five weeks since, and, actuated by the utmost sympathy for the family, resolved upon a course which, to the best of their judgment and knowledge of the case, was most likely to secure the end they wished to attain. They proved their liberality by subscribing £260, of which £30 was given to Mr. Cort; and to a man in needy circumstances this could not be, nor ought to have been, a sum received with ingratitude. The committee passed the resolution quoted by yon, which it is my duty to see carried out, and beyond that resolution it is impossible to go without another meeting being held to rescind it. So far, about £530 have been subscribed, and it was hoped that £20<X> would soon have been obtained; which sum invested in annuities, (after placing the family in circumstances free from debt,) would have been a comfortable yearly income to the recipients. No public movement, as yon are aware, can be carried through without affording reasonable time for working it, and that is all the committee require in this esse. A few weeks more, and the committee hope to conclude their honorary labour*, if their appeal be but promptly responded to. Allow me to beg you will not again by injudicious, statements damp the generous ardour of those who have taken up this case, much less attemp t to qttestion the justice or benevolence of such men ai those who at once and so nobly responded to the claims of genius, or age and infirmity. I am, &e. David Mobrts.

[We mnst take the liberty of telling Mr. Morris that we esteem the above both a very foolish and a very impertinent letter—especially the last part of it. What have wo said to " damp the generous ardour of those who have taken up this case," or to " question the justice or benevolence of such men." &c.? Did we not expressly say, that the whole thing to which we objected was "doubtless an oversight," and tint we gave Mr. Fairbairn " ample credit for meaning and purposing well?" We would inform Mr. Morris—who is but a novice in reference to the Cort case—that by several years of well-considered advocacy of this case we have earned the right to offer a suggestion, and even to administer a rebuke, when other friends of the cause are committing great and palpable errors. We would further tell him, and onr readers also (although the latter will have foreseen it) that some of the old and tried friends of the Cort family, andsoiae rtleinbefs of the committee even, are as much astonished as ourselves at the strange resolution* passed at the late Manchester meeting of the committee, and are wondering why the family are riot instantly relieved from their liabilities. We have nothing to add to, and nothing to take from, our last week's remnrltson the management of the committee. We will only, therefore, add that the past, history of the Cort case has demonstrated the strong necessity there is for looking after th; money contributed for the benefit of the family; and no anger of Mf. Morris's will prevent Cj from seeing either that the present fuud is properly administered, orthat those (if any) who may attempt to misnpply it shall have their proceedings brought to light. If Mr. Mom* writes to us again on this question, he must amend hU tone, or we shall feel bound to enter with greater minuteness than before into the proceedings that have taken and are taking place m connection with the Manchester Fund. All we ask is, that the money subscribed shall be applied to its legitimate object without delay, and we do not believe the committee desire to keep it locked up from the poor and extremely aged people.— Bdb. M.M.).

STEAM-SHIP ECONOMY.

10 THB EDITORS OP THE " MBCIIASICB1 MAOAZIXB."

Gentlemen,— It 'a very probable, as Mr. Athcrtou says, "that it is rather a trial of one's patience to repeat explanations in matters of theoretic*! investigation," but tlie greater trial of patience to which, notwithstanding, I wonld again respectfully invite him, is to give au answer to the objections urged against these same explanations, or else to admit their validity. In the

the objection to the J power of

formula

Ind. h. p.

displacement is, that in the case of vessels which are not of the same form or type of build, it is not identical in value with the midship section, and ii therefore erroneously employed instead of it; and that in the case of vessels which are of the same type, and where of course it is admitted that there is a virtual identity in these two expressions, the formula embodying either affords no information concerning the comparative merits of (team-ships as marine constructions, either in point of velocity alone, or in conjunction with carrying capacity. How can it, when they are all alike, except in size? The co- efficient set up for 3. standard wonld be common to all, apart from the influence of size. The formula might give some information concerning the comparative efficiency of propellers, -but Mr. Atherton repudiates any utility in this direction, by assuming that practically it may be considered to have a constant ratio to the power. The formula affords no information concerning the comparative resultant efficiency of the several means employed in the production of power, for it accepts it as already provided, and as declared by the indicator. What then remains to be determined? and which the co-efficient of performance can in a comparative view be supposed to indicate? Nothing as I can see, except the influence of size, in which item there is no variety, nor any scope for the exercise of skill which can, like form, be tested in this way. Such influence can result only from a diminished ratio of water friction accompanying an increase of displacement under the same type. Now, it would be very desirable to ascertain the rate of augmentation of useful effect, by this diminution of the useless effect; but being once determined for the type, what permanent utility would the formula be to merchants? And yet this is its ontcmible purpose.

When, indeed, the weight of coals burnt per hour is substituted for the indicated horse -power at the denominator in this formula, we do obtain some information on steam-ship economy, in the coal-consuming, though not in the building department; but the duty done per ton of coals eonld be ascertained more directly, and in a much better manner, if the performance was registered as declared by the indicator, or by a dynamometer; because the influence of all extraneous circumstances would be eliminated, and because neither time nor velocity, which indeed do not belong to it, wonld be implicated in the estimate of duty. And this leads me to say, that for vessels of the came type, and not differing greatly in size, any difference in the co-efficients of performance observed in practice by application of the

furmnla - must be explained as the wt. ot coal.

result of differences in furnaces, fuel, and firing. This modification of the formula may have a certain utility if confined to vessels of the same type, provided we are given to understand what is truly indicated by it, and that we are not informed that "the fact of inferiority being established, the type of form of the hull, with the condition, construction, or management of the bqilers and machinery," are equally points where " the fault may be," and that "under this scrutiny all bad type* of form will be eradicated." Whence could arise the illusion that the type is the subject of ordeal, when it is so sedulously impressed upon us that the type is a given element in the question? It a the vessels ranking under each type which are tested., and they only in reference to one fault,

that I am aware of, which is, the foulness of their bottoms. All else refers to boilers, engines, and propellers. Velocity is the natural, as it is the only test of a ship's form, and of the cleanly or dirty state of her skin; but it is very unnecessarily, and in a very round-about way, a test of anything besides.

We now come to the case of vessels of different types: here the comparative worth of the form is fairly the point at issue, that is, the types themselves are on trial, and therefore we must have a test or formula which is applicable to them all. This is in fact saying, that it must apply to vessels in common,- without any classification into types at all, at least as a point of necessity. But here the J power of displacement is a misleading quantity, because it is no longer identical in value with the midship section. Now, according to Mr. Atherton's own admission, this section is the true basis of any formula; and so it is if velocity be the sole useful effect to be inquired into; but for some reason which I cannot conceive, he chooses to express it in terms of displacement. If, however, we do so in this case, where such expression is erroneous, both as a substitute for the other and for its own demerits besides, the comparative results of steamship performances so ascertained cannot be otherwise than false. So then, in fine, for vessels all of one type the formula is useless, and for those of different types worse than worthless.

The midship section formula is appropriate for velocity, but to represent the comparative worth of vessels in the aspect of velocity and carrying capacity conjointly, we must, I repeat, make the simple displacement the basis of the formula. With the use of either it will not be necessary to class vessels according to their type. No such classification is imperatively required with the Cornish steam-engines, in order to estimate and register the duty done by them; nor would it even be useful, except as between pumping engines and crank engines, where the difference is too great for a fair comparison. All other minor diversities of construction go themselves as influencing circumstances into the estimate of performance, along with boilers and modes of stoking. In steamships it would also be uteful to divide them into transport and passenger vessels, but without needing any very exact line of demarcation. Either formula would apply to each class, but that based on the simple displacement wonld be more peculiarly appropriate to the former, and the one based on the midship section to the latter.

Mr. Atherton applies the word "duty" to a dynamic performance in which velocity is an element. It is really undesirable that mathematicians should take up with words of practical origin, and expressive of practical but yet scientific, though not a,t the time mathematical ideas, and make them include what was not at first intended. "Work" and now " duty" are invested with time and velocity, although originally expressive of power measured by space alone. Mechanical power and mechanical effect were the terms employed, when the idea of time was involved.

Yours, &c. Benjamin Ciievbbton.

l^tfo Cases.

PIELDEN'a PATENT COPS.

Coitbt Op Queen's Bench, Dec. 13.—(Sitlinyi at Nifi Prius, before Lord Chief Justice Cockburn and a Special Jury.)

PTELDEN V. LORD AND OTHEBS.

Mr. Wilde and Mr. Hindmarch appeared for the plaintiff, and Sir P. Kelly, Mr. M. Smith, and Mr. Aston for the defendants. The plaintiff, a workman employed in a cotton-mill, brought this action against a mill-owner for an infringement ofhis patent for improvements in the construction and building of cops, and the defendants alleged that one Enoch Fielden was the true and first inventor, and that the plaintiff obtained his patent by fraudulent representations. A cop is the cotton wound off on the spindle in a conical shape at the ends, having a hole throughout, aa in an ordinary cot

ton-reel, caused by the spindle, and nsed in placing the cop on the shuttle. In practice it was found that a great deal of cotton was wasted by the bottoms of the cops being "britted" while being taken from the mules in baskets to the machinery for the next process of manufacture. To obviate the difficulty, gutta-percha foundations for the cops were used; but a more complete remedy was discovered in running a brush of paste along the mules, so as to coat the bottoms of the cops and render them less liable to injury. John Ficlden, the plaintiff, and Enoch Fielden were friends, and, in n conversation one Sunday afternoon, the latter suggested that paste wonld do. John Fielden experimented and took out a patent first. Enoch Fielding stated that before the conversation he had experimented and tested by success the value of his invention. He also took out a patbnt, and Messrs. Lord defended this action, relying upon Enoch Fielding being the first inventor.

The case commenced yesterday, and occupied the greater part of to-day, terminating in a verdict ibr the defendants. .

Oxlet'b Patent Hinges, Etc. Cofbt Op Common Pleas (second court), Deo. IS,

OXLEY t>. DOLBEN.

This was an action to recover £50, being the amount claimed for royalty upon the sale of certain hinges, elastic cushions, and studs and plates intended to be used in the windows and doors of railway carriages,' the object of which was to prevent the noise and jarring usual when trains arc in motion. The plaintiff, who claimed to be thu inventor of the above articles, had entered into an agreement with the defendant, whereby the latter was permitted to manufacture and sell*them, paying upon each a royalty of 4d., it being further stipulated that the plaintiff should be paid at all events £100 per annum by four equal quarterly payments. There were pleas negativing the novelty of the alleged inventions, and that the defendant Wok induced to enter into the agreement by the fraud and misrepresentation of the plaintiff.

The jury found a verdict on both issues for4he plaintiff.

Mr. Wordsworth, Q.C., and Mr. Henry James appeared for the plaintiff, and Mr. Serjeant Shee, Mr. Hindmarch, Mr. Keane, and Mr. Griffiths for the defendant. •

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Tub Admiralty have decided upon building two new iron frigates in addition to those now in course of construction by the Thames Iron Shipbuilding Company and Messrs. Napier of Glasgow. The new frigates are to bo of a similar construction to those already in progress, but of smaller dimensions. Contracts for them have just been taken, one by Messrs. Palmer, of Jarrow, and the other by Messrs. Mfostwood and Baillio, of Millwall. It may be well to state that the two new frigates are designed exclusively for homo defence.

The Queen has granted a pension of £150 a-year out of the civil list pensions to the daughters of Henry Cort, whose inventions in the manufacture of iron have contributed so much to the prosperity of the trade, while his family have been left in deep distress. The Queen has also been pleased to grant a pension on the civil list of £125 a-year to the sisters of the late Dr. Dionysius Lardncr, whose contributions to science are so well known.

It is a singular fact, and one which illustrates tho dependence of trades of almost every kind upon the eccentricities of the devotees of fashion, that since the extensive use of crinoline in England, the wiredrawers, and a considerable section of the wireworkers of the kingdom, have beeu exceedingly busv, and are at this moment obtaining very high wages! It is not easy at once to comprehend the cause of this phenomenon, or to trace the connection between crinoline and brass wire, but a little reflection makes the matter clear. Tho wearers of crinoline, from the amplitude of their costume and tho consequent difficulty of calculating distances, are more exposed in their homes to danger from fire than are those other ladies whose dresses project little beyond the limits assigned by nature to their fair forms. Hence the necessity for cxt ra-preeauliuii in the shape of wire fire-guards—hence the pressure ou tin.' wire-trade— hence the high rate of wages referred to. It is satisfactory to observe, ton, that an impulse has been given to art as well as to labour in the matter of fireguards. All nill remember the primitive nature of those articles as hitherto used in nurseries, &c., but now that they arc required for the protection of "grown-up children," and have to figure "before company," it has been found desirable to vary their forms, materials, and prices and to impart" style" and taste into their construction. They are at present used hi West-end drawing-rooms, as well a^ in humbler parlours, and must he made consonant, therefore, with the neighbouring furniture, the fitments of the refracting and ornamental stoves, and the richly ornamented fenders. If this were not Bo they would be pronounced "do-ci-dedly vul-gar," and, despite their preservative value during the mazy dance, a " horrid naw." Wo have seen some elegant specimens of modern fire-guards, and we know that several firms in London are overburdened with orders for them "to be supplied immediately and regardless of cost." Well may the workers referred to rejoice in the prevalent fashion, and loudly exclaim, u Vivat crinoline."

The following letter suggests an important consideration or two :—•

London, 12th Doc, 185D.

Gentlemen,—After reading your notice of the termination of the Board of Trade's inquiry upon the loss of the Royal Charter in " Weekly Gossip," page 380, of your last number, I cannot refrain from troubling you with two remarks, in confirmation of the barren results to public good of such inquiries so conducted. First, it is stated: "Her cables were full 2^ inches in diameter, and were tested by the makers to 72 tons." Now, Mr. Trotman, in his letter to the Times, stated (correctly) the Admiralty test for such a cable is at least 81 \ tons. Permit me to say, with some knowledge of the subject, that 72 tons will rarely pull out the worst of work from a cable of that size, particularly if made of inferior rigid iron; 85 tons would be nearer the strain required to dislodge a half-welded link. Again: why not ask if the Royal Charter was brought up within the breakers that parted her cables? Judging from the evidence upon Captain* Taylor's seamanship, ho brought the ship up in fair water; if so, did she drift from her first position to where she parted? If she did not drag her anchors, why ease them with the screw? and if she did drag until her anchors Iipm in the rocky bottom, which caused the breakers which parted her cables, why not extract this, if possible, by evidence, so that no shadow may be thrown over anchors of one model or another. I am, Gentlemen, a much obliged

# Subscribes.

A correspondent writes: "The sad destruction of tbis fine snip (the Royal Charter), and the fearful loss of property—and, abovo all, of life—attending that and the numerous other shipwrocks that yearly occur, may well lead every one to exert himself to devise means of preventing them. Your correspondent, Mr. Bendelow, who suggests a method of relieving the strain on cables by means of pulleys, does not, perhaps, remember that tho catenary curve of tho cable, and the imperfect resistance which the ship opposes to the wave force, do all that can be done at that end of the cable. But at the anchor end thore is an unyielding resistance, and when the anchor does not itself drag or break, the parting of the cable often takes place near it. I believe that the true remedy consists in increasing the strength of both anchors an I chains; and now that steel is Bo much more cheaply and easily made, it is inconceivable that, with the interests at stake, shipowners should not take advantage of a material whose cohesive strength is nearly double that of even the best iron. Iron ranges in cohesive strength between 25 and 30, and steel between 56 and 59, tons per square inch of section."

The following letter merits a place hero:— Gentlemen,—Having some time ago experimented during two rough trips at sea, an account of the results may perhaps deserve a spare corner in your valuable publication. The first trip I lay as my fellow-passengers did, with my head towards the stern and my feet towards the engine-room (the centro of motion), and on my right side. Tho result was very much like that of a stomach pump. On the next trip I lay on my left side, with my head towards tire engine-room and feet towards the stern. The result was, that I was the only one in tb.3 cabin unaffected with sickness; my fellow-passengers lying the contrary way. The rationale of those results is clear. The (esophagus or entrance to the stomach is on the left side, the pylorus or eduction on tho right. When

lying on the left side as described, tho centrifugal force from the rolling was from the {esophagus to the pylorus, promoting digestion. The centrifugal force from the pitching of the vessel was from the head towards the stomach, tending to keep down my g<x>d breakfast, and promote digestion olso. These effects were of course reversed on my frst trip. The rule to he observed is therefore simple: "Lay on your left side with your head towards the middle of the vessel."

I am, Gentlemen, your very obedient servant,

T. Mot.

We understand that a new process of galvanizing wire has recently been discovered by a gentleman connected with the Administration of Telegraphs at Paris, and the application <;f the invention has been successfully made to the galvanization of telegraph wires. The inventor (Mr. Cuehe) states that tlie chief advantage of his improved method over the old one consists " in its allowing a very thick coating of zinc (which adheres in a most porfoct manner) to deposit, itself on tho wire, which not being afterwards subjected to any friction whatever^ prevents any hindrance to the crystallization." The ainc deposited on the wire in this way being much thicker than by the usual process, it consequently resists much longer the action of chemical agents, Ac. The discovery has been patented for France and foreign countries, and is said to bo already patronized by the principal house which supplies the French Administration with telegraph wires.

NOTICES.

The MrcHAMics* Maoaxime will he sent free by post to all sub-icribiMS of £1 Is. 8d., annually, payable in advance. Post Omce Orders to be made payable to It. A. Brooman, at the Post Office, Fleet Street, London, E.G.

TO ADVEKTI8ERS.

All Advertisements occupying less than half-a-coluran are ohur^ed at the rate of id. per line for any number of insertions lc.*s than 13; for 13 insertions, 4d. per line; and for 52 insertions, 3d. per line.

Each line consists of 10 words, the first line counting as two. Wood-cuts are charged at the same rate as type for the space occupied.

Special ArranfTcmcnts for larprcr or Serial Advertisements To ensure insertion, Advertisements must reach the Office by 5 o'clock on Thursday evening each week. None can be received after that time for the ensuing number

patents far Jiriwittioits.

ABRIDGED SPECIFICATIONS OF PATENTS

The abridged Specifications of Patents given below are classified, according to the subjects to which the respective .nventions refer, in the following table. By the system of classification adopted, the numerical and chronological order of tho specifications is preserved, and combined with all the advantages of a division into classes. It should be understood that these abridgements are prepared exclusively for this Magazine from official copies supplied by the Government, and are therefore the property of the proprietors of this Magazine. Other papers are hereby warned not to produce them without acknowledgement :—

Steam Exqines, &c, 1122, 1166.

BO ILK US AND THEIR Fca.VACKS, &(*., 1119.

Roads A No Vehicles, including railway plant and carriages, saddlery and harness, &c. None.

Ships And Boats, including their fittings, 1123.

Cultivation Of ms Son., including agricultural and horticultural implements and machines, 1129.

Food And Bevkraoks, including apparatus for preparing food for men and animals, 1445.

Fibrous Fabrics, including machinery for treating fibres, pulp, paper, &c., 1090, 1092,1121,1121, 1133.

Buildixos And Buildino Materials, including sewers, drain-pines, brick and tile machines, &c, 1094, 1095, 1097, 112G.

Liohtinu, Heating, And Ventilating, 1098, 1130, 1140.

Furniture And Apparel, including household utensils, time-keepers, jewellery, musical instruments, &c, 1111, 1113, 1136.

Metals, including apparatus for their manufacture, 1103, 111.5, 1117, 1120, 1128.

Chkuistrv And Photography, 1099,1101,1107,1189.

Electrical Apparatus, None.

Warfare. 1132,

Letter Press Printiko, Ac, 1100, 1110.

Miscellaneous, 1089, 1091, 1093. 1091, 1096, 1102, 1103, 1104, 1105, 1106, 1108, 1109, 1112, 1114, 1116, 1118, 1123, 1127, 1131, 1134, 1135, 1137, 1138.

1039. J. Bull. "Improvements in apparatus used for securing bales of cotton and other substances." Dated April 30, 1859.

This consists in causing the ends of a suitable length of strip metal or of hoop iron to be bent into hooks, and to employ therewith a plate of metal with a rectangular or suitable opening through it, so that when a bale of cotton has by pressure been brought to the

desired size, and the strip of metal passed round, it, tho link or plate is placed on one of the hooks, and then tho oilier hook is passed through tho plate, by which, when the bale is released from pressure, th*» two hooks will bo inwards towards the bale, and will be retained secure by the plate. Patent abandoufi.

1000. C. II. G. Williams, ''Improvements in the manufacture of colouring matters, and in applying the same for dyeing and printing fabrics ana materials." Dated 'April 30,1859.

By the destructive distillation of quinine, chinchro* nine, strychnine, or brucine, a series of liquid basic substances is obtained, and it is from suck substance* that, according to the present invention, colouring matters suitable for dyeing and printing fabrics ax>a manufactured. In employing these colouring matters for printing fabrics, the patentee prepares a poluiiau of the colouring matter as before, and he thickens it with albumen and applies the compound to the fabric by blocks or otherwise. Colouring matters mar also be obtained by acting on salts or compounds- ot aniline, toluidinc, xylidine, cumidinc, or cymidine with, permanganate of potash, and afterwards treating tin* precipitate. Patent completed.

1091. J. Socquikrk. "A new or improved process for distilling coal." Dated April 30, 1859.

The patentee claims, 1, the calcination, or destructive distilUtion of a mixture of pulverized coke and coal in the manufacture of gas for obtaining a larger quantity of gas, and also to render the coke resulting tbercfrom oi more value. 2. The calcination or destructive distillation iu coke ovens of a mixture uf Sulverized coke and coal for producing coke of greater ensity, which will also produce coke of good qualitv from any kind of coal. Patent completed.

1092. T H. Ahrowsmith, "Improvement? in carding engines." Dated May 2, 1859.

This consists in employing one adjusting screw fit each end of the flat, for setting which screw the patentee supports and adjusts a bracket or plate fonut-d to suit the working (technically called the *' set of the card "), lateral movement of the bracket or plate being prevented by forming it with a llat surface, and fitting it against tlie bend of the carding engine, or by a steady pin or other contrivance. Patent completed.

1093. A. Ji'mkl.us. "An apparatus yielding illimitcd power, so called 'French movement.* "* Dated May 2, 1859.

This apparatus consists of a scries of tubes tightly connected with each other, each tube containing a helix of ordinary form which actuates a shaft projecting from the soid tube, and operating an external pulley. The issuing out of tbe said shaft from the tube is to take place without any intrusion of the air into the interior of tho tube, that is to say, without any leakage, which can easily be obtained by a stuffing box-lid. The permanent pressure is obtained by a double-piston sucking pump, which actuates one end of the connected tubes. Patent abandoned,

1091. J. Ferguson and J. Mcgavesy. fc Improvements in fasteners for shutters and for similar uses." Dated May 2, 1859.

Tho ordinary fastening bolt is here modified so as to become locked by a catch when pushed home into a socket. Patent abandoned.

1095. W. Baylis. "Improvements in the manufacture of iron hurdles and fencing." Dated Mav -, 1859.

The patentee claims so forming the iron for fence rails, either rolling, swaging, or subsequently ly hammering or pressing, that it shall partially clip the intermediate hurdle or fence standard, so as to prevent their having any lateral motion. Also the mannor of shouldering and forming projections at the ends of hurdles or fence rails where they are united to the end standards; likewise the mode of uniting hurdles and fencing together. Patent completed.

1096. B. A. Buoomax. "Improvements in, and in connection with, electro-magnetic cnginea." (A communication.) Dated May 2, 1859.

The object here is so to construct electro-magnetic engines, and apparatus connected therewith, that th? attractive and repulsive forces of electro-magnets may be utilised and caused to act simultaneously upon ta<? same part or parts of tho engine—that the reciprocal action of fixed and moveable magnets may be msio available in producing motion—that the etatr»*magnets .employed may bo rendered actire both \y external and internal electrical actions—that the action of the electric current or currents may be practically continuous—and that the maximam magnetic forces may be made available for the production of power. Patent completed,

1097. J. Basford. "An improvement in the apparatus used when expressing clay or brick earth through dies." Dated May 2, 1859.

This consists in forming the bridge which curie

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