character of the Hungarian war? Is a true largely exceed that of either the campaign of disciple of Lord Westnorland, an avowed 1854 or 1855. admirer of the Austrian Government, and We press this consideration on public atone who believes that England ought to tention, because if we are to secure a Swedcourt the alliance of the despotic powers, a ish alliance and co-operation, as appears to proper exponent at the present crisis of the be so greatly desired, we must be content to views entertained by the people and ministry pay for it. But, on the other hand, in the of England ?

propurtion that we receive assistance for

money paid to Sweden, we diminish outlay From the Examiner, 10 Nov.

on our own armaments, A SWEDISH ALLIANCE.

Sweden has an army which by the spring

could be raised to something like 60,000 efThougu ostensibly the mission of General fective men : and she has now afloat and unCanrobert to the Court of Sweden is only to der cover, in her ports and on her lakes, decorate the King with the Grand Cross of about 200 gun-boats of all sizes and armathe Legion of Honor in exchange for the ments. Her army is brave, well disciplined, Swedish order which Admiral Virgin recent- hardy, and it is believed by no means disinly brought to the Court of the Tuileries, it clined to act against Russia ; and her flotilla may reasonably be hoped that the employ- of small craft could quickly be manned by ment, at this season of the year, of so distin- seamen even abler and more competent than guished a person as the late commander of her soldiers. Here is just what the Allies the French army, has some deeper aim and want, therefore, at the very doors of Rusmore practical object than a mere exchange sia — all ready prepared for active use next of decorations, significant as the latter is on spring. the part of a sovereign in the position of Hence arise the questions -- Ought we to King Oscar.

purchase this co-operation ? if we ought, can Two comparatively fruitless campaigns in we do so ? and if we can, what price is worth the Baltic, at a cost of probably not less than paying for it? In a contest like the present, ten or twelve millions sterling to England governments must leave refinements and and France, must by this time have con- speculations to the philosophers, and be convinced both governments that, to achieve im- tent to act on those principles and practices portant and permanent results on that side of which have always prevailed in war. If we Russia, a considerable land force, such as are engaged (and the present war has no neither country is likely to be able to spare, other justification) in a struggle for the indeand a much larger number of gun-boats pendence of Europe, then clearly we are well than it is possible to see ready by May next, entitled to call on other nations to join us ; are indispensable. Unless, then, the Allies and just in proportion as the danger threatare content again to incur, in 1856, an ex- ens them, are we justified in expecting that penditure in the Baltic of which the enor- they will join us. The marvellous insensibilmous disproportion to the smallness of the ity of our German friends is quite an excepinjury done by it is an outrage on English tional case. If Sweden sees that next to and French taxpayers, some steps must at Turkey it has most to apprehend from Rusonce be taken to secure from other quarters sian ambition, and regards the Anglo-French that army to operate on Finland, and that alliance as the most effective proteetion from flotilla of small craft, which the governments such danger, it has ample cause,

without any of the two countries either cannot or will not such immediate provocation from Russia as provide for themselves. To persist in carry- that country is sure at this crisis of history ing on war next year in that sea as we have to carefully abstain from giving, for seeking done for two years past, will not only be a permanent safety where it thinks it can best scandalous waste of money and of power, be found. Otherwise Sweden would be debut involve a loss of reputation such as Eng- nuded of one of the rights and attributes of land at least cannot afford. That which self-protection, and be condemned to wait thirty gun-boats, in addition to the flects, patiently until Russia was ready to swallow would have accomplished in 1854 at Swea- it up, and the rest of Europe incapable of borg and Cronstadt, nearly that entiro num- averting its destination. ber failed to achieve at Sweaborg in 1855 ; But then comes the question of the terms and judging by the past, it will require three on which Sweden might be found willing to or four times thirty, acting in concert with join the Western Alliance. To begin with, an army, to reduce Sweaborg and get at Sweden and Norway would require a perHelsingfors in 1856. Wherever, then, the manent guarantee from England and France means of successfully carrying on the next against Russia, and on the restoration of campaign in the Baltic are to be acquired, peace an immediate settlement of all boundhis appears certain that its cost will | ary disputes. Also, most assuredly, Sweden

[ocr errors]

may be expected to inform the Allies, that, for implied, seems to be the natural and logithough possessed of armaments such as they cal basis of an alliance which Sweden will want, the Swedish finances are in no condi- enter into on the ground of danger from the tion to bear the expense of active service ; ambition of her neighbors ; and as, on the and that though it can furnish men, vessels, restoration of a general peace, England and guns, and munitions of war, these must be France must in some form or other take semaintained and paid for by the Allies. It is curities against an extension of the Russian moreover very possible that Sweden may de- empire, by any engagement of that kind sire to engage the Alliance to the restoration Russia will give her adherence to such a of Finland.

guarantee, and so diminish, if not remove, Taking the last point first, the only ques- its exclusive character. In accepting the tion fairly to be raised upon it would be, services of Sweden the Allies will accept also whether the restoration of Finland to Swe- the duty and responsibility of rendering den is likely to give strength to the Swedish Russia in future a safe neighbor to her. monarchy. We must remember, in discuss- On the whole, then, it would appear that ing the question, that if Sweden lost Fin- the motives are strong for a Swedish alliance; land in 1808, it was recompensed by the ad- that the objections are weak; that terms are dition of Norway in 1815; and thắt if the easy, if moderation prevail on the part of Fins themselves have reason to apprehend Sweden ; and that with Swedish co-operation any diminution of their trade and wealth by we may safely trust that the campaign of restoration to Sweden, Russia would be assist- 1856 in the Baltic, whether the commander ed, not weakened, by such a proposal. We be a Dundas or a Napier, will be as disasdo not now express an opinion on this point; trous for Russia as the campaign of 1855 in but supposing such a condition proposed and the Black Sea. refused, the desire to avoid the introduction of new difficulties and dangers into Sweden

MANAGEMENT OF THE TIDES. itself it must dictate the refusal, rather than any desire to avoid inflicting the utmost pos

MRS. MARTIA PARTINGTON, the same whose sible amount of humiliation and degradation unsuccessful tussle with the Atlantic ocean upon Russia.

has been recorded by the Rev. Sydney Smith, That Sweden would require money to re- having taken to heart her discomfiture on pay the cost of the military assistance she that occasion, and misliking the scene of her would render the common cause is most cer- defeat, removed to a cottage, by name Threadtain; and probably the Swedish government needle, inland on the banks of the river Dee, would be more exacting than the Sardinian where she takes in washing on a large scale. government proved. In the case of Sardinia, Like a prudent, careful person, which she pecuniary aid assumed the form of a loan; truly is, Mrs. Partington considered how she but we can hardly hope that Sweden, with should conduct her business, which requires no very bright prospects of future wealth the consumption of a good deal of water, so before it, will undertake the repayment of as to guard against draining the river dry. such sums as may be required to move its And the method she has adopted with the forces. Piedmont can afford to look hope- most completo success is as follows: fully forward to acquiring the neighboring

When the river is rising Mrs. Partington duchies, if not the Milanese; and, rich al-plies her buckets freely at the bank, so that ready by anticipation, consents to mortgage there may be no overflow, laying the low-lyits great expectations. Unlike Piedmont, ing lands under water, and so injuring or Sweden lives not on the future, but on the destroying property. But when she observes past. It has no such speculative invest that the river is falling, she holds her hand, ments to indulge in; at most it can only hope suspends the work of the laundry, and turns to retain what is left; and it will therefore her customers away; for she has then to reasonably require to be protected against take care that the river be not drained dry, expense for the co-operation it gives. The and to compass bringing back the ebbing Allies, on the other hand, can afford no such stream. enormous subsidies as Sweden got from Eng

These are Mrs. Partington's two systems land towards the close of the last war; and of action on the currents of the Dee, and so if Sweden will be content with the cost of well are they adjusted, so complete is their its forces, and place those forces both by sea success, that perseverance in them for six and land at the entire disposal of the West- hours, or a little more, never fails to correct ern Powers and their general, then probably and reverse the tendency to excess either way. Swedish co-operation would be cheaply pur- For example, if at noon she finds the river chased.

swelling, she fills her pails freely, and by sis A guarantee of the present territories of or thereabouts the effect is seen in the subSweden and Norway, be it either expressed | siding of the waters, and the turn of the

[ocr errors]


current the other way. Thus is avoided ders it extremely probable that a blow is on any overflow, any waste, any destructive in the point of being struck which will for undation. But at six, when the waters be- years incapacitate the Czar both for playing gin to sink, and set out, it is time to refrain the aggressor himself and for aiding the agfrom drawing on the diminishing current, gressions of others, Francis Joseph proceeds and then Mrs. Partington shuts up shop, as to offer two distinct hostile insults to Sarit were, and hangs up her buckets to dry. dinia, so gratuitous and undisguised that If a customer comes to her door at this sea- Sardinia cannot avoid noticing them with son she raises her prices for washing, so as resentment, and so arrogant and indefensible to check all transactions in that line; and so that England and France cannot avoid supprevents the use of water, which would in- porting Sardinia in her resistance. crease the ebbing of the stream, and perhaps It is not wonderful that Austria should dry it up altogether. By perseverance in hate Piedmont: it would be wonderful were this system for six hours or more, the cur- it otherwise. She hates her from the double rent is acted on ; the reflux gives place to a motives of jealousy and fear. Piedmont is a flow, the tide turns, the channels are gradu- standing reproach to every other Government ally refilled, and water is abundant. in Italy, and to that of Lombardy most of

Such is Mrs. Partington's prudent man- all. It is the only State in that Peninsula agement of, the tides. The miller who lives where the people and the rulers are in harin the neighborhood, and who has got a mony. It has proved to Europe the capacity name of caring for nobody and for nothing, of Italians to conduct their own affairs, and presumes to scoff, indeed, at Mrs. Parting- the rapid prosperity which is the result of ton's precautions; and pretends that the their self-government. It is a perpetual, river would ebh and flow all the same whether though silent and inactive, stimulant to the she filled or emptied her tubs, and that she oppressed classes of all the other provinces had better mind her business, and do her to strive for a condition of similar well-being. washing always at fair prices, without It is a proclamation to the wretched citizens troubling herself about the Dee, and its cur- of Milan, Venice, Naples, Tuscany, and rents up and down. But this idle talk is Rome, of what they might become were the confuted by the undeniable fact that the incubus of Austrian tyranny once shaken off. rising or falling of the stream is sure to fol. It is a strong, hourly, unmistakable warning. low Mrs. Partington's measures for restrict that German misgovernment in Italy cannot ing or stimulating the supply of water. last much longer— that Austria must either That she has thus acted on the currents, and alter her system or withdraw herself. Hence regulated the changes, is undeniable; and it is impossible that Piedmont should not be not less certain it is that the action has been an object of intensest dread and wrath to most advantageous in preventing a drain on Austria ; -- but it is surprising that that the one hand, or an overflow on the other. Power, which is not usually deficient in Post hoc, ergo propter hoc, is an accepted prudence or in craft, should have selected conclusion. Examiner, 10 November. for the manifestation of these passions pre

cisely the moment when the Western Powers From The Economist, 27 Oct.

are strongest, when Russia is weakest, and

when Sardinia has deserved so well of the “ THE DEVIL IS AN ASS.”

allies that they must stand by her, and are, Such is the title of one of the plays of the it is conceived, thinking how they can resecond of our old English dramatists; and ward her. the adage seems to be verified by the conduct Moreover, it would appear as if the grounds which Austria is pursuing in Italy. The of dispute with Sardinia have not arisen, but facts of the case are not yet very completely have been carefully and artificially created. or officially before the public, and therefore The bare facts, as far as they have yet transwe must argue upon them with some slight pired, are briefly these : we do not vouch reserve;, but it would appear that Austria for the perfect accuracy of the statement, but has, with strange infatuation, seized the mo- give it as far as it is known through the ment when the allies — wearied out with her usual public channels of information. The disloyal conduct and her mischievous vacilla- Sardinian convents recently suppressed or tions have resolved to leave her out of their reduced by the Government of that country, councils for the future, to force a quarrel on some of them held property in Lombardy. her Italian rival whose proceedings have con- This property the Austrian Government has trasted so favorably with her own. While confiscated ; and in answer to a protest the fall of Sebastopol has proved the supe- against the shameless robbery, is understood riority of the Western Powers in their deadly to have replied — (such, at least, is the cool struggle with the Great Bear, and while the defence set up by the Oesterreichische Zeiperilous position of the Russian army ren-tung) — " that the convents having been sup

pressed, their property had no longer any necessary and damaging ostentation. But owner, and therefore reverted to the State in her behavior to us has not the less cooled whose territories it was situated”! This is and alienated our friendly feelings, while her aggression the first. Again, Austria has in- conduct and that of her satraps to their own stigated the Grand Duke of Tuscany to de- subjects has disgusted the nation to a degree mand the recall of an attaché to the Sardinian to which it is not easy to give adequate embassy at Florence — which attaché had expression. She may rest assured that if been previously accepted and received; and she forces a quarrel on our gallant ally we this not as a courteous request, but in a shall stand by him with unhesitating resolurude and insulting manner. Diplomatic in- tion; and though we seek no fresh work, tercourse, therefore, naturally and necessa- yet if she forces a quarrel on us, we shall be rily ceased between the two Courts; and the slower to lay it down than to take it up. matter might have rested there and no great Our tendencies and wishes are pacific ; our mischief or disturbance have ensued. But policy is that of non-interference: our dethere is more behind. Not content with testation of oppression and cruelty does not having caused a quarrel between two friendly go the length of volunteering a crusade States, the Austrian Government proceeds to against it; but if she deludes herself for one thrust itself into the dispute as a principal; instant with the hope that we shall permit her and Count Buol, it is said, has intimated to to bully or assail Piedmont any more than we the Sardinian Minister at Vienna, that as permitted Russia to bully and assail the SulTuscany has acted by Imperial direction, his tan, most certainly she never hugged a more Imperial Majesty regards the matter as one groundless or fatal fancy. If she is bent personal to himself, and if the dispute be upon hastening that war of principles and not adjusted within a specified time, “ will nationalities which it has been our most sedtake measures accordingly. If this com- ulous effort to avoid and to postpone, she munication really took place, we can only may do so to-morrow, - a few more instansay that anything so unwarrantable in sub-ces of interference and arrogance will comstance and so insolent in form has rarely plete the work ; — but with her will rest all disgraced the diplomatic intercourse of civ- the responsibility, as on her will fall all the ilized States. The language of Prince Men- ruin and nearly all the loss. We warn her zichoff at Constantinople, so sternly avenged, to pause and draw back while it is yet posoffers the nearest parallel in recent times. sible to do so. A few months more, and

We cannot for a moment doubt that the Russia may probably be at the mercy of the French and British Governments will act Allies, — and what will Austria, isolated, with becoming promptitude and vigor in this bankrupt, and abhorred, do then? We depaffair, and will intimate to the Court of Vi- recate with all earnestness the extension of enna without loss of time that the King of the war at the moment when a satisfactory Sardinia is our close, loval, and cordial ally, peace seems neither improbable nor distant'; and that the alliance shall not be for hini a - but of this much we are certain : that the source of danger, but a shield of protection English Government will meet with the utand a sirord of strength. Whatever may most determination any attempt of Austria have been the feelings of the English people to wrcak her spite upon Sardinia, and that or the language of the English press, the if it were possible the Government should be conduct of the English Governinent towards slack in doing so, the people would speak Austria throughout the last difficult years their sentiments in a mode which would has been faithful and enduring in the ex- leave Ministers no option in the matter ; treme. They have borne much and forborne and moreover, that if the war of freedom and long. Far from seeking, cause of quarrel, nationality against despotism and oppression they havo avoided such with a long-suffering should be forced upon us, the British nation care which has cost them much popularity, will rush into it with a zeal, an enthusiasm, Not only have they religiously abstained and an unanimous resolve which will amaze from using the advantage which encour- both their rulers and their foes, and which agement to the discontented nations under all the probable prudence and the possible Austrian sway might have yielded them, but lukewarmness of the governing classes will they have discouraged any popular move- be utterly powerless to restrain. ment in those countries with perhaps un



unaffected by water or acids, with the oxccption

of the chlorhydric. Its solvents, the last-named To the Editors of the Evening Post. The following article, from the Journal des of soda and potash, which decompose it by set

acids excepted, are the concentrated solutions Debats, gives the latest and most reliable information respecting the new metal aluminium, in ting free the hydrogen. It surpasses all metals a condensed form, and in language suited to the as a conductor of electricity, and on this account

as well as by reason of its durability it will become popular capacity.

invaluable for telegraphic purposes. It melts Yours, etc., SCRUTATOR.

at a heat between that required to fuse zinc and Scientific men, and all who are occupied in the copper, and is easily cast and run in moulds. practical development of the useful arts, are at At first it was supposed that it would be imthis moment deeply interested in the discovery possible to alloy aluminium with any other of the new metal, extracted from clay and termed metal ; but the recent experiments of Messrs. aluminium. This metal was known as far back Tissier prove that it forins alloys with silver, as 1827 ; though most of the attempts to pro- zinc, and tin. These alloys are fusible in a duce it date from 1845 ; but the process of ex- greater or less degree ; but all melt at a lower traction was so imperfectly known, that the few temperature than the aluminium. The alloy specimens in the laboratories were regarded with copper, which M. Deville succeeded in maksimply as curiosities, of no practical value. At ing while engaged in some experiments immedilength the problem has been solved by M. Henri ately after his first discovery, is extremely hard Sainte Claire Deville, a young French chemist, and brittle ; it scratches glass, and can be fracassisted by two young chemists, Messrs. Tissier. tured by a blow of a hammer, like steel. The process of extraction has been perfected by The high price of aluminium at present entihim to such a degree that the new metal has al- tles it to be ranked among the precious metals. realy passed from the domain of Science to that Nevertheless, it has been employed in the useful of Industry. We need only visit the galleries of arts for many purposes of a highly interesting the "

Exposition Universalle" to see a beau- character. Its unalterableness, its tenacity, and tiful chronometer and various other articles of its lightness have made it indispensable in the aluminium manufactured in the establishment of manufacture of instruments of precision and exM. Christotle. The metal of which they are actness, in which the skill of the artisan and the composed was produced by tho Messrs. Tissier. value of the time and labor employed are of

Aluminium is more fusible than silver, and more importance than the material used. We almost as white. It is unaffected by the air at instance, for example, delicate balances for miwhatever temperature ; and unattackable by all nute weights, watch movements, and surveying. acids, except the chlorhydric. When melted and astronomical instruments. Being unoxydaand increased in density by hammering or pass- ble, and therefore incapable of affecting injuriing it under the roller, it acquires a bluish tint ously the animal economy, it will undoubtedly like that of platinum. Ductile and malleable as he used extensively in the manufacture of sursilver, it is capable, like that of metal, of being gical instruments. Although it may not equal drawn out into wire, or beaten into leaves of ex- silver in brilliancy, it possesses the advantage treme tenuity. Its surprising lightness, howev- over silver of never tarnishing by exposure to er, is the property which constitutes its great the atmosphere ; and this property alone will value in the useful arts. Zinc, until now, has make it a formidable rival in the various departbeen the lightest of the inetals in ordinary use ; ments of watch-making and jewelry. its specific gravity, taking water as a standard But the above are by no means the only uses as 1, being 7.21 ; while that of aluminium, to which aluminium can be applied. As soon as compared in the same manner, is only 2.56. the improved processes of its manufacture, by Thus aluminium, whose extreme lightness, judg- increasing its production, proportionately lower ing from all previous analogies, would seem to its cost, it will enter into competition with copindicate it as highly oxydable, ranks, on the per, and be universally preferred to it. On the other hand, in this respect, with silver and pla- one hand, there will be a metal, oxydable, nau tinum ; for, in common with these metals, it seous to the taste and smell, all whose comloses nothing of its substance when exposed to the pounds are deleterious and poisonous ; on the most intense heat, and surpasses, moreover, sil- other hand, a metal, unchangeable, three times ver in respect to its property of not being black- as light, tasteless, inodorous, and utterly harmened or tarnished by the fumes of sulphur. It less to the animal economy. differs from copper and tin in being tasteless The advantages of the new metal are positive and inodorous ; and all its alloys are perfectly and incontestible. Even at present, supposing innocuous.

that aluminium costs four times as much as sil. As if in contradiction of all previous experi- ver, it is not in fact dearer ; for a pound of alence, aluminium, in spite of its extreme light- uminium contains four times the bulk of a pound ness, has been found to be highly sonorous. Its of silver, and four times as many articles can tone is pure, and its vibrations are of extraor- be made out of it. If the anticipated facilities dinary duration. It is as hard and tenacious as of production be realized, sooner or later, oven iron — especially after undergoing the process no farther than to bring down the cost of alumof hammering.

inium to three times that of copper, pound for As we have already remarked, aluminium is pound, it would really be no dearer than copper,


« ElőzőTovább »