tine, and applied by means of a camel'shair brush. When the painting is finished the vessels are baked in a peculiar kind of ovens called mules, which are also used for fixing the printed figures on the glaze of stoneware. By the operation of the furnace most of the colours employed in painting porcelain become quite different, and the change which takes place in them is usually through a series of tints, so that the proper tint will not be obtained unless the baking is stopped precisely at the proper time. Sometimes porcelain has designs etched on it by means of fluoric acid. Sculptures also are executed by casting in moulds in various kinds of porcelain, called statuary porcelain, Parian, Carrara, &c. The chief seats of the manufacture of all kinds of earthenware in America are in New Jersey and Ohio.

Pottinger (pot'in-jer), ELDRED, British officer, famed for his defence of Herat in 1838, was born in Ireland in 1811, and went to Bombay at the age of 17 as artillery cadet. In 1837 he traversed Afghanistan in disguise, and reached Herat after many risks. The city was then held by an Afghan prince, and was besieged by the Persians for nearly a year, when it was relieved by a British diversion in the Persian Gulf. The credit of the defence was given to Pottinger. Major Pottinger took a leading part in the disastrous Afghan war of 1841-42, and as political agent had to sign terms with the rebels, which were afterwards repudiated by Lord Ellenborough. A trial by court-martial only served to show his conduct in brighter colours. He died, 1843, at Hong-Kong.

Pottinger, SIR HENRY, Bart., G.C.B., a distinguished soldier and diplomatist, uncle of the above, born in 1789. He went to India as a cadet in 1804, and soon became known for his energy and administrative ability. Rising gradually to the rank of major-general, he was, after the Afghan campaign in 1839, raised to the baronetage as a reward for his services. In 1841 he went as minister-plenipotentiary to China, and contributed much to bring hostilities to a conclusion. He was successively governor and commander-in-chief of Hong-Kong (1843), governor of the Cape of Good Hope (1846), governor and commander-in-chief of Madras (1850-54). He died in 1856.

Pottstown, Montgomery co., Pa., 40 m. W. N. W. of Philadelphia, is a thriving manuf. town, has good water-works and excellent school-buildings. Pop. 13,696.


Pottsville, a town of the United States, in Pennsylvania, in the centre of the great anthracite coal-field, with extensive blastfurnaces, forges, foundries, rolling - mills, steam-engine and machine factories. The Pottsville Collieries have two vertical shafts 1640 feet deep-the deepest in America. Pop. 15,710.

Potwallers, or POTWALLOPERS (potboilers), a name given to a parliamentary voter in some English boroughs before the passing of the reform bill of 1832. It included, theoretically, all inhabitants procuring their own diet. In practice, every male inhabitant, whether housekeeper or lodger, who had resided six months in the borough, and had not been chargeable to any township as a pauper for twelvemonths, was extitled to vote.

Pouched Rat. See Gopher.

Poudrette (pö-dret), the name given to a powdery manure obtained from ordure. It takes a long time to prepare, is pulverulent, of a brown colour, and almost inodorous. It contains on an average about 25 per cent of water, and 25 per cent of fixed salts. Largely made in France, it is in demand in all quarters, being found particularly useful for gardens. Its efficacy, weight for weight, is five times that of cow dung.

Poughkeepsie (po-kep'si), a city in the state of New York, United States, the seat of Dutchess county, situated on the east bank of the Hudson River, 74 miles north of New York city and 70 miles south of Albany. It is built partly on a slope, partly on a plateau, about 200 feet above the river, and is prettily situated. It is distinguished for its educational institutions, and is known as the 'City of Schools.' These include Vassar College for women, one of the chief institutions of the kind in America. Poughkeepsie was the seat of the Convention of 1788, at which the federal constitution was adopted. Pop. 24,029.

Poulpe. See Octopus.

Poultice, in medicine, a soft moist application applied externally to some part of the body either hot or cold, but generally the former. The simple poultice is made with linseed meal and boiling water, spread out with uniform thickness on a cloth or rag, and is used where it is desired to hasten the progress of inflammation. Its moisture causes relaxation of the skin, and thereby lessens the discomfort or pain. It acts also as a counter-irritant, producing a redness and congestion of the skin. Disinfecting


poultices are made with charcoal, mixed with linseed-meal and bread. The sedative poultice, made with beer, yeast, flour, and hot water, is generally used to relieve pain in cases of cancer. The best-known poultice, however, is the counter-irritant, commonly called a mustard plaster. This may be made by mixing linseed-meal with water, and adding mustard. It produces a rapid but mild counter-irritation, indicated by a redness of the skin, and is very useful in cases of bronchitis, lumbago, and similar affections.

Poultry, a general name for all birds bred for the table, or kept for their eggs. The birds most commonly included under this designation are the common fowl, the peafowl, the guinea-fowl, the turkey, goose, and duck. There is this great difference between the varieties of the domestic fowl, that some are disposed by constitution to continue lay ing throughout the whole season without sitting; while others after having laid from twelve to fifteen eggs sit obstinately, and cease to lay. Among the breeds most in favour in Britain are those known as Dorking, Game, Hamburg, Cochin, Brahma, Scots Gray, Polish, Spanish, &c. Poultry, if they are to be kept for profit, should have a spacious house, with a yard and shed attached. The house should be moderately warm, well lighted, and perfectly dry. Either boxes must be formed along the walls to serve as nests for the fowls, or shelves on which baskets for the nests may be put. These boxes and shelves may be formed of wood; but they are better when constructed of smoothly polished flagstones or slates. Turkeys and geese had better not occupy at night the same house with hens and ducks, as they are apt to be mischievous, especially to sit ting birds. A small pond is sufficient for the thrifty rearing of both geese and ducks. The total stock of poultry in the British islands was recently estimated at 31,000,000, of which 20,000,000 were common fowls. Of the total stock England and Ireland had about 13,000,000 each, so that the latter country is relatively much before England in poultry-rearing, and supplies both it and Scotland with great numbers both of fowls and eggs. Poultry-rearing, indeed, as a source of profit has, it is considered, been far too much neglected by the English farmer, though recently a change for the better has been taking place. Much more attention is paid to their poultry by the French farmers, and hence the enormous quantities of


eggs exported from France into England, as also from Belgium, Germany, and Denmark. The average stock kept on an English farm is said to be sixty; very large numbers are said not usually to be kept with corresponding profit. In many cases fowls are bred for exhibition and to take prizes, this and the consequent value of the eggs being often a considerable source of profit. Hatching by artificial means has long been practised in Egypt, and artificial incubators are extensively used throughout the United States.

Pounce (a corruption of pumice), a fine powder formerly used to prevent ink from spreading on paper, now superseded by blotting - paper. The term is also applied to charcoal dust or some other powder used in embroidery or engraving, to trace a design or pattern by being sifted through pin-holes in the paper.

Pound, in English law, an inclosed place for keeping cattle which have strayed on another man's ground, until they are redeemed. A pound may belong to a parish or village or to a manor.

Pound, an English weight of two different denominations, avoirdupois and troy. The pound troy contains 5760 grains, and is divided into 12 ounces; the pound avoirdupois, contains 7000 grains, and is divided into 16 ounces. The pound, or pound sterling, the highest monetary denomination used in British money accounts, and equal to 20 shillings, was so called from originally being equal to a quantity of silver weighing one pound. The pound is strictly a money of account, the coin representing it being the sovereign. See Money.

Poundage, a rate of so much per pound, sometimes a percentage deducted from wages paid in advance. Also, a tax formerly levied on merchandise by weight.

Poushkin. See Pushkin. Poussin (pö-san), GASPAR, a French landscape-painter, born in Rome in 1613. His real name was Dughet; but having been placed under the instructions of the celebrated Nicolas Poussin, who had married his sister, he assumed the surname of his master. He lived mostly in Rome or its neighbourhood, and had extraordinary facility of execution, so that his works are very numerous, specimens being found in all the chief collections in Europe. His paintings are distinguished by grandeur and rather sombre characteristics, and storms or high winds were subjects in which he

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excelled, though he was also highly successful with morning and evening effects. The pictures of his maturer period owe much to the influence of Claude. Many of his figures are said to have been supplied by Nicolas Poussin. He died about 1675.

Poussin, NICOLAS, a distinguished French historical and landscape painter, born at Andelys in Normandy in 1594. He first studied in his native place, and then at Paris, under masters of little merit; but he made astonishing progress. He had already acquired considerable reputation when, in 1624, he went to Italy for the purpose of improving himself in his art; there he lodged with Du Quesnoy, the sculptor, and attended the school of Domenichino. At Rome he fell into great want, but was assisted by a Frenchman, Jacques Dughet, and by him tended through an illness brought on by over-work. In 1630 Poussin married the daughter of his benefactor. About this time his affairs began to improve. He found liberal patrons in Cardinal Barberini and in the Cavaliere Cassiano del Pozzo, for whom he painted the celebrated Seven Sacraments, now at Belvoir Castle. He was also invited to paint the great gal lery of the Louvre; and his successes gained him the position of first painter to Louis XIII., with a pension of 3000 livres. From 1610 to 1642 he resided in Paris; but the rivalry of French painters and the want of appreciation of his works evinced by the Parisians induced him to return to Rome, where he lived until his death in 1665. He modelled statues and reliefs with great skill, and might have become an eminent sculptor. Historical and landscape painting, however, were the chief subjects of his genius; in these his style is grand and heroic, and his invention fertile. He has been called the Raphael of France. Among his more celebrated works are the Seven Sacraments, the Death of Germanicus, the Capture of Jerusalem, the Plague of the Philistines, Abraham's Servant and Rebecca, the Adulteress, the Infant Moses, Moses and the Daughters of Jethro at the Well, Moses bringing Water from the Rock, the Worship of the Golden Calf, John Baptizing in the Wilderness, &c., and many fine landscapes.

Pout. See Bib.

Pouter, a variety of fancy pigeon, the chief character of which is its very project ing breast.

Povoa de Varzim, a seaport and bathing.

place of Portugal, about 16 miles north-west of Oporto. Pop. 11,000.

Powan (Coregonus clupeoides), a fish inhabiting Loch Lomond, in Scotland, and also known as the fresh-water herring.

Powell, JOHN WESLEY, American geologist, was born in Mount Morris, N. Y., in 1834. In the civil war he rose to be lieutenant-colonel, losing an arm at Shiloh. In 1867 and years following, under direction of Smithsonian Institution and Department of the Interior, he conducted the geographical and geological survey of the Rocky Mountain region. His 'Contributions to North American Ethnology' are embraced in 3 vols. In 1881 he was appointed Director of the United States Geological Survey. His publications include many scientific papers and addresses, and numerous government volumes. He has been President of the Anthropological Society of Washington and of the American Association for Advancement of Science.

Power of Attorney, in law, is a deed or written instrument whereby one person is authorized to act for another as his agent or attorney, either generally or in a special transaction.


Powers, HIRAM, an American sculptor, the son of a farmer, born at Woodstock, Vermont, in 1805. He early displayed great ingenuity in mechanical matters, and became somewhat noteworthy on this account while acting as a shopman and assistant to a clockmaker of Cincinnati. next obtained employment in a museum in that city. At this period he formed the acquaintance of a German sculptor, and having been taught modelling by him, determined to become himself a sculptor. In 1835 he went to Washington, and had sufficient success there to enable him to proceed to Italy. He now settled in Florence, where he resided until his death in June 1873. He is distinguished in portraiture, and produced busts of many of the most noted American statesmen. His most famous ideal works are the statue of Eve, the Greek Slave, and the Fisher Boy.

Powers, THE GREAT, a term of modern diplomacy, by which are now meant Britain, France, Austria, Germany, Italy, and Russia.

Poynings' Law, or the statute of Drogheda, an act of the Irish parliament, passed in 1495, whereby all general statutes before that time made in England were declared of force in Ireland. It was so named from Sir Edward Poynings, deputy of Ireland


under Henry VII. in 1494, when he suppressed the revolt of Perkin Warbeck. See Ireland (History).

Poynter, EDWARD JOHN, R.A., son of Mr. Ambrose Poynter, an architect, was born in Paris in 1836; educated at Westminster School and Ipswich Grammar School; received his art training at the schools of the Royal Academy and under Gleyre in Paris; gained a reputation by his Israel in Egypt, exhibited in 1867, and The Catapult (1868); painted the cartoons for the mosaic of St. George in the Westminster Palace (1869). Among his chief pictures are Perseus and Andromeda (1872), More of More Hall and the Dragon (1873), The Golden Age (1875), Atalanta's Race (1876), Zenobia Captive (1878), Diadumene (1885), Under the Sea Wall (1888), and A Roman Boat-race (1889). He was elected an Associate in 1869 and a Royal Academician in 1876, was the first Slade professor of art at University College, London, and was director for art at South Kensington for some years. He is the author of Ten Lectures on Art (1879).

Pozoblanco (pō-thō-blȧn'kō), a town in Spain, in the prov. of and 36 miles north of the city of Cordova. Its inhabitants are chiefly employed in agriculture and as muleteers. Pop. 10,552.

Pozzola'na, or POZZUOLANA, a sort of mortar produced in Italy and formed of volcanic ashes. When mixed with a small portion of lime it quickly hardens even under water. This singular property renders it very useful as a cement in the erection of moles and other buildings in maritime situations. It is much used in Italy as a substitute for mortar, and has received its name from Pozzuoli, the port from which it is shipped. Pozzuo'li, the ancient Puteoli, a city and seaport of Southern Italy, 6 miles w.s.w. of Naples, on the shore of the Bay of Baia (Golfo di Pozzuoli), the north-western portion of the Bay of Naples. (See Naples.) The coast forms a natural harbour, which is well sheltered; and a considerable trade and an active fishing is carried on. Pozzuoli is a city of great historic interest. It was founded by the Greeks about 520 B.C., and became under Rome a great centre of commerce. St. Paul landed here in the course of his journey to Rome. Pozzuoli was destroyed by the Goths more than once, rebuilt by the Byzantine Greeks, and finally devastated by earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. It abounds in ancient ruins. The cathedral stands on


the site of a temple of Augustus, and in one of the lateral walls six Corinthian columns of the old temple are preserved. A ruined temple of Serapis also remains, inclosed by forty-eight marble and granite columns. On an eminence behind the town stands the ruined amphitheatre, resting on three series of arches. In the neighbourhood are Lake Avernus, the Grotto of the Sibyl, the baths of Nero, the ruins of Baia and Cumæ, &c. Recently Pozzuoli has been considerably altered by the establishment of Armstrong, Mitchell, & Co.'s works for supplying guns, armour-plates, and machinery to the Italian government. Pop. 16,639.

Practice, in arithmetic, a rule for expeditiously solving questions in proportion, or rather, for abridging the operation of multiplying quantities expressed in different denominations, as when it is required to find the value of a number of articles at so many pounds, shillings, and pence each.

Pradier (pra-di-a), JACQUES, an eminent sculptor, born at Geneva in 1792. Having gone to Paris in 1809, and studied art in 1813, he gained the prize of the Academy for a bas-relief of Philoctetes and Ulysses. This work procured him admission into the French Academy at Rome. From 1823 he worked constantly at Paris, where his popularity was very great and where he was admitted to the institute in 1827. His works are of various kinds: religious, monumental, but mainly classical. In execution he ranks as a sculptor of the first class, but his invention and conception are defective, and there is, according to some critics, a decided meretriciousness in his style. He died in 1844. His works comprise: a Centaur and Bacchante, a Psyche, a Venus, a Phryne, the Three Graces, twelve colossal Victories on the monument of Napoleon I. in the Hôtel des Invalides, Statue of Rousseau at Geneva, &c.

Praed (prad), WINTHROP MACKWORTH, an English poet, born in 1802. He was educated at Eton, where in 1820 he became one of the principal contributors to a magazine published there called The Etonian. From Eton he went to Trinity College, Cambridge, where he obtained for two years in succession the chancellor's prize for an English poem. At this time, like Macaulay, he contributed both in prose and verse to Knight's Quarterly Magazine. In 1829 he was called to the bar, and in 1830 and 1831 was returned for St. Germans to parliament, where he took a prominent part in opposing


the passing of the reform bill. He sat subsequently as member for Yarmouth, and afterwards for Aylesbury. He acted also for a short time as secretary to the board of control, and became ultimately recorder of Barnstaple and deputy high-steward for the University of Cambridge. He died in July, 1839. His poems are mostly of a light and elegant character, belonging to the class known as vers de société, but they also coinprise others in a more serious vein.

Præfect (præfectus), the title of various functionaries of ancient Rome. Of these the most important was the præfectus urbi or urbis (præfect of the city). During the kingly period and the early republic the prefectus urbis had the right to exercise all the powers of the king or consuls in their absence. After the foundation of the prætorship (see Prætor) this office lost its dignity and privileges; but under the empire it was revived as that of chief permanent magistrate of the city, with important military functions. The præfectus prætorio, an officer under the empire, was general of the imperial life-guards. His position was one of great power, for the troops under his command frequently decided the succession to the imperial throne. (See Pratorians.) Many other Roman functionaries bore the title of præfect, such as the præfectus aquarum, who had charge of the water supply of the city; the præfectus ararii, who managed the public treasury, &c.

Præmuni're, in English law, a name given to a kind of offence of the nature of a contempt against the king (or queen) and the government. The term is derived from the opening words of the writ preparatory to the prosecution of the offence--pramonere or pramunire facias A. B. (Cause A. B. to be forewarned that he appear before us, &c.). The punishment is forfeiture and imprisonment during the sovereign's pleasure. Many of the statutes are now repealed, and prosecutions upon præmunire are unheard of in our times; the last took place during the reign of Charles II.

Prænes'te, the ancient name of Palestrina (which see).

Prætor, an important official in the ancient Roman state. Up to 367 B.C. the title was merely an adjunct to that of consul; but when at that date the consulship was thrown open to the plebeians, the judicial functions of the consul were separated from his other duties and given to a new patrician magistrate, who was entitled the prætor.


In 337, after a struggle, the plebeians were also admitted to this office. In 246 B.C. another magistracy, that of prætor peregrinus, was instituted for the purpose of settling disputes between foreigners and between foreigners and citizens; and in distinction from him who filled this office the other functionary was termed prætor urbānus. After election the two prætors determined their offices by lot. The prætor urbanus was the first in position, and was the chief magistrate for the administration of justice. To the edicts of the successive prætors the Roman law is said to owe in a great measure its development and improvement. About B.C. 227 the number of prætors was increased to four; afterwards to six and eight; and under the empire the number varied from twelve to eighteen. After completing his year of office the prætor was often sent as proprætor to govern a province. See Proconsul.


Prætorians, the body-guard of the Roman emperors, first established as a standing body by Augustus. Under him only a small number of them were stationed in Rome, the rest being in the adjacent towns. berius assembled the whole at Rome, and placed them in a prominent fortified camp, where they were used to quell any sudden popular disturbance. The number of cohorts was raised by Vitellius from nine to sixteen, and they received double pay; under the later emperors they became powerful enough to decide the succession to the throne, which they once even put up to auction. They were reorganized and their powers curtailed by Septimius Severus and by Diocletian, and were finally disbanded by Constantine the Great in 312 A.D.

Pragmatic Sanction, a public and solemn decree pronounced by the head of a legislature. In European history several important treaties are called pragmatic sanctions, but the one best known by this name is the instrument by which the German emperor Charles VI., being without male issue, endeavoured to secure the succession to his female descendants. It was in accordance with this instrument that he settled his dominions on his daughter Maria Theresa.

Prague (prag; Bohemian, Praha, German, Prag), the capital of Bohemia, a prosperous and well-built city near the centre of the kingdom, on both sides of the Moldau, here crossed by seven bridges; 153 miles north-west of Vienna and 75 miles southeast of Dresden, with both of which it is

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