diers. An. émeute in a great Continental | the world conquering everybody, who build city is always possible, and an émeute is a steamers, and who entered Pekin, have very formidable thing. Even in London stolen some of it, and applied it very

adroitmen quail at the idea of a riot, and in Paris ly to the practical work of life? It looks the population comprises at least 200,000 possible, for after all there is a steamer, and men who have passed through the military she does move very quickly, and does carry mill, and are as formidable in all except heavy guns, and can run against tide, and matériel as regular soldiers. No Govern- must have come into existence somehow. ment ever thinks it indispensible to overawe A Hindoo would assert that she was an illuLiverpool, but no Government we are likely sion, like everything else, and a Mussulman to see will venture to leave Lyons unmen- would not care whether he could build one · aced by a very powerful force. To press the or not, but a Chinaman has a practical side

Governments of the Continent to disarm, is to bis mind. Wisdom began and will end equivalent to asking Great Britain to dis- with him, that is clear; but building steamperee her Navy and leave Ireland to the boats being a valuable result of wisdom, he care of a civil police. We should not com- ought to be able to build them. Something ply, and neither will they, and as matters is wrong, something has been neglected, or stand they are no more wrong than we are. a Westesn barbarian could not do what the

Of course we do not question, far less child of the Flowery Land is obliged to deny, that the existing state of affairs is very leave undone. It is very annoying, and bad, very injurious to civilization, to free- there are those Japanese, people to whom dom, and to progress, but the remedy, we wisdom has been given, who are even wiser, feel convinced, will be found not in disarm- and more sedate, and more ritualistic than aments, but in making armaments so per- their Chinese brethren, who are beginning fect as not to be burdensome. When e very to learn of the Westerns, finding out the man has been trained to arms, nations will philosophy of steamers. The Chinaman be perfectly safe without great crowds round does not like it at all, feels like a country the colours, and this training may by wise squire when a barrister is pleading before arrangements be secured without great na- him, half doubts if he knows everything in tional injury. Two years of drill, gymnas. the world, and is actually ready to listen to tics, and physical instruction, so far from advice. Prince Kung talked the matter injuring youth, decidedly benefit them, bene- over with the Foreign Comptroller of Cusfit them so much as to repay the whole loss toms and the Board of Foreign Affairs, and of time; and two years seem, from the at last resolved to act. The Chinese mode Prussian example, to be amply sufficient. of action is of the French official kind. To attack a nation so trained is a task which The master, Emperor, Regent, or favourite will not be attempted without grave reason, hints that he wants a certain result, and the and to secure peace until there is grave Ministry in whose department the business reason for breaking peace is all that, in the lies draws up a statement of reasons why present condition of the world, statesmen, that result is desirable, and offers a series of whatever they hope, will expect to accom- practical suggestions, beneath which the plish.

vermillion pencil writes “sanctioned," and behold there is a new law !

The Foreign Board, instigated by Prince From the Spectator.

King and aided by the Comptroller of Cus.

toms, have in this way drawn, up and the A CHINESE REFORM BILL.

Emperor has signed a memorial a translation

of which is now before us. It is a most reThe Emperor of China, a lad of fourteen markable document, evidently the work of or fifteen, who rules, or is officially supposed men who see clearly what is wanted, and to rule, one-third of the human race, issued have a glimmering of the way to arrive at on the 30th December, 1866, a very curious it, but who cannot bear to acknowledge that and a very important decree. Every candi- either way or end is new, and are vaguely date for office in China is to pass an exami- puzzled as to the extent to which they are nation in European astronomy, mathematics, prepared to go. Their wish is that Chinaand physical science. It appears that the men should know how to build steamships, Chinese mind has of late been dreadfully but to put it in that brutal way would be shaken ,by a new and very unpleasant doubt. impossible, would wound Chinese self-esWisdom of course is a Chinese product, as teem too deeply, perhaps expose them to the local as tea ; but may not these troublesome imputation of barbarian leanings, or worse: Western peoples, who go blundering about still, of latent contempt for philosophy, So


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they start with the assertion which no activity, where, we would ask, will then be the Chinaman will dream of questioning, that greatest occasion for shame? If, on the conthe West borrowed from China “ the Heav-trary, we, though not holding ourselves disen-sent elements of Chinese knowledge,” graced as the inferiors of others, strive diligently and the Chinese, in copying their processes, be, perhaps, in the future that we shall actually

to bring ourselves on a par with others, it may are simply carrying out their own processes outstrip them. If, on the other hand, simply one step further. That point being settled holding that to learn from others is disgraceful, satisfactorily, there is at all events no de- we remain content in our position of inequality, gradation in acquiring, Western knowledge. will refraining altogether from study be the For example, China invented or received means of freeing us from disgrace ?” from Heaven the science of numbers, and the Western men stealing that, applied and That paragraph was obviously suggested applied it till they produced European by a European, but its acceptance and pubmathematics, wherefore a Chinaman in lication in an official document marks the studying mathematics is but regaining his depth of the change which has come over

He may even apply his knowledge to the Chinese mind. It has realized the fact, shipbuilding, for although the application openly realized it, that there is a possibility of thought to useful purpose is in itself per- of advance, and that step once gained, all haps base, still there is a chapter in the the rest is easy. No other Oriental nation ritual of Chow devoted to the affairs of car- has yet gained it. Mohammedans everyriage-building and carpentry, and this in a where believe in their hearts that


is book which for hundreds and thousands of useless, thought as well as religion having years the schools bave reverenced as a can- ended with the Koran ; Hindoos deliberately onical work." Chinamen, moreover, once believe that nothing good can come out of knew astronomy, even the husbandmen so stupid and barbarous a people as the Eng. knew it; and in studying astronomy the lish. "The Chinaman alone seems as yet to Chinese mind does but regain its own. The have perceived that there is a mind in the great objection, however still remains to be West, and to be willing to avail bimself of

To learn these things Chinese its aid. A regular University has accordingly must study under foreigners, and to learn been established for the study of Western wisdom of the foreigner has always struck knowledge, and the triennial examinations Chinamen as disgraceful. He alone is wise, are to be held, appointments conferred on and is he to learn of fools? The Board meet successful candidates, and “extraordinary this difficulty very boldly, and the paragraph proinotion to be awarded to graduates takin which it is disposed of is probably the ing a first-class.” There is no doubt that most revolutionary which ever appeared in with these inducements the university will the Pekin Gazette, an official journal to fill, and we may yet find a Chinese Mandawhich all Moniteurs ' and · Gazettes are rin who is also a Brunel, a white button who young :

has discovered a star, or a blue button who

has applied a novel motive power. The As regards the assertion that it would be Chinese intellect, to reason from analogies, disgraceful to study under European teachers, ought to take very kindly to physical this saying is even still more devoid of truth. science, for they are even now, with their Of all the disgrace under Heaven, there is no " rules, the best hydraulists, carpenshame (as Mencius says) greater that of being ters, and ironworkers in the East; and the inferior to others. Now, the nations of Europe Japanese, who so closely resemble them, for thirty or forty years past have devoted .study to the construction of steamers, mutually

seem able to learn anything. learning from each other, and new methods of an Arab proverb, “has given to Arabs .construction are daily developed. Japan also tongues, to Englishmen heads, and to Chinahas of late despatched persons to Great Britain men hands," and if the English head and to study the English language and investigate the Chinese hand ever come together, the mathematical science as a permanent basis for result will probably repay the labour of a acquiring the art of steamship-building, in generation. which before many years are past, they may be The suspension of mental progress in expected to have attained proficiency. Without Asia, after so much had been attained, is dwelling upon the various powerful and leading one of the most inscrutable problems in all maritime nations of Europe, which mutually history, the one which of all others oftenest trent with each other as equals, a significant State like Japan shows itself capable suggests despair. Is it the power of accumuof eagerly striving to build up its power, whilst lation which has perished, or only the deChina alone adheres immovably to the routine sire ? If the power, then mankind has no .of her long-descended ways, regardless of fresh future, for the European races may be arreste


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ed as the Asiatic races have been. If the | The gorse has got its coat of gold, and smells desire, how is it to be reawakened ? Clearly as sweet as clover, not by denying that any progress whatever The lady-smocks are in the hedge, the primhas been made. The late Dr. Ballantyne, And out upon the cornmon there, you see the

roses nigh over, whilom Principal of the Benares College,

lambkins lcaping, a profound Sanscrit scholar and a man of The very snakes crawl here and there, – but great originality, always believed that he

Holy Tommie's sleeping. had discovered the secret of making the Hindoo mind progressive. “ We must make

JACOB. the pump suck again,” he said, “ by pouring in a little water.' The moment, as he be- Ah, him that used to work with Bourne ! lieved, that a Hindoo scholar could be made

Bourne told me how he blunder'd. to see the connection between his own phil- He used to preach. I heard him once. Lord, osophy and that of the West he would be. The women squeak'd like sucking-pigs, the

how he groan'd and thunder'd ! gin to be interested in it to press


men roared out like cattle, as he would believe, upon his own road. And my gray hair stood up on end ! He succeeded in training some very remarkable men, and this Chinese decree is a

TIMOTHY. curious testimony to the truth of his leading principle. Europeans might have derided

All ignorant stuff and tattle ! the Chinese foundation for ever without in- He lost his head thro' meddling so with things

that don't concern us ; Auencing the Chinese mind, but the moment when we go questioning too close, ’tis little they propose to build on it the Chinese

Gud will learn us : hesitate, examine, and yield. “ The idea,” | 'Tis hard enough to squeeze the crops from His say the foreign Board, " that it is wrong to dry ground about us, abandon Chinese methods and to follow in But as for serving 'tother world, it gets its the steps of Europeans may also be dilated

crops without us. upon. It is to be remarked that the germ Ah, Tommie's was a loss that used to put me of Western sciences is in fact originally out completely! borrowed from the Heaven-sent elements of No man about could plough a field or kill a pig Chinese knowledge. The eyes of Western

so neatly. philosophers having been turned towards

JACOB. the East, and the genius of these men being minately painstaking and apt for diligent That's where it lies ! We get no good by askthought, they have succeeded in pursuing ing questions, neighbour : study to new results. For these they have Parsons are sent to watch our Souls, while we

are hard at labour : usurped the name of sciences brought from over-sea; but in reality the methods (of This world needs help to get along, for men feed their philosophy) are Chinese methods. This And what do we pay parsons for, if not to man

one another, is the case with astronomy and mathematics, and it is equally so with the remaining sciences China has originiated the method,

TIMOTHY. which Europeans have received as an inheritance.” . The lated notion of adopting You're right ! No man as grumbles so with this a new career is superseded by that of ad. Mutton won't drop into our mouths, altho' we

here world has thriven ; vancing in an old one and the reluctant pupil becomes immediately an eager stu- Why, Tommie was a ruddy lad, as rosy as an

gape at Heaven. dent.

apple, Till Methodism filled his head, and he was

seen at chapel ; Found out that he'd received a call, grew dis

mal, dull, and surly, From the Spectator.

Read tracts when working in the fields, prayed

wildly late and early, AN ENGLISH ECLOGUE.

And by and by, began himself to argue with

the doubting, TIMOTHY.

And tho' he'd scarcely been to school began his

public spouting. WELL, here's the cuckoo come again, after tho And soon I found I wasn't blind how he barley-sowing,

let'uatters go here, The duck-weed white upon the pond, all round While he was at his heavenly work, things sufthe violets blowing,

fered down below here :

age 'tother?

" the

The hens dropt off for want of feed, horses His life grew hard, his back grew barc, his grew sick and useless,

brain grew dreadful airy, For lack o' milking presently the cows grew He thought of t’other world the more 'cause dry and juiceless ;

this seem'd so contrary, And when I found him out, and swore in rage Went wandering on the river-side, and in the sinds and consternation,

woods lay lurking, I'm hang'd if Tommie didn't cry and talk about Gaped at the sky in summer time when other salvation !

men were working, “Salvation’s mighty well,” says I, right mad And once was spied a-looking ap where a wild with my disaster,

lark was winging, “But since I want my farm-stock saved, you And tears a-shining in his eyes, — because the find another master!”

lark was singing! And I was firm, and sent him off, tho' he Last harvest time he came to me, and begged seem'd broken-hearted ;

for work so sadly, He popped a tract into my fist the morning he And vowed he had reformed so much, and departed;

look’t so sick and badly, Aye, got a place next day with Bourne, who I had not heart to send him off, but put him knew the lad was clever,

out a-reaping, But dawdled still about his work, and preach'd But, Lord ! the same talo o'er again - he workas much as ever.

ed like one half-sleeping.

“Be off !” says I, “ you're good for naught,” JACOB.

and all the rest stood sneering;

“Master, you may be right,” says he, But Bourne soon sent him packing off - Lord seems hard o' hearing ! Bourne's just the sort of fellow,

I thought I could fulfil below the call that I had Why, even when the Parson calls, he grumbles

gotten, and looks yellow !

But here's the harvest come again, and all my

life seems rotten : TIMOTHY.

The Methodists are little good, the High Church

folk are lazy, Ho got another master, tho’ but soon began to And even when I pray alone, the ways o’ tire him,

Heaven seem hazy! His wages sunk, and by and by no farmer here Religion don't appear to keep an honest lad would hire him;

from sad things, And soon between this world and that, poor | And tho' the world is fine to see, 'tis full of Tommie grew more mournful,

cruel bad things; His strength and cleverness went off — the folk Why, I can't walk in fields and lanes, and see look'd black and scornful

the flowers a-growing, And soon the blessed Methodists grew tired, And look upon the bright blue sky, or watch and would not hear him,

the river flowing, And bolted when he tried to speak, and shrunk But even there, where things look fine, out from sitting near him.

creeps the speckled adder,

Or silver snakes crawl by, and all at once the ЈАСов.

world looks sadder.

The better I have seem'd to grow, the worse all It's just the way with Methodists. Give me the

things have gone with me, High Church, neighbour !

It's all a great d-d mystery! I wish the

Lord was done with me!

And slowly, ever after that, Tommie grew Why don't you be a man?” said they, keep

paler, stiller, clean, and do your labour ?"

And soon he could not work at all, and quickAnd what d'ye think that Tommie said ? -“I

ly he grew iller, don't play shillyshally,

And when the carly new-year rains were yellowIf I'm to serve the Lord at all, 'twill be contin

ing pool and river, ually ; He closed his eyes, and slept, and gave the

puzYou think that you can grub and cheat from

zle up for ever. Sunday on to Sunday, And put the Lord Almighty off by howling out

JACOB. on one day;

His head was gone, that's clear enough — the But if you want to get to heav'n, your feelings chapel set it turning.


be stronger ;" And Holy Tommie would not go to chapel any

TIMOTHY. longer. Learn'd sense ? No, no! Reform’d ? Not Now, this is how I look at it, altho? I have no he! But moped and fretted blindly,

learning : Because the blessed Methodists had used him In this here world, to do like him is nothing so unkindly.

but self-slaughter,

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He went close to the edge o' life, and beard a “ Sweet rose! wbose bue, angry and brave, roar like water,

Bids the rash gazer wipe his eye, His head went round, his face grew pale, his Thy root is ever in its grave, blood lost life and motion,

And thou must die.” 'Twas just as vi'lets lose their scent when set beside the Ocean.

We do not suppose Herbert ever intended But there's the Parson riding up, with Doctor this for a hymn, but it is now often, and we Barth, his crony; think

So Some of these days the Parson's weight will kill far from bringing us into the direct presence

very unfortunately, used as one. that blessed pony! Ah, he's the man to settle things that made the of God, it hangs a delicate fretwork of fanwits unsteaily !

cies, sometimes grotesque, sometimes exquisWife, here's the Parson! Draw some ale, and itely beautiful, before the mind, which as set the table ready.

much shuts out the object of devotion as the CALIBAN. rich foliage of a tree shuts out the sun.

The great beauty of most of the dozen

hymns before us is that they keep so faithFrom the Spectator. fully to the purpose of a hymn, and use the

imaginative power and poetical feeling of

the writer in absolute subordination to this THE esseptial and only question which end. Instead of distracting the mind with needs to be asked in order to test either the beauty, and scattering the poetical glimpses literary or spiritual value of a hymn is this, they give us over a wide area of specula

- whether the imaginative power and tive thought or spiritual emotion, they conrhythmical or musical feeling of the writer centrate the rays of thought and feeling to has been so used as to bring the mind of the a focus in the one Object of faith and love. reader into an attitude in which God and Take, for instance, this fine verse in the Christ are more vividly seen, and their na

hymn for morning, ture more powerfully realized than it would be without the aid of that imaginative pow

“O Lord of lights ! 'tis Thou alone er and that rhythmical measure. There is

Canst make our darkened hearts Thine own: no different test for the literary and for the

Though this new day with joy we see, spiritual value of a hyrn, because a poem

Great Dawn of God! we cry for Theo !” wbich, however beautiful in itself, takes the form of a hymn, when that form turns out Here all the associations of the dawn, to be a spurious one,

the faint glimmer of cold light on the edge

when, in other words, the writer overlays the personal re- of the horizon, the shiver it brings with it lation of the mind to God with distracting which attends that chill anticipation of the

over all nature, the tremulous stir of life imaginative touches or fanciful images, is in a literary no less than in a spiritual sun's heat, the sense of intense serenity and point of view a bad hymn. Just as a drama, silence which this first faint birth of trouble however beautiful in its poetical structure,

and sorrow brings home to us, —are all is in a literary sense a bad drama if it does pressed into the service of the true purpose pot open a true and vivid insight into the of a hymn, and all converge to open our human characters it professes to deal with, minds to the first touch of God within the so a hynın, however beautiful its poetical spirit

. The same impression is made by the structure, is a bad hymn which does not whole of the following fine hymn, in which bring us face to face with the object of de- the writer with a certain courage refers to votion, and which allows its poetical detail the Oriental splendour of the Apocalyptic to bang between the soul and God and in-Vision for the purpose of deepening the tercept the view, instead of further reveal- contrast between it and the truer conceping Him. Hence many of the most beauti- tion of our Lord, that the kingdom of God ful poems on devotional subjects seem to us

is “ within you : very bad bymns, like, for example, George Herbert's, beginning :

« THE CITY or GOD. “Sweet day! so cool, so calm, so bright, The bridal of the earth and sky;

Ιδού γαρ ή βασιλεία του θεού εντός υμών εστί. The dew shall weep thy fall to-night, For thou must die.

“ O thou not made with hands,

Not throned above the skies, * Original Hymns. By Francis Turner Palgrave.

Nor wall’d with shining walls, London: Macmillan and Co.

Nor framed with stones of price,


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