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Mary was attracted by the bird. Sup- bowing to the company. He then flew out posing him to want food, she rose, mounted and, lighting on the shoulder of the Sera chair, and noiselessly opened the door of geant, looked round the bappy group, flutthe cage, yet forgetting the food in her ea- tered his feathers, gazed on the minister gerness and suppressed excitement. As she steadily, and uttered in his clearest tones, descended for it, the Starling found the “ I'm Charlie's bairn —'A man's a man door open, and stood at it for a moment for a' that !'”
ATHLETIC SPORT8. – Though one should be patronized with greater reluctance. doubts that gymnastics are essential to the full Galen altogether disapproved of wrestling in development of the body, we can imagine some the gymnastic curriculum on account of the who would demur to the assertion that they imminent risks that were run of fracture and were necessary to the development of the mind. dislocation. Boxing, too, is of dubious pra Great geniuses, they may tell us, have often dence, in spite of all that young men may think been remarkable for a.quiet retiring character, to the contrary. Of course it is a very grand and a dislike even from childhood for boisterous thing to be able to maintain one's rights against amusements. That instances may be brought half a dozen coal-heavers, or to figure as the chamin proof of such a position we dare not dens, pion of injured respectability against insulent but that it stands as a general rule, or anything blackguardism, as Sir Robert Clifton did a litapproaching to it, is manifestly false. The tle time back in the public streets. But these history of developed genius is all the other are exceptional cases, and few men can be way. The Greek and Latin poets were all, or pointed out who are distinguished both as prinearly all, athletes. Horace's sentiments are glilists and scholars. But the greatest and most known to all the world. Catullus goes so far dangerous abuse, and one that onght most sedas to boast of his training : “Ejo gymnasî ui ulously to be discouraged among young men, flos, ego eram decus olei," and other poets were is what is technically known as training.” equally ingenuous. And if we turn to our own Who cannot appreciate the indignant periods country, we have not to look far for striking of the ancients when they decry the insane disinstances. What says Byron ?
cipline of over-enthusiastic athletes? Then as
now they studied to bring their bodies to a “And I have loved thee, ocean ! and my joy premature perfection, at the expense of both
Of youthful sports was on thy breast to be mind and body for the remainder of their lives. Borne like thy bubbles onwards : from a boy Those who have gone through the severest I wantoned with thy breakers.'
training becoine in the end dull, listless, and
stupid, suhject to numerous diseases, and in But what need of looking even so far when we many instances the ultimate victims of gluttony can turn 10 the prince of poets bimself? Who and drunkenness. Their unnatural vigour shall say how much the mental development of seldom lasts more than five years. It was esthe matchless Bard of Avon was due to the pecially remarked by the Greeks that no one bold and vigorous exercise of which we get a who in boyhood won the prize at the Olympic glimpse in the daring, though perhaps inexcu- games ever distinguished himself afterwards. sable, raids on Sir Thomas Lucy's deer, in the The three years immediately preceding sevenhardy company of the poachers? But we are teen are years of great mental development, not going out of our way to prove by examples and nature cannot at the same time endure any that vigorous bodily exercise is requisite for severe taxing of the physical constitution. mental development. Those who know any- Prudence, thereforo, especially at this critical thing about schoolboys will have only one period of life, must cver go hand in hand with opinion about “mopes.” Books are an excel- vigour, for the evils of excss outweigh by far ling thing, and so is butter ; but, unless you can the evils of deficiency. But, as long as due kay a solid foundation of bread in the one case bounds are preserved, athletic sports may ever and of vigorous exercise in the other, the books be hailed as the best friends both of mind and and the butter will both be useless.
body. The Duke of Wellington is reported to Allowing, then, the advantages, and even the have saidl, when he was looking on at a cricket necessity of athletic sports, the real practical mitch, that as long as these were the sports of point is to settle where advantages end and | Englishmen, they need never four invasion. To evils begin. Since physical perfection should this we think we may add a more powerful encourbe subservient to the intellectual and moral agement, for we sincerely believe that, as long as development of the man, it is clear that the athletic sports hold their proper place in our bounds of discretion may easily be overstepped. educational establishments, we need never fear Racing, jumping, boating, and cricketing are the invasion of degeneracy nor the tyranny of open to few dangers, but wrestling and boxing'ignorance. Westininster Gazette.
INDIAN TEXTILE FABRICS.
From Once a Week. which is wholly foreign to the nature of the
thick fingered Anglo-Saxon. A native, with a rude bamboo loom, will with his fin
gers and toes finish a piece of muslin which THE people of India at the present time cannot, by all the application of our most number at least two hundred million souls, delicate machinery, be produced in Euaffording, in the language of the commercial
rope. world, a “splendid market” for the looms of Clearly, then, there is a physiological reaEngland. If it were incumbent upon us to son why our effort to compete with them is clothe all these people, our machinery, it is a failure in the more delicate fields of operscarcely necessary to say, would be utterly ation, but there are other fields that remain inadequate to perform the task. But there is open if we will only fit ourselves to the task. no such necessity. India in many fabrics need In the cheaper calicoes we are, of course, unnot depend upon her foreign lord; indeed, rivalled; but immediately we attempt print the servant in many respects is called upon gooils for the Indian market, the inflexible to supply the master. Whilst it is admitted nature of the Briton comes out. Forgetting that in all matters of art the native has a the difference in climate, and the nature of much purer taste than the British manufac- the garment, &c., he persists in sending out turer, yet we suspect it will be a surprise to patterns which may delight the eye of Molly the latter to be told that many Indian cal- the cook, but which sorely offend a people icoes are both superior and cheaper than trained for thousands of years to the apprethose imported from England. Of course ciation of the pure and simple in design and this is not the rule, as we may know from to the subdued harmonies of colour. the very large amount of cotton goods man- It bas long been clear that our manufacufactured annually for the Indian market. turers are very inadequately in formed as to Large as this importation is, those who have the requirements of her Majesty's Indian sublived in India will not be surprised to hear jects. Indeed, their ignorance is inevitable. that it is diminishing: We have treated the The distance of this great dependency natives, who were intelligent manufacturers renders the market a sealed book to our long before the light of civilization had manufacturers in the best sense of the term. reached these islands, just as we treated Our productions would sell in almost unlimSouth Sea Islanders: the most barbarous ited quantities, if the Manchester manufacdesigns, the most flaring colours, the most turer took the same care to consult the tastes adulterated materials, are thought good of the Hindoos as they take to consult the enough for the d- -d niggers," as they markets of the continent. The Governare termed by some young puppies in regi- ment of India, in the interests of commerce, mentals, just fresh from school. The nat- have just taken a step which it is hoped will ural result is, that British manufactures of diffuse among our manufacturers à juster any pretence to art are avoided most cau- view of Indian wants, and among the natiously by all the better classes of India. tives themselves a more accurate estimate of When we are told that our colours will not the requirements of Europ ans. In order wash, or that they are so loaded with size to bring about this reciprocal benefit, it has that they become mildewed on the voyage, caused a set of volumes, containing working that the variegated face of damask is imita- i specimens of all the textile fabrics of India, ted by stamping the pattern upon the size I to be distributed throughout the great capwith which they are plastered, it is no won-: itals of our textile manufacturing districts, der that we are losing our footing in our own ! and, together with these, a volume containdependency, and that even Prussia is sup- ing photographic sketches of the different planting us in dyed goods.
Indian tribes, habited in the peculiar and Great as is the damage to our credit diverse fashions of the East. Upon the nabrought about by such frands, there is a still ture of the garment worn depends, more or more disastrous source of loss to us in our less, the nature of the ornamentation requirignorance of the wants of the native, and ed. A print which may be admirably adaptour failure to appreciate their art require- ed for a trouser pattera for many of the ments, which are always based upon refined natives wear trousers, good reader may
Our manufacturers seem to think be utterly unsuitable for a saree, or the that because the native is scantily clothed he scarf-like wrapper which forms the whole is little better than a savage; the real fact body and head-dress of a large portion of is that the Hindoo possesses a delicary of or- the native women. Again, the turban is ganization and an instinctive appreciation of folded in the East in wonderfully diverse appropriate form and colour in design, manners. Here, again, texture of material
as well as ornamentation has to be consult- | the native population. The simplest and ed. In some turbans as many as sixty yards the commonest article is the dhotee, or waistof material are employed ; hence the neces- cloth. It is almost universally a white cotsity for great lightness in the fabric used for ton scarf wound round the loins, and then this purpose. It is also necessary for the brought up between the legs. In some cases manufacturer to know that the clothing of the dhotee is so small as barely to fulfil the nearly the whole Hindoo race consists of purposes of decency. It is scarcely necesmere wrappers wound round the body. sary to say that this scanty costume is worn Needle and thread is therefore not required only by the working-classes and the poorest in making them up. The Mahomedans, on people. Nevertheless, such is the populathe other hand, of the better class, use made- tion of India, that even to supply these inup clothes - jackets and trousers. These significant garments the looms of Lancashire differences of race and religion require to be would have to be doubled. The longee is known in order to fabricate materials suit- a scarf worn over the shoulder and upper able to the market. A pattern that may part of the body. This article of dress is suit a tunic, for instance, would be utterly made of silk as well as cotton, and it is ornaout of place in a waist-cloth or a turban. mented in both materials with gold. The As a rule, the natives like small patterns, dhotee, on the contrary, is invariably made and the reaso is obvious. A garment that of the softest cotton, and as it requires to be is worn folded would cut a large pattern, constantly washed, it is rarely ornamented. and make it look utterly ridiculous. Checks This, with the turban, comprises the sum of and tartans are in much request in India; the dress of the working population. The indeed, the natives have copied many of our saree of the women, as we have said, is still English plaids, a proof that they are not more comprehensive, as it serves for body averse to those European designs which ful- garment and head-dress at the same time. fil their own ideas of what is fit. If we wish The native women array themselves very to succeed in securing the Indian market, gracefully in the saree. Its ample folds can we must give them what they like, and not be turned to the purposes of coquetry with what we may imagine will be suitable for great skill, and the agile fingers of a dark them; and once secured, the trade is likely beauty can arrange the dress with such
; to last, for there is nothing more remarkable quickness and art, that we are told by a in the tastes as regards dress of that vast gentleman who has been in India, they often country than its fixity. The Hindoo does change the garment in public places after not look for spring, summer, and winter bathing without the slightest impropriety dresses, as we do here. The dictum of – slipping off the wet saree and replacing dress-makers do not change in a week the it with a dry one without exposing the skin style of the make, or the colour of the cos- in the slightest degree. tume. Many of the patterns now worn are Cotton being the material mostly in use, the same as they were centuries ago. The it seens extraordinary that our power-looms simplicity of the costume, no doubt; bas should not have swept away the rude handmuch to do with this fixity — or, in other looms of the natives; but this, we are told, words, the unvarying mind of the people is far from being the case. Indian cotton finds its expression in dress as in all other goods are inuch softer, we are told, than the matters. This conservatism is of the utmost English make. This is a matter of great importance to the manufacturer. A pattern importance to a sensitive people like the happily caught, a combination of colours Hindoo ; it is more porous, again a very once accepted, he may go on for years with necessary quality in the tropics, where iso the certainty that the market will not cry much moisture is perpetually passing off by. out for a new design. He has only to know way of the skin. There are certain colours the appropriate lengths and breadths of the again that are favourites in these body garscarf-like articles of dress generally used, ments, and the method of ornamentation and he may go on making them for centu- witn gold is a matter respecting which the ries, for there are no fashionable tailors or natives are very fastidious. milliners to interfere with him. As the ma- But in these matters of detail, the most terial leaves the loom it is ready to be ample iuformation is given in the 700 work
ing patterns to be found in the volumes proIt may not be uninteresting to give a vided for the manufacturers by the Indian sketch of the nature of the garments — male Government. If he goes wrong after the and female - that have been for ages, now pains that have been taken to put him in are, and probably will be for ages to come, the right path, the fault is bis own. used as the costume of the vast majority of But whilst the larger market is for the
kind of garments that leave the loom ready covers the peoples in the Indian archipelafor use, there is still a great demand for go, China, and Japan, all of which are far jackets, coats, and trousers, worn by men, inferior, artistically, to the Hindoos. and.for bodices, trousers, and skirts or petti- But we may be customers to India for coats, worn by women. The Mahomedans their fabrics to a very much larger extent have always worn these articles of dress, than we are at present, if we fail to imitate and in course of time their example has them for the Indian market. As a rule we been sparingly followed even by the Hin- look upon them, as we do upon a Cashmere doos. These articles of dress do not quite shawl, as articles de luxe, beyond the means answer to those worn in Europe; but they of the middle classes. This is true of the are made with needle and thread, and have rarer qualities of these precious fabrics, but a general resemblance to those worn by our- by no means true of a very large portion of selves. In these latter kind of dresses we them. Dacca muslins, for instance, have have not hitherto competed with the native long been imported into the country, and manufacturers. They are in most cases or- might be used far more generally than they namented, in some instances very richly so, are. The bighest qualities of this fabric are and here the Oriental is our master, and if splendid examples of the superiority of inwe hope ever to compete with him we must telligent labour over the most elaborate sit patiently at his feet, and learn the lesson machinery. The native woman spins with which he seems to have acquired by some the finger a yarn which surpasses in fineinstinct of his nature.
- that ness the trophies of machine-spun yarn pargreat natural institution of the east. poaded in the Great Exhibition of 1862 as a doubt has much to do with the native's ap- marvel of European skill. There is a class titude for dealing with colour. The first of muslin termed “woven air," the fabric of thing that strikes the European in looking which is so marvellously fine, that the Hinat a collection of Indian fabrics is the sobri- doos themselves are fond of relating all ety and barmony of hue which they present. kinds of strange tales respecting it. But if we only consider for a moment, we Mr. Bolt, in his “ Considerations of the shall see how this comes about in the most Affairs of India," speaking of the Dacca natural manner. If English or French dyes muslins, says that according to report, the were used, they would reflect so mi light Emperor Aurungzebe once
was angry as to be unendurable. The dead look of In- with his daughter for showing her skin dian colours is fully compensated by the su- through her clothes, whereupon the young perfluity of light in which they are seen. princess remonstrated in her justification, Take a Coventry ribbon, a blue for instance, that she had seven jamahs, or suits, on : and place it beside an Indian ribbon ; the another tale was to the effect that, “in the first appears the brighter and more cheerful Nabob Allaverdy Khwan's time, a weaver in this country; but under an Indian sun its was chastised and turned out of the city of garish tone would be intolerable, whilst the Dacca for his neglect in not preventing his Indian blue would be, comparatively speak- cow from eating up a piece of · Abrovan,' ing, cool and refreshing. But there is some which he had spread and left upon the thing more than the deadness, which strikes grass,” — the muslin, of course, being so fine us as peculiar to Indian tints, their tones are that the animal could not see it upon the wholly different. Their green is by no means herbage. the same mixture of blue and yellow as with The "woven air,” or “ king's muslin,” us; the same with their purples and oranges. was formerly made only for persons of disAgain, their primaries are different; their tinction and to order. Since so many of the whole chromatic scale, in short, is pitched a native courts have been swept away
and note or two lower. All these niceties our especially since the Great Mogul has disapmanufacturers must patiently acquire if they peared from the scene this high-class desire to serve the upper ten million in In- muslin has not been made in any quantities ; dia. For our part, we scarcely dare to hope but still there is a sufficient demand to keep they will ever succeed; the sources of the the art of making it from falling into disuse. art lie deep in the very nature of the Indian So delicate is the manufacture of the mind and climate ; we believe there is but short staple of the Dacca cotton, that it can one kind of dyed goods that we have ever only be woven into yarn at certain times of succeeded in making palatable to Orientals, the day. The morning is generally so emand that one is “ Turkey red,” which still ployed before the dew has left the grass :
: if sells extensively in the East; we are not spinning is carried on after that time, the certain, however, whether it is much used in spinner, who is always a woman under India proper: the East is a wide field, and thirty years of age, spins the yarn over a
pan of water, the evaporation of which is so very pure that it never tarnishes, and affords sufficient moisture to prevent the it washes just as well as the other threads fibres from becoming too brittle to bandle. of the garment. The thread of the precious Delicate as the muslin is, it will wash, which metals is called kullabutoon, and is manuEuropean muslins will not. The durability factured wholly by hand. Captain Meadof the Dacca muslin, notwithstanding its ows Taylor gives the following description surprising fineness a piece of “evening of its manufacture: - “For gold thread a dew," one yard wide and four yards long, piece of silver, about the length and thickonly weighing 566 grains is said to be ness of a man's forefinger, is gilded at least owing to the greater number of twists given three times heavily with the purest gold, all to the Dacea yarn, as compared with the alloy being previously discharged from the finest muslin yarns of England or France. silver. This piece of gilt silver is beaten The time taken to spin and weave the out to the size of a stout wire, and is then threads in a piece of "woven air ” is very drawn through successive boles in a steel great, the reader will not therefore be sur- plate until the wire is literally as thin as a prised to hear that it sells at the rate of a hair. The gilding is not disturbed by this guinea a yard.
process, and the wire finally appears as if of The “Abrovan,” or “Running-water," is fine gold. It is tben flattened in an exconsidered the second class of muslin ; Sa tremely delicate and skilful manner. The buam, or Evening-dew, is the third quality. workman, seated before a small and highly. It is so called because it is so fine that it can polisbed steel anvil, about two inches broad, scarcely be distinguished from dew upon the with a steel plate, in which there are two or grass. There are several other very fine three holes, set opposite to him and perpenDacca muslins that are known by distinct- dicular to the anvil, and draws through ive names, but the three so poetically desig- these holes as many wires — two or three, nated are the most famous. The Dagh- as it may be — by a motion of the finger and dhobees, who remove iron-mould from this thumb of his left hand, striking them rapidprecious material, use the juice of the am- ly but firmly with a steel hammer, the face roold plant for that purpose; and to remove of which is also polished like that of the other spots or stains, a composition of ghee, anvil. This flattens the wire perfectly ; lime, and mineral alkali. There are Mahom- and such is the skill of manipulation, that no edans who also repair this “
portion of the wire escapes the blows of the with a skill equal to that of the Hindoo, who hammer, the action of drawing the wire, weaves it. For instance, it is said that an rapid as it is, being adjusted to the length expert Rafuger, or darner, can extract a wbich will be covered by the face of the thread twenty yards long from a piece of hammer in its descent. No system of rollthe finest muslin of the same dimensions, ers or other machinery could probably enand replace it with one of the finest quali- sure the same effect, whether of extreme ty.” It is said that they execute their finest thinness of the flattened wire, or its softness work under the influence of opium.
and ductility.” This flattened wire is then A still more exquisite and expensive work wound round silk thread, and is ready for of the Indian loom is the figured muslin. A use. This affords another example of the piece of this fabric, measuring twenty yards, fact that intelligent human labour can almade in 1776, cost as much as 561. The ways excel the work of the most elaborate splendid yet subdued effect of weaving gold machinery. and silver thread into the different fabrics The band is educated to a delicacy of made in India has never even been approach touch that is marvellous, and that delicacy ed by Europeans. Some of their silks have is transmitted through succeeding generaa sheen upon them like the breast of a pig- tions, until the native manipulator acquires eon, or indeed of the Impeyan pheasant. a kind of instinctive apiness which gives In nature we never find that even the most him all the unfailing regularity of a machine splendid effects offend the eye by appearing directed by the intelligence of man. The garish. The Indian artist seems to have embroidery on the woven garments, in caught the very art there is in nature, and which this absolutely pure gold is employed, he uses his gold and silver with a caution, a never tarnishes. An instance of the value prodigality, and an economy fitted for the of using nothing but the pure metal was occasion. The native never throws away afforded at the late Dublin Exhibition. gold where it will not be seen. Thus in the Several Irish poplins, in which gold and turban-cloth only the end that hangs down silver thread was used, had to be changed by the neck is thus ornamented, in the waist- during the progress of the Exhibition on cloth the fringed end, &c. The gold thread account of their becoming so tarnished,