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Hayes now organized a sledge expedition, fore experienced to an equal degree, I climbed and on the 16th of March started up Smith the steep hill-side to the top of a ragged cliff, Sound. The incidents of this journey are

which I supposed to be about eight hundred thrilling. After encountering innumerable feet above the level of the sea. The view which difficulties, Dr. Hayes found himself half of the cause of my progress being arrested on

I had from this elevation furnished a solution way across the Sound with his party nearly the previous day: The ice was everywhere disabled. To continue the struggle in a in the same condition as in the mouth of the body was out of the question. —

bay, across which I had endeavoured to pass.

A broad crack, starting from the middle of the “The men are completely used up, broken bay, stretched over the sea, and uniting with down, dejected, to the last degree.Human other cracks as it meandered to the eastward, nature cannot stand it. There is no let up to it expanded as the delta of some mighty river it. Cold, penetrating to the very sources of discharging into the ocean, and under a waterlife. dangers from frost and dangers from heavy sky, which hung upon the northern and eastlifting, labours which have no end, — a heartless ern horizon, it was lost in the open sea. Standsticking in the mud, as it were all the time; ing against the dark sky at the north, there and then comes snow-blindness, cheerless was seen in dim outline the white sloping sumnights, with imperfect rest in snow-huts, pierc- mit of a noble headland, — the most northern ing storms, and unsatisfying food. This the known land upon the globe. I judged it to daily experience, and this the daily prospect a- be in latitude 82° 39', or 450 miles from the head; to-day closing upon us in the same vast North Pole. Nearer, another bold cape stood ice jungle as yesterday. My party have, I must forth; and nearer still the headland, for which own, good reason to be discouraged; for hu- I had been steering my course the day before, man beings were never before so beset with rose majestically from the sea, as if pushing up difficulties and so inextricably tangled in a into the very skies a lofty mountain peak, upon wilderness. We got into a cul-de-sac to-day, which the winter had dropped its diadem of and we had as much trouble to surmount the snows. There was no land visible except the lofty barrier which bounded it as Jean Valjean coast upon which I stood. The sea beneath to escape from the cul-de-sac-Genrot to the con- me was a mottled sheet of white and dark vent yard. But our convent-yard was a hard patches, these latter being either soft decoying old floe, scarce better than the hummocked ice or places where the ice had wholiy disapbarrier.”

peared. These spots were heightened in in

tensity of shade and multiplied in size as they Under these adverse circumstances, the receded, until the belt of the water-sky blended disabled men were sent back to the schoon- them altogether into one uniform colour of er, and Dr. Hayes, with three men and dark blue. The old and solid flocs (some a fourteen dogs, continued the exploration. the massive ridges and wastes of hummocked

quarter of a mile and others miles across) and From this point of departure to the return ice which lay piled between them and around of the forlorn hope to the ship, Dr. Hayes's their margins, were the only parts of the sea narrative reads like a wild romance. At which retained the whiteness and solidity of length they reached Grinnell Land. As winter." they proceeded north they experienced, in even a greater degree than in Smith Sound,

This was the crowning feat of Dr. the immense force of ice-pressure resulting Hayes's enterprise. He set up a cairn, from the southerly set of the current. within which he deposited a record, stating Every point of land exposed to the north that after a toilsome march of forty-six was buried under massive ice. Many blocks, days from his winter harbour, he stood on from thirty to sixty feet thick, and of much the shores of the Polar basin, on the most greater breadth, were lying high and dry northerly land ever reached by man. The upon the beach, pushed up by the pack latitude attained was 81° 35'; that reached even above the level of the highest tides by Parry over the ice was 82° 45'. No glaciers were, however, met with on Dr. Hayos regained the schooner on the any portion of Grinnell Land.

3rd of June, having travelled 1,600 miles. Struggling on, amidst difficulties which He was now desirous to navigate his small would have arrested any one less bold or ship into the Polar Sea, but she was found enduring than Dr. Hayes, the little party to be far too much damaged for such an were at length stopped, precisely as Parry enterprise. He accordingly wisely resolved had been stopped on his expedition over on returning home to refit and add steamthe ice to the North Pole, viz., by the in- power to his resources. But when he put ability of the ice to bear them.

into Halifax for necessary repairs, he heard

that his country was plunged into civil war; "After a most profound and refreshing sleep, and instead of commanding another Arctic inspired by a weariness which I had rarely be- I expedition, Dr. Hayes was placed at the

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From the London Review.

head of a large army hospital, containing | pages. The Doctor's heroism is remark5,000 inmates. This employment left him able, and he well deserves to be bracketed little leisure for literary work, and delayed with the late Dr. Kane in Arctic honours. the publication of his narrative. Now, His present work is somewhat marred by however, he is most anxious to resume his fine writing. “ The cold-faced regent of Arctic explorations. His scheme is to the darkness, treading her majestic circle found a colony at Port Foulke, which, he through the solemn night, · her silver states, is admirably adapted for the pur- tresses sweeping the sea, while the wild pose, provisions in the form of deer and waves are still like a laughing face touched other animals being abundant. This point by the hand of Death,” may have been very he proposes making the centre of a widely beautiful, but does not figure well on paextensive system of exploration, the great per. The maps too, are far from being so feature, of course, being the passing up clear and comprehensive as they should be Smith Sound into the Polar Sea. The to do justice to the text. Dr. Hayes apolotheory that this is open, in consequence of gizes for this shortcoming by stating that a high temperature induced by the flow of his Discovery Chart has been claimed by the Gulf Stream pouring northwards, and the Smithsonian Institution, by whom it thus maintaining the waters of that sea at a will be published; but we cannot accept temperature above the freezing-point, is this as a valid excuse. strongly corroborated by Dr. Hayes's re- Notwithstanding these blemishes, Dr. searches. How steadily this warm flood Hayes's volume is a valuable contribution moves northward is well-known.

The to the now large library of Arctic literacurious discovery of glass bottles at the ture, and we cordially recommend it to our mouth of the Lena, which were supposed readers. to have been thrown overboard from Franklin's ships, but which had floated with the Gulf Stream from the coasts of Norway, where they are used by fishermen as floats for their nets, shows the set of this current, and its consequent influences on the Polar Sea.

REASONING POWER IN ANIMALS.* We have never supported rash Arctic expeditions; but we hold that the explora- lottes de cheval one is disposed to welcome

In these days of " vivisection” and cotetion of this unknown sea should be underAnd believing that it could be

the appearance of taken.

any work which draws easily effected by a well organized expedi- people's attention to the high qualities and tion in a summer, we regret that the enter the animal creation. As the mass of men

real intelligence bestowed by Providence on prise, which has been warmly advocated by eminent scientific societies and individu- gather more and more out of the country als, does not find favour with the Govern into towns, the more ignorant they necessament. There are many experienced Arctic rily become of the habits and capacities of navigators who would willingly volunteer tunities of observation are so few or so un

many animals, simply because their opporfor such a service, and we need hardly say favourable. Even in the case of horses and that to carry the flag of England to the North Pole would render the leader of dogs, men bred or living in cities may grow such an expedition eternally famous.

up with the slightest possible knowledge of

A Londoner considers himself This apathy on the part of our Government is the more to be regretted, as such rier from the snares of a dog-stealer for

fortunate if he can preserve a favourite teran expedition as that proposed might co

more than a year; and even the most operate with that organized by the Russian Government under M. Lopatine, which has

horseily-inclined” gentleman, who would

in the country pay frequent visits to his for its purpose the exploration of Northern Siberia, and particularly the district at large and airy stable, and spend many an the mouth of the Yenissei

. Large quan- his horses and ponies, has slight inclinations

hour watching the tempers and genius of tities of cod and other fish are believed to exist further north than is generally sup- amid the bustle, odour, and publicity of a

or opportunities to gratify the same curiosity posed, and vast numbers of entire skeletons

West-end “mews.” For such persons, and of mammoths have already been discovered by this expedition in very high latitudes. What we have said of Mr. Hayes's book Rev. John Selby Watson, M.A., M.R.S.L.

* The Reasoning Power in Animals. By the will, we trust, send many readers to its don: Reeve & Co.

their ways.

56

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many besides, Mr. Watson's book may do gle capacity belonging to man's nature of no inconsiderable service. If the somewhat which clear and unmistakable traces, more abstract and philosophical title does not or less perfectly developed in acordance ecare away readers who shrink from any with the animal organism, are not to be thing that even sounds“ metaphysical,” the found in the inferior creatures, proving the “Reasoning Power of Animals " ought to difference between these last and man to be become a popular little work. The best one of degree only, and not of kind. Man service, perhaps, that a reviewer can perform has been said to be the only animal that for the author is to let the public know that makes use of tools; but what shall be said they need have no fear whatever of any on that hypothesis of the elephant, that thing psychological or in any way philosoph- takes a branch upon bis trunk to keep off ical in ihese pages. They will meet with the heat of the sun ; or of the ape, that indone of the old laboured distinctions be- serts a stone in an open oyster to prevent it tween “Reason” and “ Instinct;” they will from closing; or of the rat, that leads a not have half a dozen dry, chapters to estab- blind brother with the aid of a stick ; or of lish why beasts have Memory and have not a spider, that puts a piece of wood into its Consciousness; or have Recognition and web for the purpose of steadying it ? Tools şet not Memory, and so forth. The work are simply the instruments for the adaptabefore us is simply a book of anecdotes; all tion of means to preconceived ends. "No the best stories about animals have been doubt there are the widest differences in the carefully collected by Mr. Watson from the ingenuity, the complexity, the effectiveness writings of Aristotle and Plutarch down to of the instruments as invented and applied those of Mr. Jesse and Dr. Darwin, and are by animals and men; but it may fairly be bere narrated in a pleasant, easy style, that aflirmed that the intellectual power eviany child above ten years old can fully en-denced is the same in kind, though develter into and enjoy. Many of the anecdotes, oped on a smaller area and within narrower especially those connected with elephants. limits by the various animals. are very old friends, with which we seem In a book of anecdotes, professing to esfamiliar from our infancy almost; others, tablish a position respecting the capacities again, are perhaps not quite equal to their of the brute creation, everything must turn subject; we might, for example, have ex- upon the degree of authority that is to be pected from so good a naturalist as Mr. attached to the facts related. Mr. Watson, Watson a greater number of original and it must be said, never shrinks from giving significant anecdotes concerning horses than the source from which bis stories are deare given us in this work. But, even as it rived, when it is known ; and he has the is, it contains plenty to instruct, plenty to wisdom also to exercise an independent amuse, plenty, we would further hope, to judgment as to the inherent' probability of induce higher ideas and softer feelings facts that have too readily been accepted towards the lower orders of creation. by others. We are glad to see that he has

There are, we presume, very few intelli- not the faith to swallow Southey's tale of gent thinkers in our day who would be dis- the Irishman's dog, that had been bred so posed to disagree with Mr. Watson, “ that good a Catholic as always to refuse to touch the inferior animals have a portion of that a morsel of food on Friday! But that Mr. reason wbich is possessed by man.” Instinct White's scepticism does not extend too far, is not peculiar to the former nor is reason is shown by his acceptance of another story, ing peculiar to the latter. Certain powers resting only on the evidence of the Bristol of reason are unquestionably denied to all Mercury, with which we will close our noanimals but man. The faculties of framing tice of this pleasant little volume: abstract conceptions, of speaking by articulate language, of inheriting accumulated “A dog in Bristol was accustomed to go to knowledge, of forming combinations of the butcher's for a pennyworth of meat on trust, thonght, above all, the consciousness of a the butcher scoring it up to him on a board with spiritual or divine nature — such powers a piece of chalk; and on one occasion, observing are obviously lacking almost as much in the seized on an additional

piece of meat, vbich he

the butcher make two marks instead of one, he elephant as in the sponge. But apart from retained in spite of all the butcher's attempts to these characteristic functions of the human take it from him, and went off to his home mind, it would be difficult to mention a sin- with both picces in his mouth.”

2

DANGERS OF “CHIGNONS."

naturalists. Half the awful possibilities of

the fashion – which it does not require a (The Lancet.)

microscopist to suggest — would deter men.

We cannot so certainly reckon upon affectWe should be sorry to say anything that ing ladies in a matter of fashion. But of would unnecessarily disturb the peace of all false things, one of the most objectionladies in their compliance with the presentable is false hair. remarkable fashion of wearing chignons. The custom may seem very irrational to the male half of mankind, but this objection (Daily Telegraph, Feb. 20.) would apply to many of the fashions by which ladies consider that they adorn them

What do the fair wearers of chignons selves, and so must not count for much. A think of those deceitful embellishments now, more serious objection, and one more calcu- when our quotations from the medical palated to have weight with English ladies, pers have brought out such fresh and terrible has been started, according to a correspon- revelations as those we published yesterday? dent of our own, by a Russian professor, M. We had hoped that there might be some Lindemann. According to this authority, mistake about the lorrid“gregarines.” 76 per cent, of the false hair used for chig- Science does go a little too fast occasionally, nons and similar purposes in Russia is in- and it was shocking to believe that those fested with a parasite to which he has glossy hypocrisies at the back of ladies' given the name of gregarine. The grega- heads could be nests of unmentionable anirinous hair, it is said, is very like other hair malculæ, bred in the unclean huts of Monin

appearance, but on close inspection little gol or Calmuck peasants, and hatching, dark-brown knots are seen at the free end like eggs in a hydro-incubator, on the warm of the hair, and may even be distinguished necks of our ladies. But after the letter of by the naked eye. These are gregarines. our correspondent, “ Investigator," it seems These parasites have a most ignoble ancestry but too true. He has not only found these and habitation, being found in the interior vile insects on the most fashionable and best of the peliculus capitis. It is only due to prepared chignon that he could procure, them, however, that these statements should but he has discovered how they grow, and be verified by other observers before we how long it takes before - horror of horgive all the particulars of their natural rors ! they become in their new home, so history. They are not casily destroyed. to speak, "of age,” adult pediculi. At first They resist the effects of drying, and even they are microscopic creatures, tiny dots on of boiling. Acids, alkalies, ether, and other the extremity of each hair; when heat agents would kill them; but these would be gradually warms their gelatinous envelope, injurious to the hair, and so cannot be used. they increase, get antennæ, feet, organs of According to the authority quoted, in the all kinds, and start upon their travels. conditions of a ballroom the gregarines Our correspondent bound some of them “ revive, grow, and multiply by dividing in- upon the neck of a hen, and actually witto many parts — so called germ-globules ; nessed their complete development, under these fly about the ballroom in millions, get the influence of the bird's natural warmth inhaled, drop on the refreshments - in fact, of skin. Who will wear a chignon, one enter the interior of people by hundreds of week, one day, after this horrible experiways, and thus reach their specific gregarian ment? Away with these abominable nests development.” We do not answer for the of foreign horrors, which cannot be killed truth of all this natural history; but when by anything that does not spoil the gloss of the natural history of chignons themselves the chignon bad enough if it only came is considered, it may well be all true. In as it often does, from corpses; bad enough Russia the hair of them is supplied by the if it were only, as it always is, a cheat; but poorer people, especially peasant women of worse than the grave, worse than deceit can the Mord wines and the Burlakes, near the make it, when it is a trap for Calmuck - ! Volga, who do a large trade in it. " When Let our ladies hasten to return to their own the Burlake goes out to work in the spring, safe and pleasant tresses for adornment; or he perhaps puts a clean shirt on, but he de- who will dare to treasure a lock of them, cidedly never takes it off until he returns or so much as to think upon, · the tangles home in autumn.” Verily, as the professor of Neæra's hair ?” If nothing can kill what argues, here is a fine chance for parasites comes over with the chignons, let the chigWe must leave the subject with ladies and nons die out themselves.

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