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have thought proper to bestow upon them both the one and the other. It is much to be regretted, that the Life of Timour, written by himself, is not to be found in Europe: if that, and the Institutes could be translated and published together, such is the accuracy of the narrative, such is the importance of the matter, and such the lights that they would mutually reflect on each other, that it would, I conceive, be impoffible for any one to read them, without acquiescing in their authenticity from the internal Evidencé alone.
Yours, molt afluredly,
WILLIAM DAV Y." With regard to the Institutes they are such as do honour to their noble founder : though we could wish to defer giving an extract, till we fee a continuation of them.
A Differtation upon English Typographical Founders and Founderies. By Edward Rowe Mores; A. M. & A. S. S.. 8vo. 6s. Nichols.
We should have been at a loss to determine the mode of reviewing this extraordinary performance, if the Appendix, which is by another hand, had not in some degree elucidated its obscurities;
* The subject of it, says the writer of the Appendix, is in some degree new to the world, and of more importance than at first ic may appear to be: Those, who were acquainted with Mr. Mores, know that he would not willingly have facrificed so large a portion of time, expence, and labour, in pursuit of an uninteresting object; not need it be added, that his extensive abilities and Iteady perseverance rendered him perhaps of all others the propereft for so difficult an undertaking. "He had also the advantage of perufing ihe MSS. of the late Mr. James, whence he derived the knowledge of the several Dutch anecdotes he has related. One general remark must naturally occur to the most fuperficial reader. The author's whimsical peculiarities in abreviations and in punctuation de form his pages, and too frequently involve an otherwise clear fentence in obscurity. Mr. Mores, it is true, has atoned for this inconvenience, by the manly strength of thought and acuteness of observation with which this little work abounds. But the reader, whether for amusement or instruction, expects his case to be conTulted, if it can be done conveniently; and is apt to lay afide a book in which many unnecessary impediments are thrown in his way."
Mr. Mores begins by observing that the history of English printers has been copiously handled by those who with commend. able zeal and diligence have delivered to us the typographical ana tiquities of the nation. But little or no notice has hitherto been Vol. IX.
taken of the Founder, although he is a first and principal mover in this curious art.”
That the early printers were their own founders, may be taken for granted with Mr. Mores, whose enumeration of them is equally faithful and entertaining. It would neither be agreeable to ourselves, nor perhaps amusing to the generality of our readers, to enter deeply into the abstruser parts of this dillertation ; but it will be certainly amusing to extract from it a few striking particulars.
" The introduction of the study of the oriental languages," Mr. Mores says, “ cannot well be dated higher than the year 1635, in which year that great promoter of learning, Archbishop Laud, gave his nobie present of oriental manuscripts to the University of Oxford.”
By a decree of Starchamber, 1637, it was decreed that there should be four "letter-founders, and no more.
It is tomewhat remarkable, that four should be the number of letter-founders in London at this present time.
The benefactions of Junius and Bishop Fell to the University of Oxford are duly noticed ; and a curious history given of types of the several learned languages, which are closed by the Etrufcan; “cut, Mr. Mores says, by the late Mr. Cailon for the use of that very learned linguift Mr. Swinton : and pleasing would it be to us, though we fear the wish is vain, to view the next emotions of grief or joy conceived in Phoenician, Palmyrenë, or Samnian, brought forth by lead and regulus, and cut by copper."
" Hebrew characters were used earlier than 1480*. A copy the Pentateuch, which was printed in 1482, most probably at the Monastery of Sonciro, is preferred at Verona, and another in the library of the Marquis of Baden Durlac,
" Mr. Mores seems to have intended to have given a specimen from the many curious matrices in his Foundery, if he had lived to have published his Dissertation. And here it may not be unneceffary to observe, that when he fpeaks so frequently of our FOUNDER Y, he was actually poffefsed of all the curious parts of that immense collection, which, after an accumulation of nearly three centuries, had centered in the late Mr. John James; a mass apparently of rubbish, but in which, Mr, Mores lays, virtú was gratified by some original punches of Wynkyn de Worde.
“Of Mr. Jackson, says the writer of the Appendix, Mr. Mores would have said more, if he had known him in 1779. The labour of fix successive years has been diligently exerted lince Mr. Mores described his Foundery in 1793. He too, after cutting a variety of types for the Rolls of Parliament (a work which will ever reflect honour on the good taste and munificence of the pre
* Sec The Origin of Printing, 1976, p. 108.
fent reign) has employed his talents on Domesday, and in a manner more successful than his fellow-labourer (Mr. Cotrrell.] I have the pleasure of informing the public, that the larger volume of that valuable record is nearly finished at the press.
The following account of mufcal types shall conclude our extracts,
s6 Fournier is said to be the inventor of printing music twenty years ago. M. Preuschen first thought of printing maps in 1773. He associated with M, Haas, a celebrated founder, who executed the types in 1775, and fent fpecimens of his performance to the Imperial Academy at St. Petersburg. See more in the Journal Encyclopedique, 1799, Ayril, p. 89. The person who fent me this notice is persuaded, that he knows an universal improven:ent to all three fpecies of printing. I must add, however, that Fournier's claiin, I imagine, is to the invention of stamping music ou plates of pewter, which Mr. Mores, p. 81, mentions as having been practised in London by Foght, and which, as he properly observes, is less beautiful than types, though poffibly more expeditious, and sufficiently durable for a song. The earliest use of musical types may be fixed, with Ames and Sir John Hawkins, to the “ Polychronicon of Higden" in 1495, where the characters are fufficiently rude. Music was printed with plates, ftill earlier, at Milan. The types arrived at great perfection in Germany by the year 1500; in Italy about 1515; and in England, progressively, by Grafton (who obtained a patent for printing the statute-books, the earliest patent that is taken notice of by Sir W. Dugdale) about 1570; by John Day in 1560; and in 1575 by Thomas Vautrollier, the printer of the “ Cantiones" of Tallis and Bird, who, though not printers, obtained from Q. Elizabeth a patent for the fole printing of mufic. In 1598 a patent, with powers still more ample, was granted to Thomas Morleyafter the ex: piration of which, this branch of printing was exercised by every printer who chose it; and was greatly improved by Thomas Playford in 1569. See “ History of Mufic,” vol. III. p. 56, $7; 174. IV. 341, 473. and. V. 107–110; in which latter page, this learned and entertaining writer says, “ the last great impro: ver of the art of samping music in England was one Phillips, a Welchman, who might be said to have stolen it from one Fortier, a Frenchman, and a watch-maker,"
Sermons on the most prevalent Vices. To which are added an
Ordination Sermon, a Synod Sermon, and Two Sermons on a
[Continued from page 190.]
As Mr. Lamont's reflections on the character and duty of a minister of the gospel are equally sensible and inge: nious, we shall gratify our readers with a few more of his sentiments on that subject.
• A minister should be an excellent Divine. Nothing can be more ridiculous, than to see a Divine a stranger to Divinity. Like Apollos, he should be mighty in the scriptures, and form his dil, courses upon that model of sublime, and sacred oratory. He should be a complete master of our orthodox system, and of the most flourishing deviations from it. He should be particularly ac, quainted with the objecțions of the Deift, and the arguments by which they are most effectually answered that, by these helps, he may be able to speak with propriety, dispute with acuteness, and inttruct with authority.
“ A minister should be an excellent moral philosopher, Moral philosophy is the first and best of human ftudy, the sum and subItance of human learning: Its connection with Divinity is lo close, that a man may as well pretend to preach without a tongue, as to preach tense without this accomplishment. For as, in practice, a man's religion seldom furvives his morality, fo, in speculation, a man's Divinity, seldom survives his philosophy.
• A minister should be well acquainted with history. History is the great magazine or storehouse, whence we extract, in mini, ature, à faithful description of men, their sentiments, maxims, manners, customs, characters, and springs of action. In history we see the progress and declenfion of virtue and vice, in every country, and in every period, with the interchanges of humility and pride,' contentnient and covetousness, liberty and flavery, gentleness and cruelty, harmony and discord, peace and war, chequering the varied scene. These furnish us with the beft means of itoring our minds with knowledge, and consequently, of communicating knowledge to others.
“ A minister should know a little of rhetoric, just as much as to prevent aukwardness, not so much, as to produce affectation ; for affe&tation in any man iş ridiculous, but in a mipister is highly offensive.
“ As a member of ecclefiaftical government, a minister should be acquainted with the fundamental laws of the church, and such fundamental laws of the state as are connected with
“ I would not, however, exclude other sciences, which may tend to finish the fcholar, but these, I think, are abundantly sufficient to complete the minister,
" There is, nevertheless, one kind of knowledge which I had almost forgot, but which must not be omitted, and that is the knowledge of the world, without which the knowledge of books will only make us pedants. The knowledge of the world gives a noble polish to our minds, rubs off our native rusticity, softens our manners, improves our address, inspires a modeft affurance, and opens a wide field of observation.
HA minifter, enriched with all these various branches of knowledge, bids fair for respect; but if, on a thorough exami, narion of himself, he finds he is materially deficient in any, he fhould take his hand from the fpiritual plough; and, to follow out Dr. South's fimilie, put it to another plough much better suited to his capacity.
“ A third preservative against contempt in a minister, is to be a good preacher. Preaching is the proper business of the preacher, and to be expert at that Mould be his atụdy; for to be a bungler in his own profession, muft render him contemptible, though he were an adept in every other science; and though poffefled of every other accomplishment, he would be considered as a quack. But a competent degree of perfection in this divine art paves the way to folid honour.
• By a good preacher, I do not mean a man of noise and gefpure, who preaches up himself, and not his subject; and goes to the pulpit, as many go to the church, to be seen of men.
The action of the theatre, and the bombast of romances, are unworthy of the pulpit, and disgrace its folemnity. But, by a good preach, er, I understand. a man, who, from his original good fenie, improved by a good education, enters deep into the spirit of the iacred text; ipeaks what he feels, and feels what is just; who, in his lectures, is clear and copious ; in his sermons, accurate and persuasive; in both, more attentive to sense than found, to dignity of sentiment, than loftinefs of style; who manages his discourse's with such propriety, that, in each there is as much simplicity as will renderit instructive to the vulgar, and as much sublimity as will render it acceptable to the refined.
“A good preacher suits his subjects to his audience; expatiates on the evidences of christianity where infidelity prevails; urges to she practice christian virtues, where vice predoninates; and endeavours, with inodefty, to illustrate the obscure paflages of scripgure, without darkening the clear ones by studied artifice.
“ A good preacher does not dive into mysteries, or pretend to explain them; but passes them over in silence, as subjects equally unintelligible to his audience and to himself. And, indeed, what įs it less, than the mot arrogant presumption in any man, to pretend to know that which God has concealed from human know ledge, or to investigate that which God has locked up from the keenest researches of man's penetration
" A good preacher adapts his discourses to the capacities of his hearers, and does not affect the falle fublime. Learned difquifitions, above common comprehension, debase the pulpit; and a man may, with as good a grace, read a lecture on astronomy to an ox, as preach abstruse discourses to men who have but plain understandings. There is a peculiar majesty in unaffected plain. ness; a subltantial beauty, which needs neither paint nor patch. All dress supposes imperfection : truth needs not the aids of orna. ment, A glittering outside often indicates a trifling inside, Truth loves to be naked, and is not ashamed,