and till within the last two or three months could walk a mile or two with tolerable ease.

“ As to the quantity of water taken off, I find it to amount, upon the nearest calculation, to twenty-four pints at each operation; for though the first time produced only twelve pints, and in several of the latter operations the quantity fell short of twentyfour pints, yet I may venture to state it at least at twenty-four pints or three gallons on an average, as in many of the operations I took off from twenty-eight to thirty pints. The number of times I tapped her was in all 155, which brings out in the whole 3720 pints, being 465 gallons, not far fhort of feven hogsheads and an half. As to the authenticity of the whole, your connections with the family, and frequent opportunities of seeing this young lady during her illness, will put it beyond a doubt. I have therefore no more to add, than my wish that the case may prove acceptable to the Society. I am, &c." Sermons by Hugh Blair, D, D. one of the Ministers of the

High Church, and Profesor of Rhetoric and Belles Lettres in the University of Edinburgh, Vol. 2d. 55. fewed. Cadell,

Dr. Blair has been long considered as the most eloquent, if not the most popular preacher among the Scotch Clergy. He may even be said to be the most popular with one class of the people, and that too the most respectable, though not the most numerous class, the men of letters and education, to whose capacity his sermons seem to be much better adapted than they are to that of the vulgar. Those who have been bred at the University of Edinburgh, and have attended Lady Yexter's Church, which is properly the Church of the College (and of which Dr. Blair was formerly Minister) well remember to have heard most of these sermons preached; and what they have heard with admiration from the pulpit, they may now read with equal profit and pleasure in the clofet. The Doctor's chief excellence confifts in a strong and lively imagination, which, however, is never suffered to run riot, but is always under the dire&tion and controul of the finest taste, and the most found and solid judgment. As a specimen, we shall lay before our readers an extract from the beginning of the fixth Sermon, the subject of which is “ The love of Praise.” " For they loved the Praise of Men more than the Praise of God."

• The state of man on earth is manifestly designed for the trial of his virtue. Temptations every where occur; and perpetual 4


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vigilance and attention are required. There is no paffion, or principle of action in his nature, which may not, if left to itself, betray him into some criminal excess. Corruption gains entrance, not only by those passions which are apparently of dangerous tendency, such as covetoufness, and love of pleasure; but by means of those also which are seemingly the most fair and innocent, such as the desire of esteem and praise. Of this the text fuggests a remarkable inftance. When our Lord appeared in the land of Judæa, the purity of his doctrine, and the evidence of his miracles, acquired him a considerable number of followers, chiefly among the lower classes of men. But the Pharisees, who were the leading and fashionable sect, galled with the free. dom of his reproofs, decried him as an impostor. Hence it came to pass, that though some of the rulers believed in him, yet, because of the Pharisees, they did not confess him. Rulers, persons who, by their rank and education, ought to have been superior to any popular prejudice, were so far overawed by the opinions of others, as to stile their conviction, to dissemble their faith, and to join with the prevailing party in condemning one whom in their hearts they revered : for which, this reason is given, that ibey loved the praise of men more than the praise of God. Since, then, the love of praise can millead men into fuch culpable and dishoneft conduct, let us, with some attention, examine the nature of this passion. Let us consider how far it is an allowable principle of action; when it begins to be criminal; and upon what ac, counts we ought to guard against its acquiring the incire afcendant.

66 We are intended by Providence to be connected with one another in society. Single unaffisted individuals could make small advances towards any valuable improvement. By means of society our wants are supplied, and our lives rendered comfor. table; our capacities are enlarged, and our virtuous affections called forth into proper exercise. In order to confirm our mutual connection, it was necessary that some attracting power, which had the effect of drawing men together, and strengthening the focial ties, should pervade the human system. Nothing could more happily fulfil this purpose, than our being so formed as to desire the esteem, and to delight in the good opinion, of each other. Had such a propensity been wanting, and selfish principles left to occupy its place, society must have proved an unharmonious and discordant ftare. Instead of mutual attraction, & repulsive power would have prevailed. Among men who had no regard to the approbation of one another, all intercourse would have been jarring and offensive. For the wisest ends, therefore, the desire of praise was made an original and powerful principle in the human breaft.

" To a variety of good purposes it is subfervient, and on many occasions co-operates with the principle of pistue. It awakens us from sloth, invigorates activity, and stimulates our afforts to excel,


It has given rise to most of the splendid, and to many of the useful enterprizes of men. It has animated the patriot, and fired the hero. Magnanimity, generosity and fortitude are what all mankind admire. Hence such as were actuated by the desire of extensive fame, have been prompted to deeds which either participated of the fpirit, or at leaft, carried the apperance of diftinguished virtue. The desire of praise is generally connected with all the finer fenfibilities of human nature. It affords a ground on which exhortation, counsel and reproof can work a proper effect. Whereas to be entirely destitute of this passion betokens an ignoble mind, on which no moral impreffion is easily made. Where there is no desire of praise, there will be also no sense of reproach ; and if that be extinguished, one of the principal guards of virtue is removed, and the mind thrown open to many opprobrious pursuits. He whose countenance never glowed with Mame, and whose heart never beat at the found of praise, is not destined for any honourable distinction; is likely to grovel in the sordid quest of gain, or to flumber life away in the indo. lence of selfish pleasures.

6. Abstracted from the sentiments which are connected with the love of praise as a principle of action, the esteem of our fellow-creatures is an object which, on account of the advantages it brings, may be lawfully pursued. It is neceffary to our fuccess in every fair and honest undertaking. Not only our private interest, but our public usefulness, depends in a great measure upon it. The sphere of our influence is contracted or enlarged in proportion to the degree in which we enjoy the good opinion of the public. Men liten with an unwilling ear to one whom they do not honour; while a respected character adds weight to example, and authority to counsel. To desire the efteem of others for the sake of its effects is not only allowable, but in many cases is our duty: and to be totally indifferent to praise or cenfure, is so far from being a virtue, that it is a real defect in character.

" But while the love of praise is admitted to be in so many respects a natural and useful principle of action, we are at the fame time to observe that it is entitled to no more than our secon. dary, regard. It has its boundaries fet; by transgressing which, it is at once transformed from an innocent into a most dangerous paffion. More sacred and venerable principles claim the chief direction of human conduct. All the good effects which we have ascribed to the desire of praise, are produced by it when remaining in a subordinate station. But when passing its natural line, it becomes the ruling spring of conduct; when the regard which we pay to the opinions of men, incroaches on that reverence which we owe to the voice of conscience and the sense of duty; the love of praise having then gone out of its proper place, instead of improving, corrupts; and instead of elevating, debases our nature. The proportion which this paffion holds to other



principles of action is what renders it either innocent or criminató The crime with which the Jewish rulers are charged in the text, was not that they loved the praise of men ; but that they loved it more than the praise of God.

“ Even in cases where there is no direct competition between our duty and our fancied honour, between the praise of men and the praise of God, the passion for applause may become criminal by occupying the place of a better principle.' When vain glory ufurps the throne of virtue; when ostentation produces ačtions which conscience ought to have dictated; such actions, however fpecious, have no claim to moral or religious praise. We know that good deeds done merely to be seen of men lose their reward with God. If, on occasion of some trying conjuncture which makes us hesitate concerning our line of conduct, the first question which occurs to us be, not whether an action is right in itself, and such as a good man ought to perform, but whether it is such as will find acceptance with the world, and be favourable to our fame, the conclusion is too evident that the desire of applause has obtained an undue ascendant. What a wise and good man ought to study, is to preserve his mind free from any such solici. tude concerning praise as may be in hazard of overcoming his sense of duty. The approbation of men he may wish to obtain, as far as is confiftent with the approbation of God. But when both cannot be enjoyed together, there ought to be no fufpence. He is to retire contented with the testimony of a good conscience; and to thew by the firmness of his behaviour, that, in the cause of truth and virtue, he is superior to all opinion.-Let us now proceed to consider the arguments which should support such a ipirit, and guard us against the improper influence of praise or censure in the course of our duty.

“ In the first place, the praise of men is not an object of any such value in itself as to be entitled to become the leading principle of conduct. We degrade our character when we allow it more than subordinate regard. Like other worldly goods, it is apt to dazzle us with a falie lustre; but if we would ascertain its true worth, let us reflect both on whom it is bestowed, and from whom it proceeds. Were the applause

Were the applause of the world always the reward of merit; were it appropriated to such alone as by real abilities, or by worthy actions, are entitled to rise above the crowd, we might juilly be flattered by poffeffing a rare and valuable distinction. But how far is this from being the case in fact ? How often have the despicable and the vile, by dexterously catch. ing the favour of the multitude, soared upon the wings of popular applause, while the virtuous and the deserving have been either buried in obscurity, or obliged to encounter the attacks of unjust reproach? The laurels which human praise confers are withered and blasted by the unworthiness of those who wear them. Let the man who is vain of public favour be humbled by the reflection that, in the midit of his success, he is mingled


with a crowd of impostors and deceivers, of hyprocrites and enthusiasts, of ignorant pretenders and superficial reasoners, who, by various arts, have attained as high a rank as himself in tema porary fame.

"We may easily be satisfied that applause will be often shared by the undeserving, if we allow ourselves to consider from whom it proceeds. When it is the approbation of the wise only and the good which is pursued, the love of praise may then be ac. counted to contain itself within juít bounds, and to run in its proper channel. But the testimony of the discerning few, modest and unaffuming as they commonly are, forms but a small part of the public voice. It feldom amounts to more than a whisper, which amidst the general clamour is drowned. When the love of praise has taken poffeffion of the mind, it confines not itfelf to an object fo limited. It grows into an appetite for indiscriminate praife. And who are they that confer this praise ? A mixed mula titude of men, who in their whole conduct are guided by humour and caprice, far more than by reason; who admire false appearances, and pursue false goods; who inquire superficially, and judge rafhly; whose sentiments are for the most part erroneous, always changeable, and often inconsistent. Nor let anyone imagine, that by looking above the crowd, and courting the praise of the falliionable and the great, he makes sure of true honour. There are a great vulgar, as well as a small. Rank often makes no difference in the understandings of men, or in their judicious distribution of praise. Luxury, pride, and vanity, have frequently as much influence in corrupting the sentiments of the great, as ignorance, bigotry, and prejudice, having in misleading the opinions of the crowd. And is it to such judges as these that you submit the supreme direction of your conduct? Do you, stoop to court their favour as your chief distinction, when an object of to much juster and higher ambition is presented to you in the praise of God? God is the only unerring judge of what is excellent. His approbation alone is the substance, all other praise is but the shadow, of honour. The character which you bear in his fight is your only real one. How contemptible does it render you to be indifferent with respect to this, and to be solicitous about a name alone, a fictitious, imaginary character, which has no existence except in the opinions of a few weak and credulous men around you? They see no farther than the outside of things. They can judge of you by actions only; and not by the comprehensive view of all your actions, but by such merely as you have had opportunity of bringing forth to public notice. But the Sovereign of the world beholds you in every light in which you can be placed. The filent virtues of a generous purpose and a pious heart attract his notice equally with the most fplendid deeds. From him you may reap the praise of good actions which you had no opportunity of performing. For he fees them in their principle; he judges of you by your intentions ; he knows what you


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