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my inost grateful acknowledgments. But, on the other hand, if you mean that any thing you could tay, although ever so thort, would not be interesting enough for the Review--- In proof of the contrary, I refer you to the insertion of your paft letters.
Any matter that is foreign to our dispure, as far as it relates to the propriety of my criticism, I have every right to deem impertinent. "How then Mall I consider your mention of Mr. Toplady: and Dr. Priestly on Necesity? What reference has that to our dil, pute on Free-Agency---which, as it relates to myself, I have called upon you to answer my observations in its favour? It is not referring me to Libraries, uor noticing the Review having maintained the
doctrine of neceffity, that can excuse your personal anfwers to what I have, fince you began the attack, all imaginable réalon to demand; and to call upon you neither to desert the lifts you forced, nor to oppose the Abades of the dead to bear the brunt of that opposition you yourself have provoked.
If you intend to lead me into the Revelations, all our dispute inust immediately be finished. It would indeed be impious to argue against what the divinity is supposed to dictate, So that, if we are to continue this any further, I beg you will neither inention Revelations, nor any persons so nearly related to them as are archbishops. They should be too facred to be bandied aboue in a literary 'altercation. All I have to request is, in few words, to give plain, rational, uninspired resolves to my’very few questions. This will confirm me in an opinion of your being a fenfible man---a far more eftimable character than a self-inspired, fanatical faint,
Your most obedient Servant,
Answers to Correspondents. Our Correspondents, who in obliging us with literary informa. tion, or oiher marks of their approbation and esteem, expect a re. curn of civility by private letter, are begged tó excuse our noncompliance with fo seemingly reasonable an expectation; as the multiplicity of their epiftolary favours, and the objects of our attention, are so great, as to put it absoiutely out of our power to make such particular returns of our gratitude and esteem.-
We are forry we cannot comply with the request of " Sophia M-; but the London Reviewers make it an invariable rule, not to give any opinion about unprinted productions. Our fair correspondent is therefore desired to send for her manuscript, which is left with our publisher under cover, directed to Sophia M."
We are obliged, much against our inclinations, to postpone our review of foreign books till next month, when we hope to refume that branch of criticisin.
FOR APRIL 1780.
Philosophical Tranfačtions of the Royal Society of London. Vol. lxix. for the Year 1779. Part I. L. Davis.
[Continued from page 78.] We have already given a very copious account of a petrification found in Scotland, with feveral remarks on the making artificial stone-an art which we trust will soon be brought to great perfection.--We shall now, for the benefit of our medical readers, extract a very extraordinary case where the head of the Os Humeri was fawn off without destroying the motion of the limb.
We have great hopes that this operation will lead to confiderable improvements in surgery, and be the happy means of rendering amputations less frequent.
" A case in which the head of the Os Humeti was fawn off, and yet the motion of the limb preserved. By Mr. Daniel Orred, of Chester; furgeon. Communicated by Thomas Percival, M. D. F.R. S. and A. S. and Member of the Royal Society of Phyfi. cians at Paris, 66 Read Oct. 12; 1778.
Manchester, Sept. 20, 1778° "SIR, “ A very eminent surgeon at Chester has desired me to transmit the inclosed case to the Royal Society, and I hope it will be deemed worthy of publication. It not only affords a confirmation of an important fact inserted in the Philofophical Transactions, vol. LIX. art vi.; but shews also that the chirurgical improvement proposed in that article by my ingenious friend Mr. Charles White, may be extended to operations on other parts of the human body. &e.
THO. PERCÍVAL. " A friend of mine, an ingenious furgeon, fettled at Tarporley, in this county, sent for me about the middle of last month to see a patient of his, a gentleman's servant in that neighbourVOL.IX.
hood. This was a man of about forty years of age, who had much injured a good conftitution by hard drinking before the following accident happened to him.
“ From an injury received more than three years before the time I saw him, by a fall from the top of a ladder, I found a fup. puration had taken place in the shoulder joint. The matter had made its way through three small openings; one in the axilla, di. ‘rectly opposite to the cavity of the joint; the other two lower than the firong tendons of the pectoral muscle, and betwixt the deltoides and biceps muscles. Upon introducing a probe into the joint by the upper orifice, I found the head of the os humeri exceedingly casious. A few weeks before I saw him, a collection of matter had formed upon his foot, I suppose from an absorption and tranflation from the shoulder. Upon letting out the matter with a lancet, I found the metatarsal bones allo very carious: with these shocking complaints no wonder he was much enfeebled and reduced. As the disease in his shoulder would evidently foon have put a period to his life without immediate relief, I proposed to him, either to amputate the arm at the diseased joint, or, with a view of making it of some use to him, endeavour to faw off the head of the af. fečted bone only. As the least of two evils he chose the last; though this indeed is a most painful, hazardous operation. We are indebted to Mr. White, of Manchester, for the mode of this operation, as well as for many other valuable hints and discoveries in surgery. In order to allow the arm as much action as possible after the operation, I began my incifion a little above the joint, and continued it in a right line direčily through the middle of the fleshy portions of the deltoides, and a little lower than its insertion : 'then elevating the arm to relax the muscle, an allistant with both hands distened the upper part of the opening made by the incision, whilst, with a narrow knife, I endeavoured, by the direction of the fore-finger of the left hand, carefully to divide the capsular ligament. This was effected with very great difficulty, as from preceding inflammation it was much thickened, and adhered closely to the joint: and till it was separated nearly round (for the under, and most dangerous part to cut through, was corroded with matter) I found my utmost efforts to throw the head of the bone out of its focket quite ineffe&tual. After a fufficient feparation I made the dislocation, by pressing the elbow to the body with one hand, and with the other pulling the head of the humerus directly towards me. After guarding the great artery against the action of the faw, by introducing a piece of pasteboard under the bone, I separated it across, as Mr. White directs, as low down as I poflibly could to prevent au exfoliation. The loss of blood was very trifling. After dressing the wound very superficially, I took particular care that the artery was not pressed upon by, the bandages; and advised, when the inflammation fube sided, and a good digestion came on, that his arm should always be dressed when the body was erect, and suspended a little from ir, with the fore arm a little bent: this was accordingly done. In a
quence of his
€w days after the operation, he got up, and continued to fit up he day through ever after. He had a cold infusion of the Peruvian bark with the weak spirit of vitriol ordered him, In conse.
reduced habit of body, his shoulder was long in curing. A foall exfoliation took place. The cure, 1 fancy, was also much retarded by the diseased foot, which still continued very bad: the man being so exceedingly terrified by the former operation, that he would not suffer us to do any thing to any purpose to it.
" I saw him about three months after the accident. The wound was nearly cicatrized; but the offification was not so far advanced as I expected it would have been, the callus being much sinaller than the lower part of the humerus, and bending with the weight of the arm. However, he couid raise it from his body more than could be well supposed, and had the perfect flexure and use of his fore arm.
This case, with all the disagreeable circumstances attending it, strongly proves the utility of the above operation. By a similar operation diseases of other joints may be as eafily cured."
The following is a remarkable dropsical case: 66 Account of an extraordinary Drophical Cafe. By Mr. John Latham, in a Letter to Mr. Warner, F, R. S.
" To Mr. Warner. 66 Read Dec. 17, 1778, 66 SIR,
Dartford, Oct. 28, 1778. " When I last had the pleasure of seeing you, it was your opinion, that the Royal Society would receive fome satisfaction in my giving some account of the case of Miss A. M. who died lately of a dropsy under my care.
“ This patient was of a Avrid, lively constitution, but from a child was subject to a violent eruption, which came generally on a sudden, covering the whole neck, breast, and often great part of the face; and after remaining a week or two, abated in violence, and went off by degrees. The intervals were uncertain, but for the most part in spring and in autumn she was more apt to have it, though frequently three or four times in the year. Various methods were tried to eradicate this complaint without effect; nor did the appearance of the menfes, as we had some reason to hope, in the leait turn out in her favour. It will be needless to relate here the various medicines which had been given her with little or no success, except that the inost relief me found was from the use of salt water, which was thought to make the intervals the longer in two or three instances, as well as the appearance of the eruption milder. Things continued thus till the autumn 1773, when the menfes became obstructed, continuing so for fome months, but appeared once more very plentifully; after which they never returned, neither did the eruption, except in the most triffing manner, About Christmas 1773, the complained of a weight in
the abdomen, and fulness of the stomach ; which symptoms were relieved by some gentle opening medicines. She then went on a visit to some friends at a distance, after which I saw her no more for two months. I learned, that during that time the complaints had returned more violent, for which the consulted a physician on the spot, but without the relief she found at first; for the abdomen began to increase in fize every day, and became painful, the urine high-coloured, and in small quantity, with thirit, and every other symptom of an approaching dropsy.
In a narrative of this kind it may be expected, that a detail of the medicines she took during her illness might be noted; but as I chiefly acted in my surgical capacity, and as she was after this tiine, till the first operation, for the most part in London, under the care of physicians of the first eminence, it is out of my power to give such an account; suffice it then to say, that she was obliged to submit to the operation of the paracentefis the 27th of June, 1774. The quantity I then took off was only twelve pints, some what færid, but not very dark coloured, nor was it ever after the least offensive. The operation was repeated in fix weeks, when twenty-nine pints were taken off; after that time once in four weeks to the end of the year, During the whole of the year 1775 I tap: ped her once in a fortnight more or less; and in the year 1776 The for the most part underwent the operation every eight or nine days, the intervals gradually shortening, till by the end of the year the could go no longer than a week between, which continued to the day of her death, which happened May 14, 1778, being then not quite twenty-three years of age. About á week before that time, she was troubled with incessant vomitings, which nothing would rilieve; but was better a few hours before her death, and went off pretty easy,
“ I have good reason to suppose the complaint originated from disease of the left ovary, for after the first tapping I felt a fub stance of the size of a cricker ball; and, as the operations went on, this became more and more manifett, increafing fo much as ar last to occupy the whole space of the abdomen forward, being of a very irregular form, and I am clear of many pounds weight, for she appeared, even after the water had been drawn off, as large aş a woman in the last month of pregnancy. It would have added greatly to my fatisfaction to have been able to clear up this point in every particular, by opening her after death; but I had the extreme mortification of being denied this necessary circumstance, notwithstanding my most earnest folicitations.
“ I must, therefore, content myself with giving this bare recital of facts as above, which will serve to record to futurity, ą case which I believe has not its equal in regard to the number of operations. What is remarkable here is, that this young lady had a good appetite for the most part, and was very chearful; and, except a day before and after each operation, used to visit her friends at several miles distance as the would have done in health,