an infringement on their privileges ; afferting, that the ordering and marshalling of all enligns of honour, and proceedings at funerals, properly and peculiarly appertained to the kings of arms; that no trophies of honours were to be borne on those occasions, except such as were so used by their direction, nor hung up in


church or chapel without their especial licence ; and that, according to the law of arms, no person ought to paint escutcheons of arms for any private interment, till they had made search for the same in the herald's office, and entered the number of the escutcheons thereupon allowed. Hence, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, arose the longcontested difpute between the kings of arms on the one side, and the funeral-undertakers and painters on the other, as to the right of ordering and marshalling of funerals, and painting arms and trophies of honout.

To shew the great importance in which the right arrangement of funeral folemnities were held; nothing can be more striking than the following curious letter. " A Letter from Lady Elizabeth Ruffel, to Sir William Dethick,

Garter Principal King of Arms. « Good Mr. Garter, I pray you, as your leisure doth best serve you, fet down advisedly and exactly, in every particular itself, the number of mourners due to my calling, being a viscountess of birth, with their charge of blacks, and the number of waiting women for myself, and the women mourners, which, with the chief mourner, and her that shall bear the trayne, will be in number ten, beside waiting-women, pages, and gentleman-huishers: then I pray you what number of chief mourners, of lords, knights; and gentlemen, necessary, with their charge, and how many servants for them, beside my preacher, phyfitian, lawyers ; and xl. cloaks for my own men; then Ixin women widows, the charges of the charge of the hearse, heralds, and church. Good Mr. Garter, do it exa actly; for I find forewarnings that bid me provide a pick-axe, &Co 1o, with my most friendly commendations to you, I rest Dunnington-Cafile, Your old mifiress and friend,

ELIZABETH RUSSEL, Dowager.” Mr. Edmondson has added an improved edition of Glover's ordinary of arms; an alphabet of arms containing upwards of fifty thoutand coats, with their crefts, &c, and a copious glossary, explaining all the technical terins used in heraldry.

The reader, by the specimens we have given, will judge of the style of Mr. Edmondson, and his talents for compone tion. The whole work seems to be compiled with great care and judgment, though some errors in regard to the names of places, have escaped the author, which he should

October 4.



collect a list of and prefix to his volumes. The lovers of this science, as well as those who wish to be made acquainted with it, will find abundant gratification in this valuable compilation.

Political, Miscellaneous, and Philosophical Pieces, arranged under

the following Heads, and distinguished by initial Letters in each Leaf; [G. P.] General Politics; (A, B. T.] American Politics before the Troubles ; [A. D. T.] American Politics during the Troubles ; [P. P.Provincial or Colony Politics; and [M. P.] Miscelianeous and Philosophical Pieces ; written by Benjamin Franklin, L. L. D. and F. R. S. Member of the Royal Academy of Sciences at Paris, of the Royal Society at Gottingen, and of the Batavian Society in Holland; President of the Philosophical Society at Philadelphia; late Agent in England for several of the American Colonies ; and at present chosen in America as Deputy to the General Congress for the State of Pensylvania ; President of the Convention of the said State, and Minister Plenipotentiary at the Court of Paris for the United States of America : now first collected with explanatory Plates, Notes, and an Index to the Whole. ios. 6d. 8vo. Johnson, No. 72, St. Paul's Church-yard.

[Continued from page 105.] We shall here present our readers with some farther extracts from this very curious and entertaining publication. The following reflections on the “ Price of Corn, and the management of the Poor,” are equal ingenious and sensible.

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On the Price of Corn and Management of the Poor.

To Messieurs the PUBLIC. “ I am one of that class of people that feeds you all, and at. present is abused by you all; in short, I am a farmer.

By your news-papers we are told, that God had fent a very Mort harvest to some other countries of Europe. I thought this might be in favour of Old England; and that now we should get a good price for our grain, which would bring millions among us, and make us flow in money : that to be sure is scarce enough. ." But the wisdom of government forbad the exportation.

"Well, says I, then we must be content with the market price at home.

“No, says my Lords the mob, you shan't have that. Bring your corn to market if you dare ;--well sell it for you for leis money, or take it for nothing, VOL. XI,


<< Being

“ Being thus attacked by both ends of the conftitution, the head and the tail of government, what am I to do?

“ Must I keep my corn in the barn to feed and increase the breed of rats? -be it 10 ;--they cannot be less thankful than those I have been used to feed.

"Are we farmers the only people to be grudged the profits of our honest labour ?-And why? One of the late scribblers against us, gives a bill of fare of the provisions at my daughter's wedding, and proclaims to all the world, that we had the insolence to eat beef and pudding! -Has he not read the precept in the good book,

Thou shali not muzzle the mouth of tbe ox that ireadeth out the corn; or does he think us less worthy of good living than our oxen?

“0, but the manufacturers ! the manufacturers ! they are to be favoured, and they must have bread at a cheap rate!

• Hark ye, Mr. Oaf;---The farmers live splendidly, you say. And pray, would


have them hoard the money they get ? Their fine cloathes and furniture, do they make them themselves or for one another, and so keep the money among them? Or, do they employ thele your darling manufacturers, and so scatter it again all over the nation ?

“ The wool would produce me a better price, if it were suffered to go to foreign markets ; but that, Mefieurs the Public, your laws will not permit. It muft be kept all at home, that our dear manufacturers may have it the cheaper. And then, having your. felves thus leffened our encouragement for raising sheep, you curfe. us for the scarcity of mutton !

“ I have heard my grandfather say, that the farmers fubmitted to the prohibition on the exportation of wool, being made to expect and believe that when the manufacturer bought his wool cheaper, they should also have their cloth cheaper. But the deuce a bit. It has been growing dearer and dearer from that day to this. How so? Why, truly, the cloth is exported; and that keeps up the price.

* Now if it be a good principle, that the exportation of a commodity is to be restrained, that fo our people at home may have it the cheaper ; stick to that principle, and go thorough Atitch with it, Prohibit the exportation of your cloth, your leather, and shoes, your iron ware, and your manufactures of all sorts, to make them all cheaper at home. And cheap enough they will be, I will warrant you — till people leave off making them.

“Some folks seein to think they ought never to be easy till England becomes another Lubberland, where it is fancied the streets are paved with penny-rolls, the houses tiled with pancakes, and chickens ready roasted, cry, come eat me.

** I say, when you are sure you have got a good principle, stick to it, and carry it through.--I hear it is said, that though it was necessary and right for the m -y to advise a prohibition of the exportation of corn, yet it was contrary to law; and also, that though it was contrary to law for the mob to obstruct waggons, yet it was necelary and right.-Just the fame thing to a tittle. Now


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they tell me, an act of indemnity ought to pass in favour of the

-y, to secure them from the contequences of having acted illegally.If so, pass another in favour of the mob. Others say, fone of the mob ought to be hanged, by way of example.If so, but I say no more than I have said before, when you are sure that you have got a good principle, go through with it.

“ You say, poor labourers cannot afford to buy bread at a high price, unless they had higher wages.- Possibly. But how shall we farmers be able to afford our labourers higher wages, if you will not allow us to get, when we might have it, a higher price for our corn?

By all that I can learn, we should at least have had a guinea a quarter more, if the exportation had been allowed. And this money England would have got from foreigners.

“ But, it seems, we farmers must take to much less, that the poor may have it so much cheaper.

"This operates then as a tax for the maintenance of the poor: A very good thing, you will say. But I ask, why a partial taxWhy laid on us farmers only !--If it be a good thing, pray, Messieurs the Public, take your share of it, by indemnifying us a little out of your public treasury. In doing a good thing, there is both honour and pleafure ;---you are welcome to your hare of both.

“For my own part, I am not so well satisfied of the goodness of this thing. I am for doing good to the poor, but I differ in opinion about the means.--I think the best way of doing good to the poor, is not making them easy in poverty, but leading or driving them out of it. In my youth I travelled much, and I obs. ferved in different countries, that the more public provisions were made for the poor, the lefs they provided for themselves, and of course became poorer. And, on the contrary, the less was done for them, the more they did for themselves, and became richer, There is no country in the world where so many provisions are established for them; so many hospitals to receive them when they are sick or lame, founded and maintained by voluntary charjo ties ; so many alms-houses for the aged of both sexes, together with a solemn general law made by the rich to subject their eftates to a heavy tax for the support of the poor, Under all these obligations, are our poor modeft, humble, and thankful ? and do they use their best endeavours to maintain themselves, and lighten our shoulders of this hurthen ?-On the contrary, I affirm that there is no country in the world in which the poor are more idle, diffolute, drunken, and infolent. The day you passed that act, you took away from before their eyes the greatest of all induce. ments to industry, frugality, and fobriety, by giving them a de. pendance on somewhat else than a careful accumulation during youth and health, for support in age or fickness. In short, you offered a premium for the encouragement of idleness, and you should not now wonder that it has had its effect in the encrease of poverty. Repeal that law, and you will soon fee a change in Аа2


their manners, Saint Monday and Saint Tuesday, will soon cease ta be holidays. Six days shalt thou labour, though one of the old commandments long treated as out of date, will again be looked upon as a respectable precept ; industry will increaie, and with it plenty among the lower people; their circumstances will mend, and more will done for their happiness, by inuring them to pro.. vide for theniselves, than could be done by dividing all your effates among them,

Excuse me, Messieurs the Public, if upon this interesting fubject, I put you to the trouble of reading a little of


nonsense ; I am sure I have lately read a great deal of yours; and therefore from you (at least from those of you who are writers) I deserve a little indulgence.

I am yours, &c.

ARA TO R.” Though the following parable has already appeared in print, yet the repetition of it, we believe, will not be difagreeable to any of our readers. " A PAR AÐ LE against Perfecution, in Imitation of Scripture

Language. "And it came to pass after these things, that Abraham sat in the door of his tent, about the going down of the sun. And behold a man bent with age, coming from the way of the wilderness leaning on a staff. And Abraham arose, and met him, and faid unto him, Torn in, I pray thee, and wash thy feet, and tarry all night; and thou falt arise early in the morning, and go on thy way. And the man said, Nay; for I will abide under this tree. But Abraham prefled him greatly: so he turned and they went into the tent: and Abraham baked unleaven bread, and they

** [I have taken this piece from the Sketches of the History of Man, written by Lord Kaims, and shall preface with his Lordship’s own words. See Vol. II. p. 472, 473•

• The following Parable against Persecution was communicated to ? me by Dr. Franklin of Philadelphia, a man who makes a great figure • in the learned world : and who would still make a greater figure for

benevolence and candour, were virtue as much regarded in this de ! clining age as knowledge.

! The historical style of the Old Testament is here finely imitated; ? and the moral must strike every one who is not funk in stupidity 6 and fuperftition. - Were it really a chapter of Genesis, one is apt to

think, that persecution could never have shown a bare face among ! Jews or Christians. But alas ! that is a vain thought, Such a paso

lage in the Old Testament; would avail as little against the ranco.

rous pallions of men, as the following pafsages in the New Testa, ? ment, though persecution cannot be condemned in terms more ex

plicit.' “ Him that is weak in the faith, receive you, but not to “ doubtful difputations. For, &c.” E.]



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