" When this proposal was taken into confideration by the two parties, it appeared that the Arch Dake's commissioners would agree to a fimple truce only, for eight, ten, or twelve years, as a continuation of the present ceflation of hoftilities, without repeating the declaration of the independence of the General Estates. The State's deputies, on the other hand, agreed to the terms proposed, and required, that the declaration should be repeated, and extend to an acknowledgment of their independance not only du. ring the truce, but for ever. The difpute was so keenly maintained, that the Spanish commifsioners begged time to consider this point, and craved a delay until the end of September, when the Arch Dukes, who had fent a message to Spain, would know his Majesty's sentiments.

" This request caused violent debates in the affembly of the General Estates, and which lasted two days. Many thought, that an end should be immediately put to all farther conferences, as such a demand was another proof of the artifices of the Spaniards. Maurice, particularly, not only supported this opinion with great heat and passion, but represented a truce as ruinous to the state, because it would be no sooner made than Henry and Philip would enter into close friendship, and strengthen their alliance with the projected marriages. He afierted that the only method to hinder a conjunction which would prove deftructive to those of the reformed religion, would be to break off the treaty, and renew the war, in which Henry would be obliged in honour to support them, and in order to prevent an increase of the Spanish power, to give them effectual assistance. Though his arguments did not prevail, and a majority of the affembly agreed to grant the delay that was asked, yet the deputies of the province of Zealand were so offended with this resolution, that they declared they could not join in any çonference or deliberation, as long as the Spanilh commissioners remained at the Hague, actually left the affembly, and returned to their own province. In Holland, there were different fentiments, occafioned, in a great measure, by the influence of Maurice ; and though the bulk of the people were inclined to the truce, yet they demanded, that the sovereignty of the states should be acknowledged to be perpetual. It was indeed to be expected, that after all hopes of peace had vanified, the confederates would not readily hearken to a long truce, because it was probable that the fame conditions which they had rejected in the one case, would be required in the other. The advice of their allies, however, had, great weight with the confederates. They considered that they could not carry on the war without aid. They were afraid that the common people would be irritated when they knew what terms had been rejected, and refuse to contribute the neceffary fums, They started at the prospect of having again recourse to arms, the expence of which had of late exceeded the amount of the contributions 300,000 florins a month, loaded the common fund with a debt of nine millions of florins, and the particular provinces with the double of that sum.

5. The

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“ The General Estates acted with great firmness and resolutionThey told the Spanish commissioners, that though it would be more agreeable they would retire to Brussels, and there wait the answer from his Catholic Majesty; yet, at the request of the ambassadors, they consented to their remaining at the Hague until the end of September; but that if against that time they produced uot a proper

inftrument from Philip and the Arch Dukes, ackuowledging i heir independence in the most express terms, and for ever, they must depart. This declaration was accompanied with a spirited remonftrance on their conduct. • You have endeavoured,' said the General Estates, to amuse as with specious promises; you • have, in order to lead us into a treaty, talked of making peace,

you had no such intention. The peace you converted into a truce; next, you have changed this truce into a niere lengthen, • ing out the prefent ceffation of hoftilities, without any mention

of our independence, which we absolutely require. Think not * that we will be any longer deceived. Do not imagine that we

want either discernment to discover your artifices, or courage to • resume these arms which we unwillingly employed at first, but • which we never will lay aside, until the glorious end we have in • view is accomplished.'

When the last day of September was come, the Spanish commissioners waited on the ambassadors, and informed them that they had received instructions from the Albert and Isabella, by which they were impowered to make a truce for seven years ; in Europe both parties to retain what they at present poffeffed; and to give a declaration that the Arch Dukes in treating with the General Eftates, acknowledged the United Provinces as free ftates, to which they claimed no right. They added, that though they had got no particular orders from Philip, they hoped that he would approve of the truce upon these conditions. The ambassadors, knowing that the General Estates were determined not to consent, unless the declaration bore an acknowledgment of their independence being perpetual, advised the Spanish commissioners to retire to Brussels, to prevail with the Arch Dukes to make the time of the truce ten. instead of seven years; and to give the acknowledgment demanded. Accordingly they prepared for their departure, and after waiting upon Maurice and the State's commiffioners, had an audience of leave in the General Estates. Richardot extolled the conduct of his Catholic Majesty and the Arch Dukes, in being willing to make many important concessions for the sake of peace; condemned the States for their obftinacy, and upbraided them with the dishonour. able-manner in which the Spanish commissioners were desired to leave their territories. He told them that he foresaw the day was coming when they would repeat their not having fuitably improved the present favourable opportunity, and protested that they would be chargeable with all the blood which might be afterwards spilled. Barnevelt, in naine of the General Estates, answered him, that they had acted with candour and fincerity, that they had always den clared they would admit of no treaty without an acknowledgment

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of their independence ; that the blame of peace not being conCluded should be laid upon those who had not fulfilled their promises; and that whatever blood might be shed, the guilt ought to be imputed to perfons, who by imposing laws worse than death, had rendered recourse to arms absolutely necessary. The Spanish commissioners, after the assembly was disiniffed, were entertained at dine by Maurice, and the same day set oue for Brussels.”

The conclusion of the treaty, which lasted more than two years, fixed the liberties and independence of the United Provinces. We shall copy, our author's reflections on this event.

" This period may be considered as the great æra of the liberty of the United Provinces, and cannot be viewed without exciting wonder at the means by which the blessing of freedom was acquired A few people, inhabiting a small territory, maintained a war for more than forty years against the most powerful potentate then in Europe. By their vigorous efforts, they attracted the regard of neighbouring princes, who were emboldened by the check thus given to the ambition of Philip, and encouraged to join their endeavours likewise in humbling a monarch, who had long been the object of jealousy and fear. The confederates patiently submitted to every hardship unavoidable in a contest seemingly fo unequal. Bold and enterprizing to an amazing degree, they gained advantages which exceeded even their own expectations, when they firit engaged in the struggle. Animated with a warm zeal in defence of ancient rights and privileges, resolute in opposing every: encroachment, closely connected together by one common cause, and sagacious enough to discover where their strength could be moft successfully exerted, they found out resources which enabled them to set at defiance the riches and the power of Spain. At the very time that they were loaded with heavy taxes, they extended their commerce, and while they preserved a force fufficient for their own defence at home, carried their arms into distant countries, and seized upon a part of that wealth, which until then their ene. mies had almost solely enjoyed, and which they thought to possess undisturbed and unrivaled. While the adjoining provinces felt all the calamities of a long war, were almost exhausted, faw great

innovations made on the antient constitution, and experienced many of the evils which attend an arbitrary system of government, the confederates enjoyed liberty, acquired importance, and encreased in opulence and national prosperity. In the United Provinces, oppression was at last forced to yield to courage; tyranny to the manly efforts of a brave and incensed people ; and pride to a firm and determined fpirit. The King of Spain and the Arch Dukes confessed their inability to compel to obedience those who defpised their authority, and were constrained to own the independence of stătes which their utmost strength could not subdue."

Reference has been made, during the contest between Britain and her colonies, to the transactions in the Netherlands.


We think that the circumstances in the beginning of the quarrel were very different. The resemblance is more striking in a later period; and, whatever may be the ifsue, the volume of which we have now given an account, presents some facts worthy of attention.

From the specimens we have given, our readers will be able to judge of the stile and inanner in which this performance is executed. If the opinion of the public is equally favourable with ours, the author will have sufficient encouragement to profecute the design he had originally in view.

A complete Body of Heraldry : containing, an Historical Enquirji:

into the Origin of Armories, and the Rise and Progress of Heraldry, considered as a Science ; the Institution of the Offices of Constable; Marshal, and Earl Marshal of England; their concurrent and separate Jurisdictions, Functions, Powers, &c. the Erection, Creation, and Esiablishment of Kings, Heralds, Purfuivants, and other Officers of Arms, with their several and respective Duties, Badges, Liveries, Wages, Visitations, &c. The proper Methods of Blazoning and Marshalling Armorial Bearings; and therein of Ordinaries, Charges, Marks of Cadency, Adáitions, and Abatements of Honour; Asumptions, Grants, Augmentations, Alicnations, Exchanges, Concessions, and Forfeiture of Coat Armour ; Crests, Coronets, Supportersi Badges, and other Armorial Enfigns. The Arms, Quarter: ings, Crefts, Supporters, and Mottos, of all Sovereign Princes and States; as also the Atchievements of the Pelys, Peereffes, and Baronets, of England, Scotland; and Ireland. An Historical Catalogue of ali the different Orders of Knighthoods from the earliest to the present Time, with Defcriptions of their Habits, Collars, Badges, &c. &c. The Arms of the Counties, Cities, Boroughs, and Towns Corporate, in England and Wales; and of the Abbies and Religious Houses founded therein; ás also those of the Royal Boroughs in Scotland, and of the Sea cieties, Bodies corporate, trading Companies, &c. in London, The arms of Archiepifcopal and Episcopal Sees in England and Ireland, and of those beretofore established in Scotland; as likewise of the Universities, their several Colleges, Halls, and Schools. t Discourse on the Origin, Uje, and Abuse of Funeral Trophies. Glover's Ordinary of Arms, augmented and improved; an Alphabet of rirms, containing upwards of fifty. thoujand Coats, with their Crests, Sc. and a copious Glossary, explaining all the technical Terms wjed in Heraldry. In two VOL. XI.



Volumes. Illustrated with Copper-Plates. Carefully compiled from the best and most undoubted Authorities, by Joseph Edmondfon, F/2. F. S. A. Mowbray Herald extraordinary, and Author of the Baronagium Genealogicum, or Genealogical Tables of the English Peers. Folio, 31. 55. Dodsley.

Mr. Edmondson is known to that part of the public which is interested in the antiquity of families, by his genealogical tábles of the English peers. And the favourable reception of that work, may have been a motive with him to engage in a larger and more arduous undertaking.

Heraldry is a science almost lost to the generality, even of learned men. The obscurity and uncertainty of its first origin, in the clouds, and among the magnificent barbarities of Gothic revolutions; and the little interest which the public was supposed to take in any informations which might be obtained on the subject, deterred men of abilities from giving themselves any trouble on its account.

But though the public at large may not be interested in this science; all persons of ancient and respectable families; nay all thole who by the acquisition of wealth, wish to engraft new branches on the old stocks of nobility and gentry, would wish to have all the terms and badges of their real ar imaginary distinctions clearly understood.

To such persons, the present publication of Mr. Edmondson must be of importance.

The author begins with an historical enquiry into the origin of armories, and the rise and progress of heraldry, considered as a science; the institution of the offices of conftable, marshal, and earl marshal of England; their concurrent and separate jurisdictions, functions, powers, &c. the erection, creation, and establishment of kings, heralds, pursuivants, and other officers of arms, with their respective duties, badges, liveries, wages, visitations, &c.

The following quotation from this part of our work cannot but be agreeable to our readers.

“ The obligations which each principal feudatory was under of assembling and keeping together his quota of soldiers in time of service, and the necellity there was that the prince or principal commander should be satisfied that his army was joined by all ihe chief military tenants, with their several powers according to the obligations of their respective tenures, pointed out the utility of each leader's carrying with him some mark or roken, whereby not only he himself might be known by his followers, but his place and station in the host might likewise be particularised, and distin


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