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from thence à conclusion that they ought to be taxed, until their expence was 'equal in proportion to that which it costs Britain to govern eight millions. He had no idea of a contrary conclufion ; that if three millions may be well governed for 70,cool, eight millions may be as well governed for three times that fum; and that therefore the expence of his own government should be diminished. In that corrupted nation no man is ashamed of being concerned in lucrative government jobs, in which the public money is egregiously misapplied and fquandered, the treasury pillaged, and more numerous and heavy taxes accumulated ; to the great opprefiion of the people. But the prospect of a greater number of such jobs by a war is an inducement with 'many to cry out for war upon all occasions, and to oppose every propofition of peace. Hence the constant increase of the national debt, and the abfolute iniproba. bility of its ever being discharged.
“Fourthly, Respecting the amount and certainty of income, and folidity of security, the while Thirteen States of America are engaged for the payment of every debt contracted by the Congress; and the debt to be contracted by the present war is the only debt they will have to pay ; all, or nearly all the former debts of particular colonies being already discharged. Whereas England will have to pay not only the enormous debt this war inuft occafion, but all their vaft preceding debt, or the interelt of it; and while America is enriching itself by prizes made upon the British commerce, more than it ever did by any commerce of its own, under the restraints of a British monopoly, Britain is growing poorer by the loss of that monopoly, and the diminution of its resources ; and of course less able to discharge the present indiscreet increase of its expences.
Fifthly, Respeeling prospects of future ability, Britain has none such. Her illands are circumscribed by the ocean; and ex. cepting a few parks or forests, she has no new lands to cultivate, and cannot therefore extend her improveinents. Her numbers too, infterd of increasitg from increased subsistence, are continually di minishing from growing luxury, and the increasing difficulties of maintaining families, which of course discourages early marriages.
Thas the will have fewer people to allift in paying her debts, and that diminished number will be poorer. America, on the contrary, has, besides her lands already cultivated, a vast territory yet to be cultivated, which being cultivated, continually increase in value with the increase of people ; and the people, who double them. selves by a natural propagation every tweniy-five years, will double yet faster, by the acceflion of Arangers, as long as lands are to b:> had for new families ; so that every twenty years there will be a double number of inhabitants obliged to discharge the public debess and chose inhabitants being more opulent, may pay their fhares with greater eafe.
“Sixthly, Respecting prudence in general affairs, and the advantages to be expected from the loan desired; the Americans are cultivators of land ; those engaged in fishery and commerce are few, compared with the others. They have ever conducted their several
governments with wisdom, avoiding wars, and vain expenfive projects, delighting only in their peaceable occupations, which must, considering the extent of their uncultivated territory, find them employment till for ages. Whereas England, ever unquiet, ambitious, avaricious, imprudent and quarrelsome, is half of the time engaged in a war, always at an expence infinitely greater than the advantage to be obtained by it, if successful. Thús they made war against Spain in 1739, for a claim of about 95,cool. (scarce a groat for each individual of the nation) and spent forty millions sterling in the war, and the lives of fifty-thousand men; and finally made peace without obtaining satisfaction for the fum claimed. Indeed, there is scarce a nation in Europe, against which she has not niade war on some frivolous pretext or other; and thereby impru. dently accumulated a debt that has brought her on the verge of bankruptcy. But tắe most indiscreet of all her wars, is the presept against America, with which the might for ages have preserved her profitable connection, only by a just and equitable conduet. She is now acting like a mad shopkeeper, who by beating thofe that pass his doors, attempts to make them come in, and be his customers. America cannot submit to such treatment, without being first ruined; and being ruined, her custom will be worth nothing. America, on the other hand, aiṁs only to establish her liberty, and that freedom of commerce which will be advantageous to all Europe ; and by abolishing that monopoly which she laboured under, ihe will profit infinitely more than enough, to repay any debt which she contracts to accomplif it
.. "Seventhly, respecting character in the honest payment of debts; the punctuality with which America has discharged her public debts was Thewn under the first head. And the general good disposition of the people to fuch punctuality, has been manifested in their faithful payment of private debts to England, since the commencement of this war.
-There were not wanting fome politicians [in America), who proposed ftopping that payment, until peace should be restored; alledging that in the usual cource of commerce, and of the credit given, there was always a debt existing equal to the trade of eighteen months: that the trade amounting to five millions sterling per annum, the debt must be feven millions and a half; that the fum paid to the British ministers, would operate to prevent that distress, 'intended to be brought upon Britain, by our stoppage of-com
merce with her : for the merchants receiving this money, and no orders with farther supplies, would either lay it out in the public
funds, or in employing manufacturers to accumulate goods for a future hungry market in America, upon an expected accommodation ; by which means the funds would be kept up, and the inanufacturers prevented from murmuring. But again this it was alledged, that injuries from ministers fiould not be revenged on merchants; that the credit was in confequence of private contracts, made in confidence of good faith ; that these ought to be held face cred, and faithfully complied with: for whatever public utility
might be fupposed to arise from a breach of private faith, it was vnjuft, and would in the end be found unwise; honetty being in truth, the best policy. On this principle the proposition was uniVersally rejected; and though the English prosecuted the war, with unexampled barbarity, burning our defenceless towns in the midit of winter, and arming savages against us, the debt was punđually paid; and the merchants of London have testified to all the world, that from their experience in dealing with us, they had before the war, no apprehension of our unfairness; and that since the war they have been convinced, that their good opinion of us was well founded. England, on the contrary; an old, corrupt, extravagant, and profligate nation, sees herself deep in debt, which she is in no condition to pay; and yet is madly and dishonestly, running deeper, without any possibility of discharging her debt, but by a public bankruptcy
" It appears, therefore, from a general industry, frugality, abi. lity, prudence, and virtue of America, that she is a much safer debtor than Britain :-to fay nothing of the satisfaction generous minds must have in reflecting, that by loans to America, they are opposing tyranny, and aiding the cause of liberty, which is The cause of all mankind.'
(To be continued.)
A View of the present State of Ireland, containing Observations
upon the following subjects, viz. its Dependance, Linen Trade, Provision Trade, Woollen Manufactory, Coals, Fishery, Agriculture. Of Emigration. Import Trade of the City of Dublina Effext of the present Mode of raising the Revenue.' On the Health and Happiness of the People. The Revenue. A National Bank : And an Absentee Tax. Intended for the Cono fideration of Parliament, on the approaching Enlargement of the Trade of that Kingdom. 10 which is added, a Sketch of fonte of the principal Political Characters in the Irish House of Commons. 8vo. Is. 6d. R. Faylder.
Agreeable to our promise we shall give some extract from this very ingenious and intelligent performance. The subjects which are treated of in this workare all so extremely interesting, that we find it difficult to make any particular selection ; however, as the woollen trade has been lately laid open to the inhabitants of Ireland, the remarks which the author has made upon this iuportant manufactury will, we conceive, merit more immediate notice, Vol. XI.
“ In considering the trade of Ireland, from the situation of the country, the disposition of the inhabitants, and the affluence of the material, this would promise to rank in the first line of preeminence, as an article of exportation. A malignant peevith jea. loufy poffeffed the minds of the English, when they beheld the first dawnings of this rising manufacture. Immediately after the jévolution, they addressed a monarch to destroy a flower in its bud, whose recent establishment would not permit him to refuse a requi. fition fo fraught with impolicy, and fo replete with ruin to an unfortunate country.
16 Thus perished the woollen trade of Ireland. Since that meJancholy period, it has scarcely merited the name of existence: Soine efforts have been made indeed to cherish its miserable remains, in the vain expectation of supplying the consumption of the kingdom,
* There is a peculiar genius in some countries, united with tocal circumftances, which, altho' it may be combated by difficulties, will never be overcome. Analogous toʻthe human mind, it Nature has implanted a strong difpofition to the attainment of any honourable object, it may be depressed by misfortune, or it may be impeded by unkindness; but by a juft and steady perseverance it will, at length, surmount every obstacle.
The climate of Ireland is humid; and, altho pot subject to that rigorous air to which many northern countries are exposed, yet its winter is sometimes fevere, and always extended. Ņature, liberal in fupplying the various necessities of mankind, has covered the plains of this kine pasturage country with a profufion of the fleecy tribe. The inhabitanıs have not been inattentive to this gracious munificence." The austerity of the clime first inftructed them to cloath themselves, the redundancy of the material furnished the means, and suggested the disposition of making it the subject of in extensive and beneficial commerce.
* But these bounties have been poured out in vain! The temper of its industry has fruitlessly, languihed after the object of its wishes---Bound down by the fetters of an illiberal monopoly, this mohappy country has long beep the object of the pity and contempt 'of surrounding nations. It has been pitied as the victim of Eng. lisa avarice and injustice---it has been contemned for a patience 'which no ignomy could aroufe to resentment,
" The conduct of England has been equally impolitic and cruel. It has been impolitic from two causes : first, because the depreslion of the commerce of Ireland is injurious to Britain ; * and next, because the restrictions on this article in particular, have recoiled increased evil on its envious framers.
* England and Britain are put one for another in this pamphlet, and used as synonimous terms.
* The first reason I have alligned for considering the conduct of England impolitic, I have endeavoured to prove under the head of the commerce of Ireland. . That which remains, being the principal object of this essay, I shall now atrempt to illustrate.
6. The most judicious English writers on trade * have been of opinion, that opening the wollen trade of Ireland, would be of advantage to this kingdom. This they prove from the following obvious argument, France is the great rival of England in the woollen trade. She cannot carry on this important branch of her traffic without the allistance of Irish wool. The Irish are compelled to dispose of their wool to France, because the prohibition of England denies them the liberty of its manufacture; therefore the conclusion is inevitable, that whenever the Irish are erabled to resume the right of Nature, they will manufacture all their wooi, and the French will consequently be no longer able to procure it i this formidable competitor will have her industry relaxed, and England will at length discover, that Irish prosperity will rather irradiate than darken the glory and happiness of the empire.
** The confined limits of this temporary work will not permit me to prove in detail the various propofitions of this argument, I fhall content myself with a few cursory remarks, which, I hope, will tend to elucidate this subject.
" When the plague raged at Marseilles, the demand for Englišh woollen cloth, to supply the Turkey, German, Portugal and Spanish crades was incredible, and afforded the most convincing proofs of the large proportion of the consumption of these markets the French had been accustomed to share.
" The wool of France is short and coarse, being, in the languuge of the manufacturers, neither fine in the thiead nor long in the staple. This obliges them to have recourfe to the wool of Ireland, which poffefsess, both these qualities. Aided by a pack of Irish wool, the French are enabled to manufacture two.
“ The arm of vindictive penalty has been stretched out, and the coasts of Ireland have beça guarded by English cruisers without effect, to restrain the exportation of Irish wool. There is a spirit in some articles of commerce which disdains its shackles. The hand of illiberal power may erect its envious but unavailing mounds, the tide of traffic will fill burst over its feeble and impotent barriers.
" Thus the wool of Ireland, in despite of these artificial en. trenchments, finds it way to enrich our foes. England cannot manacle the trade of other countries; but if she cannot be unjuft to all, the will be unjust where it is in her power. In exercising the sword of reftraint against a friend, she opens an avenue to the market for a natural enemy,
It is by a cultivation of the woollen manufacture, and causing a market to be opened at home, that the French would be deprived of this important supply. It is the interest and natural rights of the
# Sir Jofiah Child, Sir M Decker, Poftlethwaite, &c.