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OF

AMERICA BEFORE Columbus

According to Documents and
Approved Authors

BY

P. DE ROO

MEMBER OF THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL CLUB OF THE LAND VAN WAES AND OF THE
UNITED STATES CATHOLIC HISTORICAL SOCIETY; HONORARY MEMBER OF THE
AMERICAN CAtholic HistoriCAL SOCIETY OF PHILADELPHIA

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Illustration: Church Ruins at Kakortok, Greenland... apud iii

Contents. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . V

Illustration: Greenland's Ostrebygd ................. apud 1

Illustration: Voyages and Colonies of the Northmen... apud 1

Illustration: Scandinavian Winland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . apud 1

C H A PTE R I.

ST, BRENDAN's ISLAND AND LEGEND.

European Information; Vatican Archives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

Yucatan Christianized from Spain in A.D. 711 (?). . . . . . . . . . . 2

Island of the Septe Ciudades or Antilia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

Other Fantastic Islands of the Atlantic. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

St. Brendan's Island in the North. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

Migrations of St. Brendan's Island. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

St. Brendan's Island seen and sought . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

St. Brendan's Island in the Northwestern Atlantic. . . . . . . . . 9

St. Brendan's Legend. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

Versions and Translations of the Legend. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

Publications of the Legend. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

The Legend's Mediaeval Fantastic Flourish . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

Father Barinthus's Voyage across the Atlantic . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

Western Happy Lands of the Celts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

Celtic “Imramha” or Tales of the Sea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

Possibility of Ancient Celtic Voyages to America. . . . . . . . . . 18

St. Brendan setting sail. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

St. Brendan's First Voyage, to the Northern Islands. . . . . . . . 21

St. Brendan's Second Voyage, to the Southwest. . . . . . . . . . . . 23

St. Brendan on the American Continent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

Proofs of the Reality of St. Brendan's Voyage. . . . . . . . . . . . 25

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Hamburg made the Metropolis of . . . Greenland and Ice-
land, by Lewis the Pious, in A.D. 831 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Gregory IV. appoints St. Ansgar an Apostolic Delegate for
Iceland, Greenland . . . in A.D. 835. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

The Documents considered as Spurious . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

The Documents accepted as Genuine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

Genuineness proved from Ancient Manuscripts and Publi-

cations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

Ancient Papal Bulls confirming that of Gregory IV. . . . . . . . 52
Papal Bulls, Posterior to Greenland's Discovery by the
Northmen, confirming that of Gregory IV. . . . . . . . . . . . . 54

PAGE
Objection from Archbishop Adalbert's pretended Ambition
refuted. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60

Were Iceland and Greenland unknown before the Scandi-

navian Discovery 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 62

Iceland and Greenland were known before the Scandinavian

Discovery. . . . . . . . . . . . * - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 63

Origin of Greenland's Name. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64

Why Iceland and Greenland suffragan to Hamburg 2 . . . . . . . 66

Discussed names, why omitted in some Copies?... . . . . . . . . . 67

C H A P T E R IV.

THE IRISH ON THE AMERICAN CONTINENT.

Bishops in Iceland and Greenland before A.D. 900 . . . . . . . . . . 68

The Irish expelled from the Shetlands and the Faroes...... 69

The Irish ruined on the Hebrides, exterminated on the

Orkneys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70

The Irish driven away from Iceland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71

Did the Irish pass from Greenland to Continental America,

or vice versa? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

Early intercourse between Ireland and America. . . . . . . . . . . . 73

Scandinavian Sagas, Mexican Traditions, but no Irish

Records . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - - - - 74

Ari Marson in White-Man's Land. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76

Ari Marson's Story, no myth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77

Björn Asbrandson leaving Iceland in a Southwestern Di-

rection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79

Gudleif driven from Ireland to Great Ireland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80

Gudleif saved by Björn Asbrandson. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82

Gudleif returns to Iceland by Ireland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83

Exploration of the American Coast by Thorvald Ericsson... 84

Exploration of America by Thorfinn Karlsefne. . . . . . . . . . . . 85

Information from Esquimaux about White-Man's Land. . . . . 87

Great Ireland known in Europe. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87

Geographical Location of Great Ireland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88

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