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The Northmen ravage all Europe. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116

Iceland discovered by Naddod. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117

Iceland discovered by Gardar and Anba. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118

Iceland discovered by Floke-Rafna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119

Iceland settled by Ingolf and Hiorleif. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120

Iceland, a Republic. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122

Christian Slaves, mainly Irish, the First Apostles of Ice-

land . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123

Arrival of Influential Converted Scandinavians. . . . . . . . . . . 124

Bishop Frederic, First Missionary of Iceland. . . . . . . . . . . . . 126

Other Missionaries of Iceland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126

Formal Conversion of Iceland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127

Missionary Bishops of Iceland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128

First Bishops of Skalholt and of Holar. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130

Christian Education in Iceland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132

Monasteries of Iceland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133

Convents of Iceland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134

Catalogue of the Bishops of Skalholt. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136

Catalogue of the Bishops of Holar. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138

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Gunnbjörn's Skerries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142

Eric the Red discovers Greenland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143

Eric explores Greenland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144

Greenland colonized . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145

Greenland's Location, Northern Lights. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147

Warm Portion of Northern Greenland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148

Central and Southeastern Greenland, One Glacier. . . . . . . . . 150

Southeastern Coasts of Greenland once inhabited. . . . . . . . . 150

Inhabitable Portion of Western Greenland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152

Climate of Southeastern Greenland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152

Greenland's Temperature sinking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153

Causes of Climatic Changes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156

CHA PTE R W III.

RESOURCES AND POPULATION OF ANCIENT GREENLAND.

Stone, Driftwood, Coal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157

Game. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158

Fish . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159

Cattle in Ancient and in Modern Greenland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161

Pastures and Meadows in Greenland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161

Horses, Goats, and Sheep in Greenland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163

Agriculture in Greenland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165

Bill of Fare in Greenland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166

Export. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167

Import. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168

Currency of the Northmen. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168

Ancient Greenland's Population: Settlements and Gaards

of the Northmen. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170

Population of Ancient Greenland larger than that of the

Modern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172

St. Peter's Pence of A.D. 1327 the only Means of Computa-

tion of Greenland's Population . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173

Seven Thousand Families in Greenland in A.D. 1327. . . . . . . 175

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A Christian among the First Greenland Colonists......... #

Christian Family of Thorbjörn Vivilson. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178

King Olaf Tryggvason sends Leif Ericsson as a Missionary

to Greenland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180

Leif Ericsson discovers Continental America. . . . . . . . . . . . . 182

Leif Ericsson converts his Relatives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182

Rapid Conversion of Greenland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184

God's Power the Motive of the Northmen's Conversion. ... 185

First Churches in Greenland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187

First Christian Burials in Greenland ................ ... 187

Liberality of the Greenland Converts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189

Lasting Superstition of the Converted Northmen. . . . . . . . . 189

Servitude in Ancient Greenland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191

The God Thor still remembered. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191

Prophecy of the Dead Thorstein Ericsson. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193

First Missionaries of Greenland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195

Olaf, First Bishop of Greenland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196

Albert or Adalbert, Bishop of Greenland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197

Steines, the First Episcopal See in Greenland............. 198

Two Dioceses in Greenland (?). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199

Eric Gnupson, Bishop of Greenland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201

Eric still a Regionary Bishop. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202

Northern Christianities under the Primate of York, of

Bremen, of Lund, of Bremen again. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203

Primatial Faculty of appointing Bishops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205

C H A P T E R X.

CIVIL GOVERNMENT OF GREENLAND.

Greenland Bishops as Citizens. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207

Eric the Red and his Sons, the First Governors of Green-

land . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207

Place of the People's Councils. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208

Greenland, an Independent Republic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209

Greenland Laws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209

Greenland Magistrates and Prosperity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210

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America discovered by Bjarne Herjulfson (?). . . . . . . . . . . . . 212

American Islands discovered by Bjarne Herjulfson. . . . . . . . 213

Leif Ericsson, the Discoverer of America. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214

Leif preparing for Further Exploration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216

Leif discovers Labrador, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia,

Nantucket, and Nantucket Sound. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217

Leif builds on Mont Haup Bay, Rhode Island. . . . . . . . . . . . 219

Astronomical Location of Leifsbudhir. . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - - 220

Exploration of the Country; Grape-Vines, Timber. . . . . . . . 220

Expedition of Thorvald Ericsson to Winland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222

Exploration to the South of Rhode Island and to the

North . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223

Attack by the Natives; Thorvald killed and buried....... 224

Unsuccessful Voyage of Thorstein Ericsson. . . . . . . . . . . . . 226

Thorstein lands and dies on Lysufiord. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226

Gudrida, Thorstein's Widow, marries Thorfinn Karlsefne... 227

Thorfinn sails for Winland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229

Furdustrandir or Barnstable. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230

Exploration of Nova Scotia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231

The Northmen feeding on Whale Blubber. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232

Thorhall, Karlsefne's Companion, leaving, and enslaved in

Ireland ........ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 232

Karlsefne finds Grapes and Cereals, and builds in Vinland 233

Fish, Game, and White Meats in Winland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234

Features of, and bartering with, the Natives . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235

Birth of Snorre Thorfinnson in America . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237

Battle with the Natives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238

Thorfinn departs from Vinland; explores both South and

North . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239

Homeward Voyage; Information from the Natives . . . . . . . 240

Thorfinn sails to Norway; settles in Iceland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241

Gudrida, Thorfinn's Widow, visits Rome and becomes a

Religieuse in Iceland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242

Mercantile Voyage of Freydisa and of Helge and Finnboge

to Winland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242

Massacre of Helge and all his Crew. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244

Freydisa disgraced . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245

CHA PTE R XII.

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