that our aforenamed son, strong with this high sanc-
tion, and his successors endeavoring to convert the in-
fidels, be more powerful against the attempts of the
devil, We appoint our son himself, the above-named
Ansgar, and his successors as our delegates to all the
surrounding nations: to the Danes, the Swedes, the
Norwegians, the Funelanders, the Greenlanders, the
Helsingers, the Icelanders, the Scritifinns, the Slavo-
nians, and to all the northern and eastern nations, by
whatever name they may be called. -
“And after having bent our head and shoulders over
the body and confession' of St. Peter the Apostle, We
appoint him and his successors as our lieutenants for-
ever, and confer upon them the public faculty of
preaching the gospel, and We ordain that the see of the
Nordalbingians, called Hamburg, consecrated in honor
of the Holy Redeemer and of Mary, his inviolate
mother, be a metropolitan church. Until, however, the
number of consecrators be increased from among the
nations, We, in the meanwhile, intrust to the care of the
Sacred imperial court the consecration of the priests
who are to be the successors. Yet an energetic preacher,
qualified for so important an office, ought always to be
chosen in succession. In regard to the pious wishes of
the revered prince, concerning this charge so important
before God, We sanction them all, even delegating him
our authority to that effect; and any one resisting or
contradicting, or in any way trying to make void these
Our pious desires, We strike with the sword of excommu-
nication, and, guilty as he is of everlasting punishment,
We condemn him to the devil's portion; in order that,
as our predecessors used to do, we may more securely
fortify the apostolic primacy and those who are piously

* That is, the grave.

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zealous in the cause of God against our enemies in every quarter. “And, dearly beloved son, Ansgar, since the divine clemency has chosen you to be the first archbishop of the new see, We confer upon you the pallium wherewith to celebrate solemn Mass; we grant it to be used by you in your lifetime and as a pledge of the established and lasting privileges of your Church. May the Blessed Trinity vouchsafe to preserve you in good health and, after the sufferings of this world, lead you to perpetual bliss. Amen. “Given, 835.”” Few are the words which, in these two documents, relate to our subject, but they are weighty. The names of Iceland and Greenland therein mentioned clearly establish what we learned before in a less satisfactory manner, to wit, that not only Iceland, but the American great island as well, was in the year 831 known to Christian Europe, and contained already such people as, through their religion, were subject to the spiritual jurisdiction of the Roman pontiff, who confided them to the superintendence of his delegate, St. Ansgar. This unavoidable conclusion is so startling, however, and seems to be so directly opposed to some data of the venerable Icelandic sagas, that not a few learned men have, upon the slightest reasons, declared both the imperial decree and the pontifical bull to be either forged altogether or, at least, interpolated. Lappenberg," Klempin,” and Dümmler “consider the documents as entirely spurious.” Their sweeping criticism is condemned by all others; but several writers,

1 See Document XXIII. * Ostfr. Reich., i. S. 264. * Hamburgisches Urkunden- * Ap. Jaffé, Loewenfeld, t. i. p. buch, i. S. 788, 793. 324.

* Pommersches Urkundenbuch, i. S. 2.

while generally admitting the authenticity of the parch-
ments, pretend that the names of “Norwegians, Fu-
nelanders, Greenlanders, Helsingers, Icelanders, and
Scritifinns” have been intercalated in subsequent copies;
leaving as genuine only those of “Danes, Swedes, and
Slavonians.” They reason a priori, and, starting from
the supposition that the former nations were wholly
unknown to Lewis the Pious, conclude that he could
not mention their names.
The older and the more important authors who have
followed this opinion are Torfaeus,' Arngrim Jonas,
and Theodore Thorlak,” who rely on the text of the
Sagas of Iceland; the Bollandists,” Langebek," and
Maltebrun,” followed by several modern copyists like
Gaffarel, who, not suspecting that Christian Irishmen
were in “Cronland” before the Scandinavians, adds
that the bull, if genuine, would prove the presence of
the Northmen in Greenland a century and a half be-
fore their actual arrival." Our erudite historian, Justin
Winsor, is less positive, though more confused, when
he makes the curious remark that “It has sometimes
been contended that a bull of Gregory IV., in A.D.
770, referred to Greenland. . . . A bull of A.D. 853,
in Pontanus's ‘Rerum Danicarum Historia,’ is also
held to indicate that there were earlier peoples in
Greenland than those from Iceland.”"
The latter portion of Winsor's note is correct, while
Pontanus asserts that the emperor, Lewis, in his pious

'Gronl. Ant., Praef., p. 44. Catholic Quarterly Review (vol. * Letronne, p. 140; Moosmüller, xiv. p. 598) charges B. F. De Costa S. 32,39; Rafn, Antiq. Amer., p. 13. with pronouncing the bull of Greg"Acta SS., ad 3 Febr., xiii. p. ory IV. as “beyond question a

411. fraud;” but De Costa does not say ‘T. i. p. 451, n. z ; t. ii. p. 126, so, at least not in the second edi

n, q. tion of his “Precolumbian Discov* Letronne, p. 140. ery.” See p. 25, n. 1.

"T. i. p. 293. The American " Vol. i. p. 61, n. 5.

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zeal and with the approval of the ecclesiastical senate, made Ansgar archbishop of Hamburg and confided to his care the northern people, the Danes, Norwegians, Swedes, Finns, and others more remote than these, namely, the Icelanders and Greenlanders.' Long before the Danish great historian, the illustrious Trogillus Arnkel assigned the conversion of Greenland to the time of Archbishop Ansgar, and Torfaeus testifies already that this opinion had been defended by so many learned men that it had acquired an incontestable authority which it would be rashness to contradict.” Other ancient writers, like John Messenius” and Bussaeus,' admit the authenticity of the entire documents." David Crantz writes in his History of Greenland: "“The calculation of Lyschander is corroborated by a bull issued by Pope Gregory IV. in the year 835, wherein the conversion of the northern nations, and, in express words, of the Icelanders and Greenlanders, is committed to the first northern apostle Ansgarius, who had been appointed archbishop of Hamburg by the emperor, Lewis the Pious. If this bull is authentic, which we find no reason to doubt, Greenland must have been discovered and planted one hundred and fifty years earlier, about 830 [or earlier yet], by the Icelanders or the Norwegians,”—or, rather, by the Irish. The genuineness of the bull is demonstrated by such men as Simson," Koppmann,” and Dehio;" and the great critic Pagi admits Iceland and Greenland as

* Pontanus, lib. iv. ad an. 833. " Vol. i. p. 244.

* Gronl. Ant. Praef., p. 44. " Jahrbücher des Frankischen

* Scandia Illustrata, ed. 1700, t. i. Reichs, ii. 281. pp. 63, 68, 76; t. ii. p. 87. * Zeitschrift des Vereins für

* In ed. Schedarum Arii Poly- Hamb. Gesch., Bd. v. S. 494. historis, p. 32; cf. Rafn, Ant. * Erzb. Hamburg-Bremen, Bd. i. Amer., p. 13. S. 65, and Anm., pp. 7, 12; ap.

* Moosmüller, S. 32. Jaffé, Loewenfeld, t. i. p. 324.

mentioned portions of St. Ansgar's jurisdiction." Pey-
rère and several more authors, both ancient and modern,
rely upon the bull of Gregory IV. to determine the
question of Greenland's discovery and colonization in
the year 830 or before,” whilst Cooley declares that
criticism, in considering the Patents as either forged or
interpolated, assumes a character so arbitrary that it
cannot escape the suspicion of injustice.”
After adducing all such authorities we might dis-
miss the further discussion of the authenticity of the
two documents, but their importance is so great that
we consider it our duty to propose a few intrinsic argu-
ments by which the reader may form an enlightened
Opinion for himself.
The most convincing evidences should be the texts
of the ancient manuscript copies of the Diplomas. The
parchment preserved among the Hanoverian archives
may not be the original bull of Gregory IV.," but it is
highly venerable with age, and it reads the names under
consideration in the following manner: “ . . . Dele-
gates to all the surrounding nations of ‘Danorum, Sue-
Onum, Norvehorum, Farrie, Gronlandan, Halsingo-
landan, Islandan, Scridevindun, Slavorum,’ and . . .”
So also are the same names given by the other ancient
codices, and in particular by the Hamburghensian and
the Budecensian.” The text of the Codex of Udalric of
Babenberg is: “ . . . Danorum, Gronlandon, Islandon
et Omnium . . . ;" that of the Codex Vicelini: “. . . Sue-
Onum, Norweqrum, Farne, Gronlandan, Islondan, Scri-

"Baronius, t. xiv. ad an. 832; * Amer. Cath. Quar. Rev., vol. Pagi, ibid.," x. xiv. p. 601.

'Amer. Cath. Quar. Rev., vol. * Ap. Eccard, Corpus Hist., ii. xiv. p. 598. 119 ; Jaffé, Loewenfeld, t. i. p. 324;

"Histoire Générale, t. i. p. 215. Beauvois, Origines, p. 10, n. 2.
“Beauvois, Origines, p. 10, n. 1;
Jaffé, Loewenfeld, t. i. p. 324.

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