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that our aforenamed son, strong with this high sanc-
* That is, the grave.
zealous in the cause of God against our enemies in every quarter. “And, dearly beloved son, Ansgar, since the divine clemency has chosen you to be the first archbishop of the new see, We confer upon you the pallium wherewith to celebrate solemn Mass; we grant it to be used by you in your lifetime and as a pledge of the established and lasting privileges of your Church. May the Blessed Trinity vouchsafe to preserve you in good health and, after the sufferings of this world, lead you to perpetual bliss. Amen. “Given, 835.”” Few are the words which, in these two documents, relate to our subject, but they are weighty. The names of Iceland and Greenland therein mentioned clearly establish what we learned before in a less satisfactory manner, to wit, that not only Iceland, but the American great island as well, was in the year 831 known to Christian Europe, and contained already such people as, through their religion, were subject to the spiritual jurisdiction of the Roman pontiff, who confided them to the superintendence of his delegate, St. Ansgar. This unavoidable conclusion is so startling, however, and seems to be so directly opposed to some data of the venerable Icelandic sagas, that not a few learned men have, upon the slightest reasons, declared both the imperial decree and the pontifical bull to be either forged altogether or, at least, interpolated. Lappenberg," Klempin,” and Dümmler “consider the documents as entirely spurious.” Their sweeping criticism is condemned by all others; but several writers,
1 See Document XXIII. * Ostfr. Reich., i. S. 264. * Hamburgisches Urkunden- * Ap. Jaffé, Loewenfeld, t. i. p. buch, i. S. 788, 793. 324.
* Pommersches Urkundenbuch, i. S. 2.
while generally admitting the authenticity of the parch-
'Gronl. Ant., Praef., p. 44. Catholic Quarterly Review (vol. * Letronne, p. 140; Moosmüller, xiv. p. 598) charges B. F. De Costa S. 32,39; Rafn, Antiq. Amer., p. 13. with pronouncing the bull of Greg"Acta SS., ad 3 Febr., xiii. p. ory IV. as “beyond question a
411. fraud;” but De Costa does not say ‘T. i. p. 451, n. z ; t. ii. p. 126, so, at least not in the second edi
n, q. tion of his “Precolumbian Discov* Letronne, p. 140. ery.” See p. 25, n. 1.
"T. i. p. 293. The American " Vol. i. p. 61, n. 5.
zeal and with the approval of the ecclesiastical senate, made Ansgar archbishop of Hamburg and confided to his care the northern people, the Danes, Norwegians, Swedes, Finns, and others more remote than these, namely, the Icelanders and Greenlanders.' Long before the Danish great historian, the illustrious Trogillus Arnkel assigned the conversion of Greenland to the time of Archbishop Ansgar, and Torfaeus testifies already that this opinion had been defended by so many learned men that it had acquired an incontestable authority which it would be rashness to contradict.” Other ancient writers, like John Messenius” and Bussaeus,' admit the authenticity of the entire documents." David Crantz writes in his History of Greenland: "“The calculation of Lyschander is corroborated by a bull issued by Pope Gregory IV. in the year 835, wherein the conversion of the northern nations, and, in express words, of the Icelanders and Greenlanders, is committed to the first northern apostle Ansgarius, who had been appointed archbishop of Hamburg by the emperor, Lewis the Pious. If this bull is authentic, which we find no reason to doubt, Greenland must have been discovered and planted one hundred and fifty years earlier, about 830 [or earlier yet], by the Icelanders or the Norwegians,”—or, rather, by the Irish. The genuineness of the bull is demonstrated by such men as Simson," Koppmann,” and Dehio;" and the great critic Pagi admits Iceland and Greenland as
* Pontanus, lib. iv. ad an. 833. " Vol. i. p. 244.
* Gronl. Ant. Praef., p. 44. " Jahrbücher des Frankischen
* Scandia Illustrata, ed. 1700, t. i. Reichs, ii. 281. pp. 63, 68, 76; t. ii. p. 87. * Zeitschrift des Vereins für
* In ed. Schedarum Arii Poly- Hamb. Gesch., Bd. v. S. 494. historis, p. 32; cf. Rafn, Ant. * Erzb. Hamburg-Bremen, Bd. i. Amer., p. 13. S. 65, and Anm., pp. 7, 12; ap.
* Moosmüller, S. 32. Jaffé, Loewenfeld, t. i. p. 324.
mentioned portions of St. Ansgar's jurisdiction." Pey-
"Baronius, t. xiv. ad an. 832; * Amer. Cath. Quar. Rev., vol. Pagi, ibid.," x. xiv. p. 601.
'Amer. Cath. Quar. Rev., vol. * Ap. Eccard, Corpus Hist., ii. xiv. p. 598. 119 ; Jaffé, Loewenfeld, t. i. p. 324;
"Histoire Générale, t. i. p. 215. Beauvois, Origines, p. 10, n. 2.