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THEOLOGICAL WRITERS.

that one of his parents asked him, when he was and to conceive Him as filling the infinite extent of
very young, Whether God could do every thing? both with his presence and with his power. Hence
He answered, Yes! He was asked again, Whether we associate with the idea of God those awful im-
God could tell a lie? He answered, No! And he pressions which are naturally produced by the idea
understood the question to suppose that this was the of infinite space, and perhaps still more by the idea
only thing that God could not do; nor durst he say, of endless duration. Nor is this all. It is from the
80 young was he then, that he thought there was immensity of space that the notion of infinity is
anything else which God could not do; while yet originally derived ; and it is hence that we transfer
he well remembered, that he had even then a clear the expression, by a sort of metaphor, to other sub-
conviction in his own mind, that there was one jects. When we speak, therefore, of infinite power,
thing which God could not do that he could not wisdom, and goodness, our notions, if not wholly
annihilate that space which was in the room where borrowed from space, are at least greatly aided by
they were.' This opinion concerning the necessary this analogy; so that the conceptions of immensity
existence of space became a leading feature in the and eternity, if they do not of themselves demon-
mind of the future philosopher. At Caius' college, strate the existence of God, yet necessarily enter
Cambridge, Clarke cultivated natural philosophy into the ideas we form of his nature and attributes.'*
with such success, that in his twenty-second year How beautifully has Pope clothed this magnificent
he published an excellent translation of Rohault's conception in verse !
Physics, with notes, in which he advocated the
Newtonian system, although that of Descartes was

• All are but parts of one stupendous whole, taught by Rohault, whose work was at that time the

Whose body nature is, and God the soul ; text-book in the university. * And this certainly,'

That, changed through all, and yet in all the same; says Bishop Hoadly, 'was a more prudent method

Great in the earth as in the ethereal frame ; of introducing truth unknown before, than to at

Warms in the sun, refreshes in the breeze,

Glows in the stars, and blossoms in the trees; tempt to throw aside this treatise entirely, and write a new one instead of it. The success answered

Lives through all life, extends through all extent, exceedingly well to his hopes ; and he may justly

Spreads undivided, operates unspent.'t be styled a great benefactor to the university in this The followers of Spinoza built their pernicious attempt. For by this means the true philosophy theory, upon the same argument of endless space; but has, without any noise, prevailed ; and to this day Pope has spiritualised the idea by placing God as the translation of Rohault is, generally speaking, the the soul of all, and Clarke's express object was to standard text for lectures, and his notes the first show that the subtleties they had advanced against direction to those who are willing to receive the religion, might be better employed in its favour. reality and truth of things in the place of inven- Such a mode of argument, however, is beyond the tion and romance.' Four editions of Clarke's trans- faculties of man; and Whiston only repeated a comlation of Rohault were required before it ceased mon and obvious truth, when he told Clarke that in to be used in the university; but at length it was the commonest weed in his garden were contained superseded by treatises in which the Newtonian better arguments for the being and attributes of the philosophy was avowedly adopted. llaving entered Deity than in all his metaphysics. the church, Clarke found a patron and friend in Dr The next subject that engaged the studies of Moore, bishop of Norwich, and was appointed his Clarke was a Defence of the Immateriality and Immorchaplain. Between the years 1699 and 1702, he tality of the Soul, in reply to Mr Henry Dodwell and published several theological essays on baptism, Collins. He also translated Newton's Optics into repentance, &c., and executed paraphrases of the Latin, and was rewarded by his guide, philosopher, four evangelists, Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. and friend, with a present of L.500. In 1709 he obThese tracts were afterwards published in two tained the rectory of St James's, Westminster, took volumes. The bishop next gave him a living at his degree of D.D., and was made chaplain in ordiNorwich ; and his reputation stood so high, that in nary to the queen. In 1712 he edited a splendid 1704 he was appointed to preach the Boyle lecture. edition of Cæsar's Commentaries, with corrections His boyish musings on eternity and space were now and emendations, and also gave to the world an elarevived. He selected as the subject of his first borate treatise on the Scripture Doctrine of the Tricourse of lectures, the Being and Attributes of God; nity. The latter involved him in considerable trouble and the second year he chose the Evidences of with the church authorities; for Clarke espoused the Natural and Revealed Religion. The lectures were Arian doctrine, which he also advocated in a series published in two volumes, and attracted notice and of sermons. He next appeared as a controversialist controversy from their containing Clarke's cele. with Leibnitz, the German philosopher, who had brated argument a priori for the existence of God, represented to the Princess of Wales, afterwards the the germ of which is comprised in a Scholium an- queen consort of George II., that the Newtonian nexed to Newton's Principia. According to Sir Isaac philosophy was not only physically false, but injuand his scholar, as inmensity and eternity are not rious to religion. Sir Isaac Newton, at the request substances, but attributes, the immense and eternal of the princess, entered the lists on the mathematiBeing, whose attributes they are, must exist of cal part of the controversy, and left the philosophinecessity also. The existence of God, therefore, is a cal part of it to Dr Clarke. The result was triumtruth that follows with demonstrative evidence from phant for the English system; and Clarke, in 1717, those conceptions of space and time which are inse collected and published the papers which had passed parable from the human mind. Professor Dugald between him and Leibnitz. In 1724, he put to press Stewart, though considering that Clarke, in pursu- a series of sermons, seventeen in number. Many of ing this lofty argument, soared into regions where them are excellent, but others are tinctured with he was lost in the clouds, admits the grandness of his metaphysical predilections. He aimed at renthe conception, and its connexion with the prin- dering scriptural principle a precept conformable to ciples of natural religion. "For when once we have what he calls eternal reason and the fitness of things, established, from the evidences of design everywhere and hence his sermons have failed in becoming popumanifested around us, the existence of an intelligent and powerful cause, we are unavoidably led to apply * Stewart's Dissertation, Encyclopaedia Britannica. to this cause our conceptions of immensity and eternity, Essay on Man.-Ep. I.

663

lar or useful. "He who aspires,' says Robert Hall, tosh, that Dr Clarke was a man eminent at once as 'to a reputation that shall survive the vicissitudes a divine, a mathematician, a metaphysical philoof opinion and of time, must aim at some other cha- sopher, and a philologer; and, as the interpreter racter than that of a metaphysician.' In his prac. of Homer and Cæsar, the scholar of Newton, and tical sermons, however, there is much sound and the antagonist of Leibnitz, approved himself not admirable precept. In 1727, Dr Clarke was offered, unworthy of correspondence with the highest order but declined, the appointment of Master of the Mint, of human spirits.' vacant by the death of his illustrious friend, Newton. The situation was worth £1500 a-year, and the dis- (Natural and Essential Difference of Right and Wrong.) interestedness and integrity of Clarke were strikingly evinced by his declining to accept an office of The principal thing that can, with any colour of such honour and emoluments, because he could not reason, seem to countenance the opinion of those who reconcile himself to a secular employment. His deny the natural and eternal difference of good and conduct and character must have excited the admi- evil, is the difficulty there may sometimes be to deration of the queen, for we learn from a satirical fine exactly the bounds of right and wrong; the allusion in Pope's Moral Epistle on the Use of variety of opinions that have obtained even among Riches (first published in 1731), that her majesty understanding and learned men, concerning certain had placed a bust of Dr Clarke in her hermitage in questions of just and unjust, especially in political the royal grounds. “The doctor duly frequented matters ; and the many contrary laws that have been the court,' says Pope in a note ; but he should made in divers ages and in different countries conhave added,' rejoins Warburton, with the inno- cerning these matters. But as, in painting, two very cence and disinterestedness of a hermit.' In 1729, different colours, by diluting each other very slowly Clarke published the first twelve books of the Iliad, and gradually, may, from the highest intenseness in with a Latin version and copious annotations ; and either extreme, terminate in the midst insensibly, and Homer has never had a more judicious or acute so run one into the other, that it shall not be possible commentator. The last literary efforts of this inde- even for a skilful eye to determine exactly where the fatigable scholar were devoted to drawing up an

one ends and the other begins; and yet the colours may Exposition of the Church Catechism, and preparing really differ as much as can be, not in degree only, but several volumes of sermons for the press. These entirely in kind, as red and blue, or white and black: were not published till after his death, which took so, though it may perhaps be very difficult in some nice place on the 17th of May 1729. The various talents and perplexed cases (which yet are very far from ocand learning of Dr Clarke, and his easy cheerful curring frequently) to define exactly the bounds of disposition, earned for him the highest admiration right and wrong, just and unjust and there may be and esteem of his contemporaries. As a metaphy

some latitude in the judgment of different men, and the sician, he was inferior to Locke in comprehensive laws of divers nations), yet right and wrong are neverness and originality, but possessed more skill and theless in themselves totally and essentially different; logical foresight (the natural result of his habits eren altogether as much as white and black, light and of mathematical study); and he has been justly their youth to steal, may, as absurd as it was, bear

darkness. The Spartan law, perhaps, which permitted celebrated for the boldness and ability with which he placed himself in the breach against the Neces- much dispute whether it was absolutely unjust or no; sitarians and Fatalists of his times. His moral because every man, having an absolute right in his doctrine (which supposes virtue to consist in the

own goods, it may seem that the members of any regulation of our conduct according to certain fit- society may agree to transfer or alter their own pronesses which we perceive in things, or a peculiar if it could be supposed that a law had been made at

perties upon what conditions they shall think fit. But congruity of certain relations to each other) being Sparta, or at Rome, or in India, or in any other part inconsequential unless we have previously distin of the world, whereby it had been commanded or guished the ends which are morally good from those allowed that every man might rob by violence, and that are evil, and limited the conformity to one of murder whomsoever he met with, or that no faith these classes, has been condemned by Dr Thomas should be kept with any man, por any equitable com. Brown and Sir James Mackintosh.* His specula- pacts performed, no man, with any tolerable use of tions were over-refined, and seem to have been co-his reason, whatever diversity of judgment might be loured by his fondness for mathematical studies, in among them in other matters, would have thought forgetfulness that mental philosophy cannot, like that such a law could have authorised or excused, physical, be demonstrated by axioms and definitions much less have justified such actions, and have made in the manner of the exact sciences. On the whole, them become good : because 'tis plainly not in men's we may say, in the emphatic language of Mackin- power to make falsehood be truth, though they may

alter the property of their goods as they please. Now * See Brown's Philosophy and the Dissertations of Stewart if, in flagrant cases, the natural and essential differand Mackintosh. Warburton, in his notes on

ence between good and evil, right and wrong, cannot up the moral doctrine : Dr Clarke and Wollaston considered but be confessed to be plainly and undeniably evident, moral obligation as arising from the essential differences and the difference between them must be also essential and relations of things; Shaftesbury and Hutcheson, as arising unalterable in all, even the smallest, and nicest and from the moral sense ; and the generality of divines, as arising most intricate cases, though it be not so easy to be solely from the will of God. On these three principles practi

. discerned and accurately distinguished. For if, from cal morality has been built by these different writers. Thus the difficulty of determining exactly the bounds of right has God been pleased,' adds Warburton, to give three differ- and wrong in many perplexed cases, it could truly be ent excitements to the practice of virtue ; that men of all ranks, concluded that just and unjust were not essentially constitutions, and educations, might find their account in one or other of them; something that would hit their palate, different by nature, but only by positive constitution batisfy their reason, or subdue their will. But this admirable and custom, it would follow equally, that they were provision for the support of virtue hath been in some measure

not really, essentially, and unalterably different, eren defeated by its pretended advocates, who have sacrilegiously in the most flagrant cases that can be supposed; untwisted this threefold cord, and each running away with which is an assertion so very absurd, that Mr Hobbes the part he esteemed the strongest, hath affixed that to the himself could hardly rent it without blushing, and throne of God, as the golden chain that is to unite and draw discovering plainly, by his shifting expressions, his all to it.'-Divine Legation, book i.

secret self-condemnation. There are therefore certain

thus sums

DR BENJAMIN HOADLY.

necessary and eternal differences of things, and cer- took up Hoadly's works with warmth, and passed a tain fitnesses or unfitnesses of the application of dif- censure upon them, as calculated to subvert the ferent things, or different relations one to another, not government and discipline of the church, and to depending on any positive constitutions, but founded impugn and impeach the regal supremacy in matunchangeably in the nature and reason of things, and ters ecclesiastical. The controversy was conducted unavoidably arising from the differences of the things with unbecoming violence, and several bishops and themselves.

other grave divines (the excellent Sherlock among

the number) forgot the dignity of their station and DR WILLIAM LOWTH.

the spirit of Christian charity in the heat of party

warfare. Pope alludes sarcastically to Hoadly's DR WILLIAM LowTH (1661-1732) was distin

sermon in the 'Dunciad'guished for his classical and theological attainments, and the liberality with which he communicated his Toland and Tindal, prompt at priests to jeer, stores to others. He published a Vindication of the Yet silent bowed to Christ's no kingdom here. Divine Authority and Inspiration of the Old and New The truth, however, is, that there was nothing Testaments (1692), Directions for the Profitable Read- whatever in Hoadly's sermon injurious to the estaing of the Holy Scriptures, Commentaries on the Pro-blished endowments and privileges, nor to the disphets

, &c. He furnished notes on Clemens Alex. cipline and government of the English church, even andrinus for Potter's edition of that ancient author, in theory. If this had been the case, he might have remarks on Josephus for Hudson's edition, and annotations on the ecclesiastical historians for Read been reproached with some inconsistency in becoming's Cambridge edition of those authors. He also ing so large a partaker of her honours and emolu. assisted Dr Chandler in his Defence of Christianity for open immoralities, though denying all church

ments. He even admitted the usefulness of censures from the Prophecies. His learning is said to have been equally extensive and profound, and he accom- authority to oblige any one to external communion, panied all his reading with critical and philological condition of men with respect to the favour or dis

or to pass any sentence which should determine the remarks. Born in London, Dr Lowth took his de- pleasure of God. Another great question in this grees at Oxford, and experiencing the countenance and support of the bishop of Winchester, became controversy was that of religious liberty as a civil the chaplain of that prelate, a prebend of the another related to the much debated exercise of

right, which the convocation explicitly denied. And cathedral of Winchester, and rector of Buriton.

private judgment in religion, which, as one party meant virtually to take away, so the other perhaps

unreasonably exaggerated.'* The style of Hoadly's Dr BENJAMIN HOADLY, successively bishop of controversial treatises is strong and logical, but Bangor, Hereford, Salisbury, and Winchester, was a

without any of the graces of composition, and hence prelate of great controversial ability, who threw the they have fallen into comparative oblivion. He was weight of his talents and learning into the scale of author of several other works, as Terms of AccepWhig politics, at that time fiercely attacked by tance, Reasonableness of Conformity, Treatise on the the Tory and Jacobite parties. Hoadly was born Sacrament, &c. A complete edition of his works in 1676. In 1706,* while rector of St Peter's-le-Poor, was published by his son in three folio volumes ; London, he attacked a sermon by Atterbury, and his sermons are now considered the most valuable thus incurred the enmity and ridicule of Swift portion of his writings. There can be no doubt and Pope.

He defended the revolution of 1688, that the independent and liberal mind of Hoadly, and attacked the doctrines of divine right and aided by his station in the church, tended materially passive obedience with such vigour and perse

to stem the torrent of slavish submission which then verance, that, in 1709, the House of Commons re- prevailed in the church of England. commended him to the favour of the queen. Her

The first extract is from Hoadly's sermon on The majesty does not appear to have complied with this Nature of the Kingdom or Church of Christ, preached request ; but her successor, George I., elevated him before the king on 31st March, 1717, and which, to the see of Bangor. Shortly after his elevation to as already mentioned, gave rise to the celebrated the bench, Hoadly published a work against the Bangorian controversy. nonjurors, and a sermon preached before the king at Št James's, on the Nature of the Kingdom or [The Kingdom of Christ not of this world.] Church of Christ. The latter excited a long and vehement dispute, known by the name of the Ban

If, therefore, the church of Christ be the kingdom gorian Controversy, in which forty or fifty tracts of Christ, it is essential to it that Christ himself be were published. The Lower House of Convocation the sole lawgiver and sole judge of his subjects, in all

points relating to the favour or displeasure of Almighty * Hoadly printed, in 1702, · A Letter to the Rev. Mr Fleet- God; and that all his subjects, in what station soever wood, occasioned by his Essay on Miracles. In the preface to they may be, are equally subjects to him; and that a volume of tracts published in 1715, in which that letter was no one of them, any more than another, hath authoreprinted, the eminent author speaks of Fleetwood in the fol- rity either to make new laws for Christ's subjects, or lowing terms:- This contains some points, relating to the to impose a sense upon the old ones, whică is the subject of miracles, in which I differed long ago from an ex- same thing; or to judge, censure, or punish the sercellent person, now advanced, by his merits, to one of the vants of another master, in matters relating purely to highest stations in the church. When it first appeared in the conscience or salvation. If any person hath any other world, he had too great a soul to make the common return of notion, either through a long use of words with inconresentment or contempt, or to esteem a difference of opinion, sistent meanings, or through a negligence of thought, expressed with civility, to be an unpardonable affront. So far from it, that he not only was pleased to express some good be the kingdom of Christ or not; and if it be, whether

let him but ask himself whether the church of Christ liking of the manner of it, but laid hold on an opportunity: this notion of it doth not absolutely exclude all other which then immediately offered itself, of doing the writer a very considerable piece of service. I think myself obliged, legislators and judges in matters relating to conscience upon this occasion, to acknowledge this in a public manner,

or the favour of God, or whether it can be his kingwishing that such a procedure may at length cease to be uncommon and singular.'

llallam's Constitutional History of England.

dom if any ilortal ren have such a power of legisla- contrary to the interests of true relire, i tion and judgment in it. This inquiry will bring us plainly opposite to the Farins up to Chris back to the first, which is the only true account of the fuarded his kingdon; bo chose the petites who church of Christ, or the kingdom of Christ, in the are bot of this world, to suppeta Esgia thich is south of a Christian ; that it is the number of men, not of this world. And indeed it is too risible to be whether small or great, whether dispersed or united, bid, that wherever the rewards and punishments are who truly and sincerely are subjects to Jesus Christ changed from fature to present, from the world to alone as ibeir law.ziver and judge in matters relating come to the world now in possession, there the king. to the favour of God and their eternal salvation. dom founded by our Saviour is in the sature of it,

The next principal point is, that, if the church be so far changed, that it is terorde, in sach a degree, the kingdom of Christ, and this ‘kingdom be not of what he professed his kingdon tus 164--shat is, of this world,' this must appear from the nature and end this world; of the saice sort with other cota of the laws of Christ, and of those rewards and punish- earthly kingdoms, in which the rwards are worldly ments which are the sanctions of his laws. Now, his honours, posts, offices, pomp, attendance, dominica; laws are declarations relating to the favour of God in and the punishments are prisons, fines, basistmests

, another state after this. They are declarations of galleys and racks, or something less of the same sert those conditions to be performed in this world on our part, without which God will not make us happy in (Ironical Viere of Protestant Infallibility.] that to come. And they are almost all general ap

(From the Dedication to Pope Clément XL, preised to peals to the will of that God; to his nature, known

R. Steele's Account of the State of the Roman Casbožie Re by the common reason of mankind, and to the imitation of that nature, which must be our perfection.

ligion throughout the World'] The keeping his coinmandments is declared the way Your holiness is not perhaps aware how near the to life, and the doing his will the entrance into the churches of us Protestants have at length come to kingdom of heaven. The being subjects to Christ, is those privileges and perfections which you boast of as to this very end, that we may the better and more peculiar to your own : so near, that many of the effectually perform the will of God. The laws of this most quick-sighted and sagacious persons bare not kingdom, therefore, as Christ left them, have nothing been able to discover any other difference between us, of this world in their view; no tendency either to the as to the main principle of all doctrine, government, exaltation of some in worldly pomp and dignity, or worship, and discipline, but this one, nameiy, that to their absolute dominion over the faith and religious you cannot err in anything you determine, and we conduct of others of his subjects, or to the erecting of nerer do: that is, in other words, that you are infal. any sort of temporal kingdom under the covert and lible, and we always in the right. We can not but name of a spiritual one.

esteem the advantage to be exceedingly on our side The sanctions of Christ's law are rewards and punish- in this case; because we have all the benefits of in. ments. But of what sort ? Not the rewards of this fallibility without the absurdity of pretending to it, world ; not the offices or glories of this state; not the and without the uneasy task of maintaining a point pains of prisons, banishments, fines, or any lesser and so shocking to the understanding of mankind. And inore moderate penalties; nay, not the much lesser you must pardon us if we cannot help thinking it to negative discouragements that belong to human so be as great and as glorious a privilege in * to be ciety. He was far from thinking that these could be always in the right, without the pretence to infallithe instruments of such a persuasion as he thought bility, as it can be in you to be always in the wrong, acceptable to God. But, as the great end of his king with it. dom was to guide men to happiness after the short Thus, the synod of Dort (for whose unerring deci images of it were over here below, so he took his sious public thanks to Almighty God are every three motives from that place where his kingdom first be years offered up with the greatest solemnity by the gan, and where it was at last to end; from those re- magistrates in that country), the councils of the rewards and punishments in a future state, which had forined in France, the assembly of the kirk of Scotno relation to this world ; and to show that his ‘king- land, and (if I may presume to name it) the convocadom was not of this world,' all the sanctions which he tion of England, have been all found to have the very thought fit to give to his laws were not of this world same unquestionable authority which your church at all.

claims, solely upon the infallibility which resides in St Paul understood this go well, that he gives an it; and the people to be under the very same strict account of his own conduct, and that of others in the obligation of obedience to their determinations, which same station, in these words : ‘Knowing the terrors of with you is the consequence only of an absolute inthe Lord, we persuade men: whereas, in too many fallibility. The reason, therefore, why we do not Christian countries since his days, if some who profess openly set up an infallibility is, because we can do to succeed him were to give an account of their own without it. Authority results as well from power as conduct, it must be in a quite contrary strain : *Know- frorn right, and a majority of votes is as strong a ing the terrors of this world, and having them in our foundation for it as infallibility itself. Councils that power, we do not persuade men, but force their out. may err, never do: and besides, being composed of ward profession against their inward persuasion.' men whose peculiar business it is to be in the right,

Now, wherever this is practised, whether in a great it is very immodest for any private person to think degree or a small, in that place there is so far a change them not so; because this is to set up a private from a kingdom which is not of this world, to a king-corrupted understanding above a public uncorrupted dom which is of this world. As soon as ever you hear judgment. of any of the engines of this world, whether of the Thus it is in the north, as well as the south; greater or the lesser sort, you must immediately think abroad, as well as at home. All maintain the exercise that then, and so far, the kingdom of this world takes of the same authority in themselves, which yet they place. For, if the very essence of God's worship be know not how so much as to speak of without ridicule spirit and truth, if religion be virtue and charity, in others. under the belief of a Supreme Governor and Judge, if In England it stands thus : The synod of Dort is true real faith cannot be the effect of force, and if of no weight; it determined many doctrines wrong. there can be no reward where there is no willing The assembly of Scotland hath nothing of a true choice-then, in all or any of these cases, to apply authority ; and is very much out in its scheme of force or flattery, worldly pleasure or pain, is to act doctrines, worship, and government. But the church

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CHARLES LESLIE,

2

of England is vested with all authority, and justly which, above all others, a difference of opinion is most
challengeth all obedience.

allowable ; such as are acknowledged to be very ab-
If one crosses a river in the north, there it stands struse and unintelligible, and to have been in all ages
thus : The church of England is not enough reform- thought of and judged of with the same difference and
ed ; its doctrines, worship, and government, have too variety.
much of antichristian Rome in them. But the kirk
of Scotland hath a divine right from its only head,
Jesus Christ, to meet and to enact what to it shall
seem fit, for the good of his church.

CHARLES LESLIE (1650–1722), author of a work
Thus, we left you for your enormous unjustifiable still popular, A Short and Easy Method with the
claim to an unerring spirit, and have found out a Deists, was a son of a bishop of Clogher, who is said
way, unknown to your holiness and your predecessors, to have been of a Scottish family. Educated at
of claiming all the rights that belong to infallibility, Trinity college, Dublin, Charles Leslie studied the
even whilst we disclaim and abjure the thing itself.

As for us of the church of England, if we will believe many of its greatest advocates, we have bishops in & succession as certainly uninterrupted from the apostles, as your church could communicate it to us. And upon this bottom, which makes us a true church, we have a right to separate from you ; but no persons living have a right to differ or separate from us. And they, again, who differ from us, value themselves upon something or other in which we are supposed defective, or upon being free from some superfluities which we enjoy ; and think it hard, that any will be still going further, and refine upon their scheme of worship and discipline.

Thus we have indeed left you ; but we have fixed ourselves in your seat, and make no scruple to resemble you in our defences of ourselves and censures of others whenever we think it proper.

We have all sufficiently felt the load of the two
topics of heresy and schism. We have been persecuted,
hanged, burned, massacred (as your holiness well
knows) for heretics and schismatics. But all this hath
not made us sick of those two words. We can still
throw them about us, and play them off upon others,
as plentifully and as fiercely as they are dispensed to
us from your quarter. It often puts me in mind
(your holiness must allow me to be a little ludicrous, if
you admit me to your conversation), it often, I say,
puts me in mind of a play which I have seen amongst

Charles Leslie.
some merry people : a man strikes his next neigh-
bour with all his force, and he, instead of returning it law in London, but afterwards turned his attention to
to the man who gave it, communicates it, with equal divinity, and in 1680 took orders. As chancellor of
zeal and strength, to another; and this to another ;

the cathedral of Connor, he distinguished himself by
and so it circulates, till it returns perhaps to him who several disputations with Catholic divines, and by
set the sport agoing. Thus your holiness begins the the boldness with which he opposed the pro-popish
attack. You call us heretics and schismatics, and designs of King James. Nevertheless, at the revo-
burn and destroy us as such ; though, God knows, Ilution, he adopted a decisive tone of Jacobitism,
there is no more right anywhere to use heretics or from which he never swerved through life. Remov.
schismatics barbarously, than those who think and ing to London, he was chiefly engaged for several
speak as their superiors bid them. But so it is. You years in writing controversial works against quakers,
thunder out the sentence against us. We think it ill Socinians, and deists, of which, however, none are
manners to give it you back again ; but we throw it now remembered, besides the little treatise of which
out upon the next brethren that come in our way; the title has been given, and which appeared in 1699.
and they upon others : and so it goes round, till some He also wrote many occasional and periodical tracts
perhaps have sense and courage enough to throw it in behalf of the house of Stuart, to whose cause his
back upon those who first began the disturbance by talents and celebrity certainly lend no small lustre.
pretending to authority where there can be none. Being for one of these publications obliged to leave

We have not indeed now the power of burning the country, he repaired in 1713 to the court of the
heretics, as our forefathers of the Reformation bad. Chevalier at Bar le Duc, and was, well received.
The civil power hath taken away the act which con- James allowed him to have a chapel fitted up for
tinued that glorious privilege to them, upon the re- the English service, and was even expected to lend
monstrance of several persons that they could not a favourable ear to his arguments against popery ;
sleep whilst that act was awake. But then, every but this expectation proved vain. It was not pos-
thing on this side death still remains untouched to sible for an earnest and bitter controversialist like
us: we can molest, harass, imprison, and ruin any Leslie to remain long at rest in such a situation,
man who pretends to be wiser than his betters. And and we are not therefore surprised to find him re-
the more unspotted the man's character is, the more turn in disgust to England in 1721. He soon after
necessary we think it to take such crushing methods. died at his house of Glaslough, in the county of
Since the toleration hath been authorised in these Monaghan. The works of this remarkable man
nations, the legal zeal of men hath fallen the heavier have been collected in seven volumes (Oxford, 1832),
upon heretics (for it must always, it seems, be exer- and it must be allowed that they place their author
cised upon some sort of persons or other); and amongst very high in the list of controversial writers, the in-
these, chiefly upon such as differ from us in points

in genuity
of the arguments being only equalled by the

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