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PART I.

EUROPEAN STATES.

B

AUSTRIA.

Reigning Sovereign and Family.

Francis Joseph I., Emperor of Austria, and King of Bohemia and Hungary, born August 18, 1830, the son of Archduke Francis Charles and of Archduchess Sophia, princess of Bavaria; educated under the care of his mother, by Count Henry Bombelles, the descendant of an ancient family of French emigrants. Appointed governor of Bohemia April 5, 1848; took part in the battle of SantaLucia, near Verona, May 6, 1848; declared of age, December 1, 1848; proclaimed Emperor and King, in consequence of the abdication of his uncle, Ferdinand I., and the renunciation of his father, Francis Charles, December 2, 1848; commanding a Russian division in the battle of Hochstrass, near Raab, Hungary, May 28, 1849; commander-in-chief of the Austrian army in the Italian campaign, 1859. Married April 24, 1854, to

Elizabeth, Empress of Austria, and princess in Bavaria, born December 24, 1837, the daughter of Duke Maximilian in Bavaria. Offspring of the union are two children: 1. Gisela, Archduchess of Austria, born July 12, 1856; 2. Rudolph, Archduke of Austria, and heir-apparent, Imperial Prince of Hungary and Bohemia, born August 21, 1858.

Brothers of the Emperor.-1. Archduke Maximilian; born July 6, 1832; elected Emperor of Mexico by the 'Asamblea de Notables,' July 10, 1863; assumed the reins of government, June 12, 1864. Married July 27, 1857, to Princess Charlotte, born June 7, 1840, daughter of King Leopold I. of the Belgians. 2. Archduke Charles, field-marshal in the Imperial army, born July 30, 1833; married, Oct. 21, 1862, to Princess Annunciata, born March 24, 1843, daughter of the late King Ferdinand II. of Naples. 3. Archduke Ludwig, colonel in the Imperial army, born May 15, 1842.

Parents of the Emperor.-Archduke Francis Charles, born Dec. 7, 1802, son of the late Emperor Francis I., from his second marriage with a daughter of King Ferdinand I. of Naples. Renounced

the throne in favour of his eldest son, Dec. 2, 1848; married Nov. 4, 1824, to Princess Sophia, born Jan. 27, 1805, daughter of the late King Maximilian I. of Bavaria.

Uncle and Aunt of the Emperor.-1. Emperor Ferdinand I., born April 19, 1793, eldest son of the late Emperor Francis I.;

succeeded his father March 2, 1835; crowned King of Hungary and Bohemia, Sept. 7, 1836; abdicated the throne in favour of his nephew, after previous renunciation of his brother, Dec. 2, 1848; married Feb. 27, 1831, to Empress Anna, born Sept. 19, 1803, daughter of the late King Victor Emmanuel I. of Sardinia. 2. Princess Maria Clementina, born March 1, 1798; married, July 28, 1816, to Leopold, Prince of Salerno, royal Prince of Naples; widow March 10, 1851.

Step-grandmother of the Emperor.-Empress Caroline, born Feb. 8, 1792, daughter of the late King Maximilian of Bavaria ; married, in fourth nuptials, to the late Emperor Francis I., Nov. 10, 1816; crowned Queen of Hungary, Sept. 25, 1825; widow March 2, 1835.

Other Relations of the Emperor.-1. Archduke Albert, general of cavalry, born Aug. 3, 1817, son of the late Archduke Charles, the celebrated military commander, brother of the Emperor Francis I.; married, in 1844, to Princess Hildegarde of Bavaria, who died April 2, 1864. Offspring of the union are two daughters, Maria Theresa, born July 15, 1845, and Mathilda, born January 25, 1849. 2. Archduke Charles Ferdinand, commander-in-chief of the 4th corps d'armée, and commanding-general in Moravia and Silesia, born July 29, 1818, brother of the preceding Archduke Albert; married, in 1854, to Archduchess Elizabeth of Austria, born Jan. 17, offspring of which union are two sons, Frederick, born June 4, 1856, and Charles, born Sept. 5, 1860, and one daughter, Maria Christina, born July 21, 1858. 3. Archduke William, governor of the fortress of Mayence, born April 21, 1827, brother of the two preceding archdukes. 4. Archduke Stephen, field-marshal-lieutenant in the Imperial service, born Sept. 14, 1817, the son of Archduke Joseph, second brother of the Emperor Francis I.; married, in 1819, to Princess Maria of Wurtemberg, who died in 1855, leaving one son, Joseph, born March 2, 1833, and married May 10, 1864, to Princess Clotilde of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha; and two daughters, Elizabeth, born Jan. 17, 1831, married to the above-named Archduke Charles Ferdinand, and Maria, born Aug. 23, 1836, married to Duke Leopold of Brabant, heir-apparent of the throne of Belgium. 5. Archduke Leopold, inspector-general of the Imperial corps of Engineers, born June 6, 1823, the son of Archduke Rainer, fifth brother of the Emperor Francis I. 6. Archduke Ernest, commander of the 3rd corps d'armée, born Aug. 8, 1824, the brother of the preceding Archduke Leopold. 7. Archduke Sigismond, commander of the 45th regiment of Imperial infantry, born Jan. 7, 1826, the brother of the two preceding archdukes. 8. Archduke Rainer, President of the Imperial Privy Council, born Jan. 11, 1827, brother of the three preceding archdukes; married, in 1852, to Arch

duchess Maria Caroline, daughter of the late Archduke Charles of Austria. 9. Archduke Henry, major-general in the Imperial army, born May 9, 1828, brother of the four preceding archdukes.

The Imperial family of Austria descend from Rudolph of Hapsburg, a German Count, born 1218, who was elected Kaiser of the Holy Roman empire in 1273. The male line died out in 1740 with Emperor Charles VI., whose only daughter, Maria Theresa, gave her hand to Duke Francis 1. of Tuscany, of the house of Lorraine, who thereby became the founder of the new line of HapsburgLorraine. Maria Theresa was succeeded, in 1780, by her son Joseph II., who, dying in 1790, left the crown to his brother Leopold II., at whose death, in 1792, his son Francis I. ascended the throne, who reigned till 1835, and having been married four times, left a large family, the members of which and their descendants form the present Imperial house. Francis was the first sovereign who assumed the title of 'Emperor of Austria,' after having been compelled by Napoleon to renounce the Imperial crown of Germany, for more than five centuries in the Hapsburg family. The assumption of the title of Kaiser of Austria took place on August 11, 1804. Francis I. was succeeded by his son, the still living Emperor Ferdinand, on whose abdication, Dec. 2, 1848, the crown fell to his nephew Francis Joseph I., the fifth Emperor of Austria of the house of Hapsburg-Lorraine.

The following is a list of the sovereigns of Austria, descendants of Rudolph of Hapsburg, with the date of their accession :—

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The average reign of the above twenty-six sovereigns of the house of Hapsburg, who ruled over Austria for nearly six centuries, comprises a term of twenty-two years.

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