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PREFACE.

THE campaigns, or rather combined campaign of

1799, in Germany, Italy, and Switzerland, for extent and variety of action, is diftinguished even among those of the present war, and unprecedented in the annals of the world.

In the history of a war, carried on by so many armies, on fo extended a theatre, it is impossible, without confufion, and losing sight of those combinations and designs, which alone can give interest to the subject, to be so copious and circumstantial as in that of wars, in which, the campaign is bounded by the occupation of a few passes, and the reduction of one ör two fortified towns. What would have been formerly the whole of a plan, for one season, has now become only a part of a more comprehensive system. The Annalist must therefore write his accounts of military designs and operations on the same general scale oh which they are conceived and executed. Marches, heges, battles, and retreats, which might, in former times have served, each of them, for the subject of a feparate narrative, or perhaps, some of them of a heroic poem, must, in the history of the present, and probably of future, wars, be considered as only component parts of one more general action. If books were extended in proportion to the multiplication of facts and reasonings, the republic of letters would sink under its own weight. Classifications, results, conclusions, and maxims, long perhaps the subjects of discussion, become the elements of new compositions.

The necessity of compreslion, in our European campaigns, is not leffened by the co-incident movements of armies in Syria, Egypt, and India ; nor yet by the negociations at Rastadt and Seltz: a scene of political intrigue bearing some analogy to the wide and various field of action.

The time that was necessary for the arrangement of so many materials into a plan, not entirely disproportionate to our usual dimensions, and for the correction of errors, by recent and undoubted information, will, we trust, afford not only an apology for being somewhat later in the publication of this volume, than was promised in our last; but afford a new proof of our earnest defire, by all means, to render our work as complete and satisfactory as possible. On the whole, our engagements to the public, with regard to the time of bringing up this work, which had indeed fallen greatly behind, have been now fulfilled.

It may be said that we have now very nearly overtaken time. It shall be our care to keep an equal pace with this in future: though at a due distance. The Annual Register is not addressed to the same curiosity that thirsts after newspapers, but to curiosity of a higher order : that of seeing plans and systems unfolded by events; and these events, from new relations and combinations, deriving not only a degree of novelty, but greater interest and importance.

THE

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A general l'iew of the Year 1799.-Hazardous Situation of Buonaparte, in corsequence of the Defiruction of the French Fleet.- Present State of Egypl. - Manımalukes.— Beys.-Arabs.-Jeu's.Greeks.Cophts. Force, Land and Marine, under the Command of Buonaparle.-Various Cares of Buonaparte.-Means of maintaining the Army.--And of recruiting and preserving it.-Buonaparte refpels himself, and gives Orders to his Officers to re/ped, the Prejudices of all the Egyptians.-His Proclamation to the People of Egypt.- At great Pains to propagate, in all Mahometan Countries, a Belief of his Veneration for Inanmism and the Prophet. - Treachery and Punishment of the principal Sheick, or Shereef, of Aler. ændria.- Endearours of Buonaparte to blend and harmonize the French and the Egyptians.--Meafures taken for the Accomplishment of that Design.Grand Feast at Cairo, on the Anniversary of the French Republic.-Great Ceremony at the annual opening of the Grand Canal of Cairo.---Liberality of Buonaparle to the Egyptians.-Useful Institutions.-Government of Egypt attempted to be assimilated to the new Government in France. Notules.- Departments. And a general 4[embly, or Divan, in Egypt. -Difficulty of operating and producing any permanent Change in the Minds of Barbarians.-Jealoufies of the French.-Discontenis.-Mura Vol. XLI.

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murs: And Insurrections.- Particularly at Cairo.-This, with the others, fubdued.--A general Amnesly-Mourad Bey defeated, with great Loss. And forced to retreat to the Mountains.--The French, under the Command of Defaix, in Potefion of the best part of Upper Egypt.

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strange picture of the world complicated than now, have volunturned uplide down : the sublime tarily precipitated themselves, by Porte at war with France, and in burning their own ships, in order to confederacy with Ruflia and Great Mew their troops that there was no Britain ; the Turkish banners united retreat, and that they must perish with those of Russia and Austria; a or conquer. In this new and trying nation of profesied philosophers fra- fituation, his conduct became an ternizing, or attempting to frater- object of more interest and curionize with the votaries of Mahomet; fity, with ingenious minds, than ever the Roman catholic religion, with it had been, in the most rapid carinstitutions therewith connected, reer of his success and victory. The persecuted by a power formerly one circumstances in which he was now of its main supports, but, on the placed were universally admitted other hand, patronized by fovereign to be pregnant with danger. Atprinces, fons of churches heretoforetention was every where awake to its zealous adversaries ; * a great the measures and contrivances tħat and illustrious nation, once so highly would be fuggefted by genius and distinguished by a devotion to the science, or to the resolution that Romiih faith, as well as political might be prompted by despair. power, valour, and a sense of ho- But, in order that a tolerably juft nour, in close alliance with infidels, idea may be formed of both the adand the murderers of a royal family, vantages and disadvantages under connected with their own, by ties which the invading army laboured of blood, by political treaties and in Egypt, the enemies they had to interests, and a long intercourse of encounter, and the means that premutual and courtly politeness. Nor sented themselves for encountering was the situation of the Spaniards them, it may be necessary to recall less whimsical than it was deplora- to the minds of some of our readers, ble. They dreaded the power of a view of the present state of that their ally; and their only Safety lay ancient and celebrated country: in the victories of their enemies. It was not with the Mammalakes

The destruction of the French and Arabs alone, that the French fleet, which cut off Buonaparte general liad to contend, but with from

any certain and effectual sup- the climate, endemial distempers, port from France, or any of her and the usual perfidy of barbarians, conquered and dependent states, united with the malignity of a proud left him in such an isolated fate, as and illiberal superstition. On the those in which great commanders in other hand, as there were certain

The dillike of the Greek church to the Pope's and the Western church, was formerly so great, that one of their patriarchs declared publicly, to a Romith legate, that he would rather fee a turban, than the pope's tiara, on the great altar of Constantinople.

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