and of which every one solicited the regard, by an ambitious display of himself, had a more pleasant, perhaps a nearer way to knowledge than by the silent progress of solitary reading. I do not suppose that he despised books, or intentionally neglected them ; but that he was carried out, by the impetuosity of his genius, to more vivid and speedy instructors; and that his studies were rather desultory and fortuitous than constant and systematical.:

It must be confessed that he scarcely ever appears to want book-learning but when he mentions books ; and to him may be transferred the praise which he gives to his master Charles :

His conversation, wit, and parts,
His knowledge in the noblest useful arts,

Were such, dead authors could not give,

But habitudes of those that live:
Who, lighting him, did greater lights receive;

He drain'd from all, and all they knew,
His apprehensions quick, his judgement true;

That the most learn’d with shame confess,
His knowledge more,'his reading only less.

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Of all this, howeyer, if the proof be demanded, I will not undertake to give it ; the atoms of probability, of which my opinion has been formed, lie scattered over all his works; and by him who thinks the question worth his notice, his works must be perused with very close attention.

a Criticism, either didactick or defensive, occupies almost all his prose, except those pages which he has devoted to his patrons; but none of his prefaces were ever thought tedious... They have not the formality of a settled style, in which the first half of

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gay-not studed of cold

the sentence betrays the other. The causes are ne-
ver balanced, nor the periods modelled : every word
seems to drop by chance, though it falls into its
proper place. Nothing is cold or languid: the
whole is airy, animated, and vigorous; what is little,
is gay; what is great, is splendid. He may be
thought to mention himself too frequently, but,
while he forces himself upon our esteem, we cannot
refuse him to stand high in his own. Every thing
is excused by the play of images, and the sprite-
liness of expression. Though all is easy, nothing
is feeble; though all seems careless, there is nothing
harsh; and though, since his earlier works more
than a century has passed, they have nothing yet
uncouth or obsolete.

He who writes much will not easily escape a
manner, such a recurrence of particular modes as
may be easily noted. Dryden is always another and
the same; he does not exhibit a second time the
same elegances in the same form, nor appears to
have any art other than that of expressing with
clearness what he thinks with vigour. His style
could not easily be imitated, either seriously or lu-
dicrously; for, being always equable and always
varied, it has no prominent or discriminative cha-
racters. The beauty who is totally free from dis-
proportion of parts and features cannot be ridiculed
by an overcharged resemblance.

From his prose, however, Dryden derives only s accidental and secondary praise; the veneration with which his name is pronounced by every cultivator of English literature, is paid to him as he refined the language, improved the sentiments, and tuned the numbers of English poetry.

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After about half a century of forced thoughts, and rugged metre, some advances towards nature and harmony had been already made by Waller and Denham; they had shown that long discourses in rhyme grew more pleasing when they were broken into couplets, and that verse consisted not only in the number but the arrangement of syllables.

But though they did much, who can deny that they left much to do? Their works were not many, nor were their minds of very ample comprehension. More examples of more modes of composition were necessary for the establishment of regularity, and the introduction of propriety in word and thought.

Every language of a learned nation necessarily divides itself into diction scholastick and popular, grave and familiar, elegant and gross; and from a nice distinction of these different parts arises a great part of the beauty of style. But, if we except a few minds, the favourites of nature, to whom their own original rectitude was in the place of rules, this delicacy of selection was little known to our authors; our speech lay before them in a heap of confusion ; and every man took for every purpose what chance might offer him.

There was therefore before the time of Dryden no poetical diction, no system of words at once refined from the grossness of domestick use, and free from the harshness of terms appropriated to particular arts. Words too familiar, or too remote, defeat the purpose of a poet. From those sounds which we hear on small or on coarse occasions, we do not easily receive strong impressions, or delightful images; and words to which we are nearly


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strangers, whenever they occur, draw that attention on themselves which they should transmit to things.

Those happy combinations of words which distinguish poetry from prose had been rarely attempted: we had few elegances or flowers of speech; the roses had not yet been plucked from the bramble, or different colours had not been joined to enliven one another.

i It may be doubted whether Waller and Denham could have over-born the prejudices which had long prevailed, and which even then were sheltered by the protection of Cowley. The new versification, as it was called, may be considered as owing its establishment to Dryden; from whose time it is apparent that English poetry has had no tendency to relapse to its former savageness.

The affluence and comprehension of our language is very illustriously displayed in our poetical translations of Ancient Writers; a work which the French seem to relinquish in despair, and which we were long unable to perform with dexterity, Ben Jonson thought it necessary to copy Horace almost word by word; Feltham, his contemporary and adversary, considers itasindispensably requisite in a translation to give line for line. It is said that Sandys, whom Dryden calls the best versifier of the last age, has struggled hard to comprise every book in the English Metamorphoses in the same number of verses with the original. Holyday had nothing in view but to show that he understood his author, with so little regard to the grandeur of his diction, or the volubility of his numbers, that his metres dan hardly be called verses; they cannot be read with out reluctance, nor will the labour always be rewarded by understanding them. Cowley saw that such copiers were a servile race; he asserted his liberty, and spread his wings so boldly that he left his authors. It was reserved for Dryden to fix the limits of poetical liberty, and giye us just rules and examples of translation. fixed as of tears latins When languages are formed upon

different principles, it is impossible that the same modes of expression should be always elegant in both. While they run on together, the closest translation mayi be considered as the best; but when they divaricate, each must take its natural course. Where correspondence cannot be obtained, it is necessary to be content with something equivalent. « Translation, therefore," says Dryden, “ is not so loose as paraphrase, nor so close as metaphrase."

All polished languages have different styles; the concise, the diffuse, the lofty, and the humble. In the

proper choice of style consists the resemblanco which Dryden principally 'exacts from the translator. He is to exhibit his author's thoughts in such a dress of diction as the author would have given them, had his language been English: rugged magnificence is not to be softened; hyperbolical ostentation is not to be repressed; nor sententious affectation to have its point blunted. A translator is to be like his author; it is not his business to excel him.

The reasonableness of these rules seems sufficient for their vindication; and the effects produced by observing them were so happy, that I know not

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