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Our great author would have us suppose, · Satan let loose upon our Lord, by the peri mission of God, and empowered to attack him in his nobler part, his angelic nature,' p. 137. .or 486. And speaks of the buffetings of Satan,' p. 138, or 487.-' and the insults of Satan, p. 133, or 483. "But why should such things be supposed, when all the writers of the New Testament are silent about them? If any will invent, and describe such sufferings, it must be altogether unscriptural, and could be no better than a philosophical, or theological romance.
And may I not ask, what good purposes can be answered by this scheme? For we are neither angels, nor embodied angels, but men, placed here in a state of trial. And our trial arises from the good and evil things of this world, by which our hopes and our fears are much influenced.
To me then the contrivance of our great author appears both unscriptural, and unprofitable. Nor can I forbear joining in with the apostle, and saying: “ But we preach Christ crucified, unto the Jews a stumbling-block, and unto the Grecks foolishness : but unto them which are called both Jews and Greeks, Christ the power of God, and the wisdom of God: because the foolishness of God is wiser than men : and the weakness of God is stronger than men," i Cor. i. 23–25.
However, at p. 138, or 487, it is argued after this manner: • And therefore, when he was betrayed, and seized by the officers, that were sent to apprehend him, our Saviour i said unto them: “ This is your hour, and the power of darkness,” Luke xxii. 53. Giving • them thereby to understand, and us through them, that it was not only the hour of men's "wrath, but “ the hour of the power of darkness," that he so much dreaded, when he prayed
to God the Father, to “ save him from that hour.” At which time he had not only the
contradiction of wicked men to strive with, but knew that this was the time allotted by God * for Satan, the prince of darkness, to exercise and employ his whole power in afflicting him.'
But really no such conclusion can be drawn from those words; where one and the same thing is expressed in a twofold manner, the more emphatically to represent the greatness of the trouble then coming upon our Saviour. As if he had said, · But this is your hour: and indeed it is a very dark and afflictive season.'
Dr. Clarke's paraphrase is in these terms.
• But this is the time, wherein the infinite wisdom of God has appointed me to suffer. · And • Providence has now given you power over me, permitting you to execute your malice and * cruelty upon me, that the scripture may be fulfilled, and the eternal counsels of the divine • wisdom for the salvation of men fully accomplished.' To the like purpose Grotius upon John xiv. 30.
And that this is the meaning of the words, may be argued from our Lord's manner of ex. pression elsewhere, speaking of the same thing. So in Johın xvi. 32, 33. “ Behold, the hour cometh, yea is now come, that ye shall leave me alone. And yet I am not alone, because the Father is with me. These things I have spoken unto you, that in me ye might have peace. In the world ye shall have tribulation ; but be of good cheer, I have overcome the world.” And therefore, when he mentions Satan, it is in the character of “ the prince of this world.” John xiv. 30. “ Hereafter I will not talk much with you: for the prince of this world cometh; and so hath nothing in me:” which is thus paraphrased by Dr. Whitby. “ 'The prince of this world • cometh” by his ministers, Judas, and the rulers of the Jews, " and findeth nothing in me;" • he himself having no power to inflict death upon me, in whom is no sin, and they finding
nothing in me “ worthy of death," Acts xiii. 28. Though therefore I am to suffer death, I. · do not suffer for any fault that can deserve it, or on account of any power he or his ministers
have over me to indict it. But I give up myself to death in compliance with my Father's will, • and what follows.'
• Venit autem per homines sui plenos, quorum vis erat $$851% 78 0X0785. Grot. in Job. xiv. 30.
UPON THE TWO EPISTLES ASCRIBED TO CLEMENT OF ROME.
LATELY PUBLISHED BY MR. WETSTEIN.
WITH LARGE EXTRACTS OUT OF THEM, AND AN. ARGUMENT SHOWING THEM NOT TO BE GENUINE.
1. Extracts out of these Epistles, for showing the Author's Testimony to the Scriptures of the Old and
New Testament. II. External Evidence against the Genuineness of these Epistles. III. Internal Evidence to the same Purpose, and their Time. IV. The Author anonymous. V. The Importance and Use of these Epistles. VI. The Conclusion.
EXTRACTS. I. My extracts from these two epistles will relate chiefly to the books of scripture quoted therein.
1. In these epistles several books of the Old Testament are quoted: the book of Genesis several times: Exodus: the Judges, and several of the following historical books : the book of the Proverbs, often : the book of Ecclesiastes once: Isaiah once, and also the story of Susanna.
2. Out of the New Testament are taken several passages of Matthew, one of Luke, several of John's gospel. The Acts of the Apostles may be supposed to be referred to. I cannot tell, whether there be a reference to Acts xxvi. 25. in some words, which I place below that others may judge. There are also passages out of the apostle Paul's epistle to the Romans, both the epistles to the Corinthians, the epistles to the Galatians, the Ephesians, the Philippians, the Colossians, the first and second to the Thessalonians, the first and second to Timothy, the epistle to the Hebrews, two or three quotations, which will be taken notice of presently, and many passages out of the epistle of James. But I have not clearly discerned any passages out of the epistle of Paul to Titus, or Philemon : nor out of the epistles of Peter, or John, or Jude, or the book of the Revelation.
3. I say, there are passages out of the several books of scripture before-mentioned. But there occurs not the name of any one book or writer, either of the Old or the New Testament: except in general, in the gospel, the apostle, meaning Paul, and the like.
4. The passages of the epistle to the Hebrews are these : • But, brethren, we are persuaded 6 of you, that you will think of these things, which are necessary to your salvation. But we thus * speak of them, because,' and what follows. Where the author must have had an eye to Heb. vi. 9.
5. I suppose likewise, that there may be a reference to Heb. vi. 15—19, as well as to Isaiah hayo lvi. in a passage which I transcribe below..
• Domino Jesu Christo ministrârunt mulieres e possessionibus suis. Ep. 2. n. 15. Vid. Luc. viii. 3.
o Porro Paulus, et Barnabas, et Timotheus, cum cæteris, quorum nomina scripta sunt in libro vitæ. Ep. i. c. 6. Conf. Philipp. iv. 3.
et loquimur cum illis verba exhortationis et honestatis. Ep. 2. cap. 1.
Confidimus autem de vobis, fratres, vos cogitaturos ea,
quæ necessaria sunt saluti vestræ. Sed ita loquimur de iis, quæ loquimur, propter famam et rumorem malum, &c. Ep. i. c. 10.
sed desiderat spem promissam et præparatam et positam in cælis Deo, qui promisit ore, et non mentitur ; qui major est filiis et filiabus, et dabit virginibus locum celebrem in domo Dei- Ep. i. c. 4.
6. Again : For · he said : “ Honour your elders, and when you see their conversations, and their manners, imitate their faith.” Which must be allowed to be a reference to, or quotation of Heb. xiii. 7.
7. The forms of quotation are such as these : For he said, in the place just quoted : • They b who are truly virgins, for God's sake, hear him, who said.' Where he quotes divers passages from the book of the Proverbs. · Such 'virginity the Lord calls foolish, as he says in the gospel.' See Matt. xxv. "Therefore " he said rightly to that generation. And of such servants it is " said.' As'it is written.' And 8 they hear not him, who says.' Quoting the epistle of James. • And again he says.' •Have you not read of Amnon and Thamar, children of David ?' In the next chapter, . Have you not read of the family of Solomon ? They did not remember • that saying. • Behold " we find what is written of Moses and Aaron. For so " the holy • scriptures speak in these very words.' •Aso the apostle said.' See 2 Cor. xi. 12. •Whom P the divine • apostle rejects.' • Widows 9 whom the divine apostle refuseth.' Let us be mindful of the sword, which says.' See Eccles. vii. 26. "As we have learned from the law, the prophets, and • the Lord Jesus Christ. Let'us inquire and search from the Law to the New Testament.'
8. Farther he seems in several places to refer to a practice then in use of reading the scriptures in private houses, and at visits.
For "he blames some, whom he calls idle, who went about to the houses of brethren, and • sisters, virgins, under a pretence of visiting them, or reading the scriptures to them, or
exorcising them, or teaching them.' Representing his own and other good people's way of travelling, whose conduct is set forth to be an example, he says: “When we come to a place 6 where there is no man, but all are faithful women and virgins, when we have gathered them all • together, and find they live in peace, we speak to them in all purity, and read to them the • scriptures. Afterwards in the next chapter: · If ' we come to a place, and there be one • faithful woman only alone, and nobody else ; we do not stay there, nor pray there, nor read
the scriptures there, but we flee away as from the face of a serpent, and from a dangerous • snare.' And in another place. We do not sing psalms, nor read the scriptures to gentiles.?
EXTERNAL EVIDENCE. II. Having made these extracts, it will be proper to consider the age and authority of the epistles from whence they are taken. When it was first reported among us, that Mr. Wetstein of Amsterdam had received out of the East a Syriac translation of two new epistles of Clement bishop of Rome, I said, it was a mistake. It was more probable, that he had received a Syriac translation of the epistle of Clement to the Corinthians, and of the other epistle often ascribed to him. And if that was the case, the translation might be very valuable, and of great use, because we have not the epistle to the Corinthians entire, and of the other epistle a fragment only. And undoubtedly those two epistles, if entire, though in a' translation only, would have been an acceptable present to the learned world. But I was mistaken in my conjecture. The report first made has been confirmed by the event. The two
a Dixit enim: Seniores vestros honorate ; et quando vide
sed simus memores verbi dicentis de inuliere ii. 10. tis conversationes eorum, et mores eorum, imitamini eorum Sicut didicimus de Lege, et Prophetis, et Domino Jesu fidem. Ep. i. c.7.
Christo. i. 12. • Qui autem vere sunt virgines propter Deum, audiunt ' Inquiramus et scrutemur a Lege ad Novum Testamen. eum qui dixit. Ep. i. c. 2.
tum, ü. 7. c Dominus enim virginitatem talem stultam vocat, sicut ait u Alii autem circumeuntes per domos virginum fratrum at in Evangelio. Ep. i. c.3.
sororum, prætextu visitandi eos, aut legendi Scripturas, aut u Propterea recte dicit generationi tali. Ep. 1. 8.
exorcizandi eos, aut docendi eos, quia sunt otiosi. i. 10. e Et dictum est de talibus servis. i. 9.
* Si autem contingat, ut nus recipiamus in locum, ubi vir f Sicut scriptum est. i. 10.
non est, sed omnes sunt mulieres et virgines, cogantque nos & Et non audiunt dicentem. i. 11.
pernoctare in illo loco; vocamus omnes illos in unum locum, h Et iterum dicit, i. 11.
ad latus dextrum et quando congregatæ veniunt omnes, i Nonne legisti de Amnone et Thamare, libertis Davidis ? et videmus, quomodo in pace sunt, loquimur cum illis verba ii. c. 11.
castitatis in timore Dei, et legimus illis Scripturas in verecunk Nonne legisti de familia Salomonis, &c. ii. 12.
diâ, &c. ii. 4. I Non enim recordati sunt dicti illius, &c. ii. 13.
y Si autem recipiamus nos in locum, et inveniamus ibi uni. m Ecce reperimus quod scriptum est de Mose et Aarone. cam mulierem fidelem solam, nec quisquam alius ibi sit, nisi ii. 14.
illa sola, non stamus ibi, neque oramus ibi, neque legimus ibi n Sic enim scripturæ sacræ testantur ad verbum. ii. 14. Scripturas, sed fugimus, sicut coram facie serpentis, et tam• Sicut dixit apostolus. i. 12.
quam coram laqueo peccati. ii. 5. P Quos aversatur apostolus divinus. i. 10.
? Propterea non psallimus gentibus, nequc legimus illis - aut cum viduis, quas fugit divinus apostolus. ii. 14. scripturas. ii. 7. VOL. V.
epistles received by Mr. Wetstein, and published by him, have been hitherto unknown. It must therefore be very fit that we examine their title to this high original, before we receive them as genuine. In the first place I will consider the external, then the internal evidence.
In examining these epistles by external evidence we are led to recollect what ancient writers have said of Clement and his works.
1. Says Irenæus, bishop of Lyons in Gaul, who flourished about the year 178, in his books against heresies : " When the blessed apostles Peter and Paul had founded and established the
church, (at Rome) they delivered the office of the bishopric in it to Linus to him succeeded • Anencletus. Next to whom in the third place after the apostles, Clement obtained the • bishopric, who had seen the blessed apostles, and conversed with them In the time there. «fore of this Clement, when there was no small dissention among the brethren at Corinth, the • Church of Rome sent a most excellent letter to the Corinthians, exhorting them to peace • among themselves, and reminding them of the doctrine lately received from the apostles, which • declares, that there is one God Almighty, maker of the heavens and the earth, who brought in • the flood, and called Abraham: who brought the people out of Egypt, who spake with Moses, who ordained the law, and sent the prophets.'
This is the only writing of Clement, which is taken notice of by Irenæus. If he had known of any other, why should he not have quoted it, the more effectually to confute and silence the unreasonable men against whom he was arguing ?
2. Dionysius, bishop of Corinth, flourished about the year 170. Eusebius mentions an epistle of his to Soter, then bishop of Rome, • In which letter, says the ecclesiastical historian,
he makes mention also of the epistle of Clement to the Corinthians, testifying that it had been ' wont to be read in the church from ancient time, saying, To day we have kept the Lord's day,
in which we read your epistle. Which we shall also read frequently for our instruction, as • • well as the former, written to us by Clement.'
This, as it seems to me, affords an irrefragable argument, that there was but one epistle of the Church of Rome, written by Clement to the Corinthians.
3. We are also assured by Eusebius, that Hegesippus, who flourished about the year 173, made mention of the epistle of Clement to the Corinthians.
4. Clement of Rome is several times quoted by his namesake of Alexandria, about the year 194. But he quotes only the epistle of Clement, or 8 of the Romans, to the Corinthians.
5. Origen, about 230, has some passages out of Clement's epistle to the Corinthians in his books of Principles, and in' his Commentary upon St. John's Gospel. He elsewhere * quotes a work called Circuits, ascribed to Clement.
6. We come now to Eusebius of Cæsarea, about the year 315, who having mentioned the order of the succession of the first bishops of Rome to Clement, whom he reckons the third after the apostles, adds : Of 'this Clement there is one epistle acknowledged by all, a great • and admirable epistle, which as from the church of Rome, he wrote to the church of the • Corinthians, upon occasion of a dissension, which there was then at Corinth. And we know, • that this epistle has been formerly, and is still publicly read in many churches.'
In another place in he speaks of the epistle of Clement acknowledged by all, which he wrote to the Corinthians, in the name of the church of Rome.' Afterwards, in the same chapter: • It ought to be observed, that there is another epistle said to be Clement's. But this is not so • generally received as the former. Nor do we know the ancients to have quoted it. There • have been published also not long since other large and prolix writings in his name, containing
· Dialogues of Peter and Appion, of which there is not the least mention made by the ancients. • Nor have they the pure apostolical doctrine.'
So writes Eusebius, who had so good opportunities for acquainting himself with the writings of Christians before his time: and, so far as we are able to judge, diligently improved those opportunities.
7. Cyril of Jerusalem, about the year 348, quotes," or refers to a passage of Clement, which is in his epistle to the Corinthians.
8. Jerom in his Catalogue, written in 392, in the article of Clement of Rome expresseth himself in this manner: • He wrote in the name of the church of Rome to the church of • Corinth a very useful epistle, which also is publicly read in some places-- There is likewise a • second epistle, which goes under his name, but it is rejected by the ancients. And a prolix • disputation of Peter and Appion, which is censured by Eusebius in the third book of his Eccle• siastical History
Upon this chapter we are led to make some remarks. 1. There was but one epistle of Clement universally acknowledged: which also was publicly read in some churches. 2. There was another epistle received as Clement's by some in Jerom's time. But he says, it was rejected by the ancients, that is, was not quoted by them as Clement's. 3. Jeroin does not expressly say, that this second epistle was supposed by any to have been written to the Corin. thians. But, possibly, some of those who received it, reckoned it to have been sent to the same church, to which the former epistle was sent. 4. Jerom was quite ignorant of any other epistles ascribed to Clement. Having mentioned those two epistles, he proceeds to the long disputation, which Eusebius had censured: and doubtless ought to be understood to confirm that censure with his own approbation. . Clement is mentioned in some other works of Jerom: particularly in his Commentary upon the prophecy of Isaiah : where he expressly quotes the epistle of Clement bishop of Rome to the Corinthians. And much after the same manner twice in his Commentary upon the epistle to the Ephesians. Clement is also mentioned by Jerom in the fifth chapter of the book of Illustrious Men, where is the article of St. Paul, in speaking of the epistle to the Hebrews. He is also mentioned elsewhere.
There is yet one passage more of Jerom, of which particular notice must be taken. It is in his first book against Jovinian: who, as Jerom assures us, beside other things, said, that, ' • virgins have no more merit than widows and married women, unless their works distinguish • them in other respects : and likewise, that there is no difference of merit between abstaining • from some meats and using them with thanksgiving. Our author having quoted Matt. xix. 12, says, “ To 8 such [eunuchs) Clement also successor of the apostle Peter, of whom the apostle • Paul makes mention, Philip. iv. 3, writes epistles, and almost throughout discourseth of the * purity of virginity. And in like manner, [or and afterwards] many apostolical men, and • martyrs, and others, illustrious for their piety and eloquence, as may be easily seen in their own • writings.
Mr. Wetstein, whose words I transcribe below, says that here Jerom refers to the two
· Catech. 18. n. viii. p. 288. edit. Bened.
Clemer.s, de quo Apostolus ad Philippenses, scripsit ex personâ Romanæ ecclesiæ ad ecclesiam Corinthiorum valde utilem epistolain, quæ et in nonnullis locis publice legirur Fertur et secunda ejus nomine epistola, quæ a veteribus repro. batur. Et disputatio Petri et Appionis longo sermone conscripla, quam Eusebius in tertio Historiæ Ecclesiasticæ volumine coarguit. De V. I. cap. 15.
c* De quo, et Clemens, vir apostolicus, qui post Petrum Romanam rexit ecclesiam, mittit ad Corinthios. In Is. cap. 52. T. III. p. 382.
d De quibus et Clemens in epistolâ suâ scribit. In ep. ad Eph. cap. ii. v. 2. T. IV. P. I. p. 338.
Cujus rei et Clemens ad Corinthios testis est. In Eph. cap. iv. v. 1. ib. p. 359.
© Et si Clemens, aut ille Apostolorum discipulus, aut ille Alexandrinæ ecclesiæ, et ipsius magister Origenis, lale aliquid dixerunt. Adv. Rufin. I. 2. p. 406. T. IV. P. 2.
! Dicit, virgincs, viduas, et maritatas, quæ semel in Christo
lotæ sunt, si non discrepent cæteris operibus, ejusdem esse meriti- Tertium proponit, inter abstinentiam ciborum, et cum gratiarum actione perceptionem eorum, nullam esse distantiam. Adv. Jovin. I. 2. T. IV. p. 146.
« Ad hos [eunuchos) et Clemens, successor Apostoli Petri, cujus Paulus Apostolus meminit, scribit epistolas, omnemque pene sermonem suum de virginitatis puritate contexuit : et deinceps multi Apostolici, et Martyres, et illustres tam sanctitate quam eloquentiâ viri, quos ex propriis scriptis nôsse perfacile est. Id. ibid. p. 156. m.
quarum yurdiotrla et utilitatem nunc indicare atque demonstrare conabor. Proferam primo duo externa testimonia Hieronymi atque Epiphanii, quorum ille c. Jovinianum l. 1. 'Hi,' inquit, 'sunt eunuchi, quos castravit non necessitas, scd voluntas propter regnum cælorum.---Ad hos et Clemens, successor Apostoli Petri, cujus Paulus Apostolus meminit, Philip. iv. 3, 'scribit epistolas, omnemque pene sermonein suum de virginitatis puritate contexuit: et deinceps multi apostolici et martyres, et illustres tam sanctitate quam eloquen