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mencement time. He later studied medicine at Harvard, and became professor of anatomy and physiology at Dartmouth College from 1838 to 1840. ticed medicine in Boston. In 1847 he was appointed professor of anatomy and physiology at Harvard, and was dean of the medical school there from 1847 to 1853. Dr. Holmes did much lecturing and an abundance of writing. He was one of the founders of the Atlantic Monthly and contributed to it his well-known series of papers entitled “The Autocrat of the Breakfast Table." He resigned his professorship in Harvard in 1882, and from that time lived a retired but active life in Boston until his death, October 7, 1894.

BATTLE CRY OF FREEDOM (Page 224) George F. Root (1820-1895), an American musician and song-writer of considerable note, was born in Sheffield, Massachusetts, August 30, 1820. He spent his youth in North Reading, not far from Boston, his father having moved there when George was only six years old. He was always very fond of music, and at thirteen he could “play a tune" upon as many instruments as he was years old. He said in the story of his life, “There was a chronic curiosity in the village choir as to what instrument the boy would play upon next.!

The dream of his life was to be a musician. His musical books and his sheet-music compositions are altogether too numerous to list. He brought out books almost every year, and sometimes three and four each year, from 1847 to 1890. One man who served in that war said of Dr. Root's war songs : "Only those who were at the front realize how often we were cheered, revived, and inspired by the songs of him who sent forth the 'Battle Cry of Freedom.' While others led the boys in blue to final victory, it was his songs that nerved the men at the front, and solaced the wives, mothers, sisters, and sweethearts at home." Colonel F. D. Grant said: “His songs were a great comfort to the soldiers during the war, and helped to lighten the fatigues of many a weary march." “The Battle Cry of Freedom,"

“Tramp, Tramp, Tramp,” and “Just before the Battle, Mother were among Dr. Root's most popular songs in the camps and on the battlefields of the Civil War.

In the story of his own life, Dr. Root says: “I heard of President Lincoln's second call for troops one afternoon while reclining on a lounge in my brother's house. Immediately a song started in my mind, words and music together: “ Yes, we'll rally round the flag, boys, we'll rally once again, Shouting the battle-cry of freedom.'

“I thought it out that afternoon, and wrote it the next morning at the store. The song went into the army, and the testimony in regard to its use in the camp and on the march, and even on the field of battle, from soldiers and officers, up to generals, and even to the good President himself (Abraham Lincoln), made me thankful that if I could not shoulder a musket in defense of my country I could serve her in this way.

THE SWORD OF BUNKER HILL (Page 225) William Ross Wallace (1819–1881) was born in Lexington, Kentucky, in 1819. He attended Bloomington and South Hanover College, Indiana, and afterward studied law in Lexington, Kentucky, and began the practice of law in New York City in 1841. He devoted most of his time to literature. He contributed to the Union Magazine, Harper's, the New York Ledger, and other publications. He is the author of a number of poems besides the one quoted in this volume. He died in New York City, May 5, 1881.

THE REVOLUTIONARY RISING (Page 226) Thomas Buchanan Read (1822–1872) was an artist and poet. After his father's death he was apprenticed to a tailor, but so disliked this work that he secretly went

to Philadelphia, where he worked at manufacturing cigars. In 1837 he went to Cincinnati, Ohio, where he became a sign-painter. He did not attend school regularly. He was employed in a theater in Dayton, Ohio, for a year, and then returned to Cincinnati as a portrait painter. He made little money, and was forced to make a living by sign-painting, cigar-making, readings, and dramatic performances. He lived in New York in 1841, and in Boston, where he contributed poems to the Courier, 1843– 1844. He traveled abroad in 1850 and in 1853, taking up art-study in Florence and Rome until 1858. During the Civil War he recited many of his National war-songs in the camps, and gave the proceeds of his readings to the aid and comfort of the wounded soldiers. He died in New York City, May 11, 1872.

“The Revolutionary Rising” as given in this volume is taken from “The Wagoner of the Alleghanies,” a poem of the days of 1776. The scenes of this poem are mostly laid on the banks of the Schuylkill, between Philadelphia and Valley Forge. The complete poem covers a period of time extending from some years be re to nearly the end of the Revolutionary War.

Paul REVERE'S RIDE (Page 229) Paul Revere was one of the most patriotic citizens of Boston in the time of the American Revolution. He was a goldsmith and engraver, and did a great deal to further the cause of American liberty. Paul Revere was captured by the British Regulars while performing his patriotic duty on this noted ride. Later he was set free.

Boston HYMN (Page 233) The day that the Emancipation Proclamation went into effect, January 1, 1863, this hymn was read in Musio Hall, Boston, Massachusetts. The student should remember that Lincoln's proclamation did not free a single slave in the loyal slaveholding states of Kentucky, Missouri, Maryland, and Delaware. It was only a war measure,

and the President had the right to confiscate property only where the states were in rebellion against the United States. Slavery was legally established in the Southern states, and the only way in which it could be abolished there, except in the case mentioned, was by amending the Federal Constitution, or by action of the states themselves.

LIBERTY FOR ALL (Page 237) William Lloyd Garrison (1805–1879) was among the most noted of the abolitionists. His parents came from Nova Scotia to Newburyport, Massachusetts, in 1805. William became editor of the Newburyport Free Press in 1826, and was a firm friend of John G. Whittier. He was connected with several different papers before he established The Liberator in Boston, January 1, 1831, which he edited until slavery was abolished and the Civil War ended. The pro-slavery compromises of the Federal Constitution he described as "a covenant with death and an agreement with hell." A public subscription of $30,000 was presented to him after the Civil War for his services.

ABRAHAM LINCOLN (Page 237) At the Harvard Commemoration, July 21, 1865, Lowell's Ode was recited. This selection is a part of that Ode.

THE BLUE AND THE GRAY (Page 239) Francis Miles Finch (1827– ), a jurist, was born in Ithaca, New York, and graduated from Yale in 1849. He was class poet. In 1850 he began the practice of law in Ithaca. He served for many years as judge of the court of appeals of New York State, and was commonly known as Judge Finch. The “Blue and the Gray” gave him a wide reputation.

“The Blue and the Graywas printed in the Atlantic Monthly in 1867. We are told that these stanzas were

inspired by the fact that the women of Columbus, Mississippi, placed flowers with no partiality upon the graves of the dead soldiers of both the Confederacy and the Union.

CENTENNIAL HYMN (Page 241) John Greenleaf Whittier (1807-1892) was born at Haverhill, Massachusetts, of Quaker descent. He was brought up in a simple country home, and his educational advantages were meager. Up to 1820 he had attended only the district schools. We are told that his poetic instinct was awakened by reading the poems of Burns. Whittier and William Lloyd Garrison were life-long friends, and they had mutually active interests in the problems of their day. Whittier earned money to attend Haverhill Academy. He wrote many poems and political contributions to magazines. He edited the American Manufacturer of Boston, but left its editorship to manage his father's farm until his father's death in June, 1830. After 1832, Whittier gave most of his attention to politics and was a strong abolitionist with Garrison. From 1832 to 1877 he did an enormous amount of writing and editing, and at the time of his death, September 7, 1892, was one of the most widely known of American writers.

This hymn was written for the International Exposition held in celebration of the completion of the first hundred years of American independence. The Exposition began May 10, 1876, when the “Centennial Hymn" was sung by a chorus of a thousand voices.

THE FLAG Goes By (Page 243) Henry Holcomb Bennett (1863– ) is a writer and illustrator of note. He writes chiefly army stories. He is a water colorist in landscape, birds, and animals. In 1898–1899 he wrote a series of sketches and articles on the National Guard.

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